Instructional Design (ID)

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  • 1. REPEAT YOUR PHONE NUMBER WHEN YOU LEAVE A MESSAGE. 2. BA, BS, MA AEROSPACE EDUCATIONAL CONSULTANT DIRECT MARKETING PRODUCER VIDEO - SOFTWARE EDUCATIONAL EXAMPLES aviation, martial arts, software 3. WHAT IS ID MANAGEMENT? ANY IMMEDIATE EXAMPLES? 4. IS ID MANAGEMENT TEACHING? 5. REVIEW BOOK
  • 1. WHAT WOULD YOU LIKE TO GET OUT OF THIS COURSE? 2. WHY ARE YOU HERE? 3. WHAT ARE YOU MISSING?
  • 1. EXAMPLE VIDEO PROJECT COST $10,000 STARTS JAN 10, HAS PHASES, DELIVERED MARCH 28 TO: DENVER POLICE TRAINNING UNIT - BENEFITS ARE ARREST SAFETY FACTORS ENHANCEMENT TRAINNING 2. EXAMPLES? 3. IS AN MA DEGREE AN ID PROJECT OR PROGRAM
  • 1. PROGRAM - PILOT TRAINING 2. PROJECT - SOFTWARE COURSE 3. SEMINAR CONCENTRATES ON PROJECTS 4. PROGRAMS ARE MUCH MORE QUATITATIVE & ITERATIVE
  • 1. ANY EXAMPLES OR ANY SPECIFIC AREAS OF INTEREST 2. ANY MISSING PHASES? HOW ABOUT O&M? PROBABLY NOT SINCE THAT’S ON GOING
  • 1. DEFINE - EXPERTS, STAKEHOLDERS, FACILITATORS 2. WHY TOP CETRALIZED AUTHORITY? 3. ANY EXAMPLES OF RESISTANCE IN YOU ORGANIZATION TO A TRAINNING PROGRAM?
  • 1. ITERATIVE FOR EACH TASK - RESOURCE; WHAT COULD GO WRONG FOR TIME COST SCHEDULE 2. ANY OTHER EXAMPLES OF STAFFING? CONSULTANTS - INFORMAL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES?
  • 1. ASK FOR EXAMPLES OF EACH ELEMENT
  • 1. WHAT TYPES OF PEOPLE DO YOU HAVE MANAGING OR TRAINING?
  • 1. EACH CIRCLE IS APPROVAL
  • 1. WHAT IS THE NUMBER ONE PROMBLEM OF THE ID MANAGER? NEXT SLIDE--
  • 1. EACH CIRCLE IS APPROVAL
  • 1. YOU GOT TO CROSS THROUGH DEPARTMENTS, RANKS, JOBS.. AND SAK FOR INFO... AND TELL PEOPLE YOU ARE GOING TO TEACH WITH THAT INFO.. AND YOU HAVE JUST INHERITED THE ID JOB 2. CPU EXAMPLE OF AGAT
  • 1. INSTRUCTION FOR POLITICS? OR, INSTRUCTION FOR INSTRUCTION? 2. REGULATORY OR FUN? 3. LOVE THE IDEA, MUST BE RIGHT
  • 1. EXAMPLES?
  • 1. FOR THIS CASE A CERTAIN COLOR ENHANCES THE LEARNING 2. REMOVE HAND FROM THROTTLE AFTER FULL POWER 3. CRT DISPLAY
  • 1. THE ID MANAGER NEEDS TO BE AWARE OF ID PROCESSES TO COMMUNICATE - BUT IS BETTER AT KNOWING TECHNOLOGY TACTICS AND STRATEGIES 2. LOW BUDGET - STRATEGY NO MAKE-UP - TACTIC 3. STUDENT EXAMPLES?
  • 1. RETAKES OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUE SHOWN ON VIDEO - MARTIAL ARTS - OVER SCHEDULE & BUDGET
  • 1. ID MANAGER - VIDEO 2. ISD - VIDEO, THEN MAYBE VIDEO AND SIMULATION 3. STUDENT EXAMPLES?
  • 1. THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION IS FOR YOU TO ASK YOUR DESIGN TEAM AND CLIENT AT EACH PHASE MEETING. YOU MAY NOT BE ABLE ANSWER THE QUESTIONS YOURSELF - BUT AS A MANAGER YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO ASK THEM.
  • 1. WHY ARE YOU REALLY TEACHING WHAT IT IS YOU WANT TO TEACH? 2. BEHAVIOR - COMBINATION OF ATTITUDES, INTELLECTUAL AND PHYSICAL ABILITY 3. IN FLIGHT DISCOVERY, INSTRUCTORS WERE SCARED TO USE SIMULATORS
  • 1. ARE THERE OTHER NON EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS THAT NEED TO BE SOLVED BEFORE THEY ARE READY TO LEARN 2. IS THERE TIME TO PRACTICE WHAT THEY SHOULD REMEBER, WHAT IS THE INTENSITY OF THE EXPERIENCE? 3. STUDENT EXAMPLES? 4. REGULATIONS MANDATE
  • 1.HOW ARE PERCEPTIONS AFFECTED? PERCEPTIONS ARE AFFECTED BY NEEDS, GOALS, VALUES, MOTIVATIONS - CONSIDER IN MATCHING PERCEPTIONS 2. MARTIAL ARTS EXAMPLE DEFENSE VS. ATTACKING VALUES
  • 1. PLATFORMS - MOCH UPS PHOTOS OF INSTRUMENT PANELS 2. FOCU GROUPS 3. APPLICATION DEPENDS ON REQUIRED CHANGE OF BEHAVIOR 4. TEST STANDARDS.
  • 1. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE AEREAS THAT CAN BECOME CONFLICT IN SCHEDULING?
  • 1.QUESTIONS
  • 1. GET THEM TO ANSWER THEIR OWN QUESTIONS. GET THEM TO ANSWER IN WRITING. 2. THIS IS JUST A START.
  • 1. EXAMPLES?
  • 1. USE A SPREED SHEET AND RULES OF THUMB
  • 1.QUESTIONS
  • 1.QUESTIONS
  • 1. DEMAND - CAREFUL CLIENTS WILL WASTE YOUR TIME - VIDEO PROF EXAMPLE 2. SCOPE - ADD DAYS FOR REAL WORLD INFORMAL STRUCTURES 3. ORGANIZE - WATCH OUT FOR ADMINISTRATION DELAYS 4. INFO - LOGISTIC FINANCIAL ACCESS PROBLEMS 5. BLUEPRINT - CLIENT WILL CHANGE BASELINE 6.DRAFT - CLIENTS WILL CHANGE IT AGAIN 7.TEST - MOST SKIP OR RUSH
  • 1. EXAMPLES OF VIDEO TAPES FOR BALLET
  • 1. OTHER SUGGESTIONS?
  • 1.QUESTIONS
  • 1. DON’T LET THE CLIENT KNOW ABOUT ACTUAL TIME RELATIONSHIPS ETC.
  • 1. OTHER WAYS?
  • 1.QUESTIONS
  • 1. EACH CIRCLE IS APPROVAL
  • 1. HOW HAVE PEOPLE, INFORMAL STRUCTIRES, ATTITUDES CHANGED - VERY DIFFICULT TO FIND OUT. 2. DAVID’S EXAMPLE OF CLIENT THAT IS REAL OLD, SEEMED NOT INTERESTED AT SRR - COPLETELY DIFFERENT AT PDR
  • 1. USE MS PROJECT CAN HAVE ALL PARTICIPANTS SIGN EACH PAGE
  • 1. MARKETING? USERS?
  • 1. LET SPONSOR SELECT SME &DESIGNER
  • 1. DIARY WAS USED IN COURT IN ONE ID PROJECT OVER COMMISSION CASE
  • 1. WATCH YOUR TIME & BS.
  • 1.QUESTIONS
  • 1. OTHER EXAMPLES?
  • 1. MARKETING ISSUES CONFLICT WITH DESIGN ISSUES
  • 1. REFERRED TO AS BLUEPRINTS
  • 1.QUESTIONS
  • 1.QUESTIONS
  • 1.QUESTIONS?
  • 1. SPACE QUALIFIED EXAMPLES 2. INSTRUCTIONAL SURVEY WAS SET UP AT CONVENTION FIRST DA, ANALIZED &UPDATED OVERNIGHT THEN RE-INSTALLED THE NEXT DAY 3. INSTRUCTORS AND ID’S CAN’T BELIEVE THAT SOMETHING THEY DEVELOPED WAS NOT CLEAR
  • 1.QUESTIONS
  • 1. MARTIAL ART EXAMPLE OF EDITING OUT A CRITICAL STEP - A MISTAKE- WAS NOT ARTISTIC 2. IF YOU THINK ID’S ARE ARTIST, ART DIRECTORS ARE WORSE
  • 1. CONSIDER THE TOTAL FLOW OF MATERIAL, LOGISTICS, QUALITY & INTEGRATION
  • 1. INVENTORY WILL BITE YOU 2. RANDOM TEST MISSING SOUND ON TAPES
  • 1. STORAGE OF MASTER VIDEO LOST EXAMPLE
  • 1QUESTIONS 2 EXAMPLES OF IN FLIGHTDECK PILOT PRODUCTS
  • 1. MANY CONSULTANTS WILL TRY AND STEAL THE SHOW
  • Instructional Design (ID)

    1. 1. Instructional Design (ID) using Project Management (PM) Presented by: The Community College of Denver Metro State College of Denver Jeffrey Forrest, Ph.D.
    2. 2. Presentation Objectives <ul><li>Your role & responsibilities as a teacher using Project Manager (PM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements for developing successful instructional materials using PM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage your classroom activity/project for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>performance , cost , time & social parameters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>As a teacher-project manager, you apply industry driven processes for planning to develop lessons in the classroom </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>This short course is a primer for introducing basic concepts related to PM, that teachers may use to enhance the development of their class for educational materials. </li></ul><ul><li>The PM principles presented are “borrowed” from the same processes used in aerospace engineering & science to develop </li></ul><ul><li>space missions! </li></ul>
    4. 4. Project - Definition <ul><li>How is your “lesson plan” a Project? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First, it is usually highly defined and offers specific information or activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second, when planning your class lessons or activity, you must always consider … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cost – what rate over what time, and cash flow needed? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>schedule – the major milestones: concept, start, phases, ending? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>performance – what specific benefits should your students receive from the effort? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social - socioeconomic considerations (ethics, culture, legal, access, diversity, etc.)? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. ID Project Management <ul><li>What are the top-level strategies for first applying PM to Instructional Design (ID)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First, and regardless of the goal, PM addresses the development of an instructional system that is designed to meet the needs of a specific educational program or project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>an educational program is ongoing ( iterative ), such as a high school program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>an educational project is linear , such as a laboratory class experiment </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Project Management (PM) Phases <ul><li>Conceptualization – what are my visions, goals, and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Selling & marketing – do I need time and resources to “sell” my project to management or students? </li></ul><ul><li>Planning – what are all the major steps I will need to accomplish, and how are they related? </li></ul><ul><li>Organization – what resources do I need? When? How much money will these resources cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Staffin g – What human resources do I need? Other teachers? Student assistants? How do I schedule these individuals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directing – How do I direct and manage human resources? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Producin g – Do I have a solid plan along with all the resources I need to produce my ID project or program? </li></ul><ul><li>Controllin g – I do I establish a system for controlling my resources and stakeholders to the project or program? </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation – Do I have an evaluation plan? Is it established prior to beginning the project or program? </li></ul>
    7. 7. ID & PM Key Elements <ul><li>Conceptualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should I consult experts? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have I identified and considered all of the stakeholders to my ID project? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do I coordinate stakeholders with outside or inside facilitators? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Selling & Marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have approval or support from top authority – this is very important, and should be communicated to all stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will I have to change user attitudes? Invent new institutional systems? Develop shared ownership? Involve facilitator help? </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. ID & PM Key Elements <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before starting ID production create a master plan !! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the master plan with strategies and tactics for unexpected changes in time, cost, schedule for each task or resource relationship in your master plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a sub-plan for addressing socioeconomic variables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizing & Staffing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Next, organize your design team, clients (sponsor, management), user (students), and any non-users involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often, you ARE “the design team” and your client is the student! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then, staff your ID project … </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. ID & PM Key Elements <ul><li>Start Planning to Produce ID material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a needs & values assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This becomes your “ reference philosophy ” for the project! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine “ image ” for the ID material - what kind of learning experience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now, pause, and consider feasibility … are you starting a project too large or demanding resources or skills beyond what can be obtained? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then, and this is the hard part , determine how all the learning elements & resources in your project will be integrated – we call this instructional systems development (ISD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation – very important! Create a “ paper trail ” of everything you do in the project: especially all communication among stakeholders. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Then from your master plan, begin Controlling, Directing, Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organization + project + users + client + others </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. ID PM and You as a Teacher <ul><li>Usually, a teacher has formal training in ID </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, a teacher directly develops the ID material </li></ul><ul><li>Usually a teacher is more an educational specialist than a project manager </li></ul><ul><li>So, for increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of your teaching, you must practice and reflect on the “management thinking” presented in this tutorial! </li></ul>
    11. 11. “Short-cut” to PM! <ul><li>The next series of slides present basic processes of PM that are used in the aerospace industry, and can easily be applied in the ID of classroom material. </li></ul><ul><li>Make note (print) the next slide, and use it as a reminder. (The explanations follow.) </li></ul>
    12. 12. My ID Project Phases to Remember! need or concept SRR PDR DDR FDR production user evaluation next need or concept, project
    13. 13. My Need and Concept <ul><li>This can be the hardest part! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the specific problem my ID project is addressing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is my concept to address that problem? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are my visions, goals, and objectives for my project? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What strategies, tactics, and resources will I require to complete the project? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. My Systems Requirement Review ( SRR ) <ul><li>ID Systems Requirement Review ( SRR ) – this is where I plan for …. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling, Costing, & Performance estimates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information & decision support to ID team or just to You! </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. My Preliminary Design Review (PDR) <ul><li>Preliminary Design Review ( PDR ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I have approval of a draft of my concept and plan? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From your boss, peers, or sponsor? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes, this is just seeking approval of experts! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. My Detailed Design Review (DDR) <ul><ul><li>Detailed Design Review ( DDR ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did I conduct a test and gain approval of a working model of my concept? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This may be presenting a test-case to students or experts for feedback or evaluation. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did your ID model work in terms of meeting the goals and objectives from your master plan? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. My Final Design Review (FDR) <ul><li>Final Design Review ( FDR ) </li></ul><ul><li>This is when You or your Management approve the total sum of your ID project ! </li></ul><ul><li>Next …. You go into, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>production, inventory, distribution, evaluation of your ID project, or … in “teacher terms” … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce course material for delivery, plan for enough material, and evaluate the class outcomes </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. My ID Project Phases to Remember! need or concept SRR PDR DDR FDR production user evaluation next need or concept, project Again … here are the key steps we just covered!
    19. 19. ID PM - #1 problem As a teacher ID PM, you are in a complex environment requiring communication & collaboration – this environment can have many barriers to PM! Students Parents Other teachers Resources Managers
    20. 20. ID PM - Key Questions & “Traps” <ul><li>What type of “need” do we really have ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have you really defined (concise and clearly) the problem your project is addressing? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is what we think that we need a demand which is “nice” to know, or is there a real “need” to know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on which … you may need to change the priorities of your project planning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is what we think that we need real, or do we “just want to hear it” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We are “in love” with our own ideas – this is one of the greatest factors causing projects to fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure to seek expert review at each phase of your project! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. ID PM Approaches <ul><li>As an ID PM teacher, you usually combine the following epistemologies in your teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking student experiences, expressions, values, opinions, etc.? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(artistic?) + demanding students to provide data, take tests, and evaluate (often your task) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>validation for model development – WAS YOUR ID EFFECITVE? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is the most overlooked consideration! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. What is MY ID PM “Temperament?” <ul><li>Do I prefer being, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An Instructional Scientist? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>develops instructional principles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An Instructional Technologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>develops instructional procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An Instructional Technician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>develops instructional product platforms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider Your Traits – they can bias or help your ID PM planning! </li></ul><ul><li>Blend all of these principles into your ID project – do not focus on a single area! </li></ul>
    23. 23. ID PM -- Science vs. Technology <ul><li>An ID PM is often a Manager of Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ID technology - concerned with developing & using instructional technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How will that blend into your project? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ID science – concerned with developing, applying, and evaluating aspects of ID PM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As a teacher, you often blend all concerns above … do not fixate your project plan on one aspect! </li></ul>
    24. 24. Instructional Systems Design vs. PM <ul><li>Instructional Systems Development (ISD) vs. ID PM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep in mind that creating the system of strategies & tactics for your ID can be very iterative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But, as a PM, you must remember that any ID project is linear – it has a “life-cycle” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This can create conflict and requires planning when working on your ID </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. ID Manager & ISD vs. Media <ul><li>As an example, consider the development of media used in your classroom: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISD teachers sometimes view media as a changing and iterative facet to ISD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ we enjoy the act of conducting routine improvement processes !” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, ID PM teachers must view media development as a non-changing resource, at some point in the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or, you will miss deadlines! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Basic Learning Theories Managing the Integration of learning theories into the ID PM concept.
    27. 27. ID PM Learning Theories Checklist <ul><li>A good ID PM teachers considers “ quality ” in each step or phase of a project, consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what should be taught & how? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what kind of behavior change is desired? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how will users relate the purpose of the learning to the experience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how many “facets” will the users apply? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>senses, attitudes, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>Jeff Forrest: add this to first slide objectives
    28. 28. ID PM Learning Theories Checklist <ul><li>Quality (con’t): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are the users ready to learn it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how will they get enough exercise/experience to remember it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what kind of environment will provide the best experience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what are the quality checks to insure that what is taught is correct & appropriate? </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. ID PM Learning Theories Checklist <ul><li>Quality (con’t): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how will you match user perceptions to each element introduced? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what level of learning is required? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rote, understanding, application, correlation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what system will enhance retention & positive transfer? </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. ID PM Learning Theories Checklist <ul><li>Quality (con’t): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you present the material for each element? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will the communication process be tested? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will the user apply what has been taught? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will the user be examined? </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. ID PM Learning Theories & Schedule <ul><li>Consider the impact of learning theories when designing and managing your project schedule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>task, cost, resource, & time management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manage time & cost to build for performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time to document for communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>document to protect yourself as a PM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Use a software package such as Microsoft Project (Web link) or Scitor Project Scheduler (among others) </li></ul>
    32. 32. ID PM Resource Management Resource Determination & Scheduling
    33. 33. ID PM Resource Management <ul><li>You, as a teacher using PM to create educational material: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I want to create a videotape that I can use to teach a class in biology... what should I have in it?... how long should it be?... when do I need it?... how much will it cost?... how can I “sell” this to my management?” </li></ul><ul><li>You, after reflecting on these questions: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Good Grief ... What do I do first? ” </li></ul>
    34. 34. ID PM Resource Management <ul><li>Respond by asking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>why video? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what specific benefits will your tape provide to your students? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what are the demographics and learning characteristics of your students? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how what are your goals and learning objectives for your students? </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. ID PM Resource Management <ul><li>Resource determination for your videotape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask yourself, consider, and determine: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>amount of materials to produce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>each task needed to produce materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>schedule each task to produce materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relationships of task & resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>what needs to be finished to start the next task(s), or what tasks can start at the same time, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>schedule required financial resources needed for each task </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 36. ID PM Resource Management <ul><li>Where do I get information to plan my project, schedule, and costs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use rules of thumb for estimating time & costs for each task in your project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>industry sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>school specific </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>your own estimate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>opinions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>historical samples </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 37. ID PM Resource Management <ul><li>Here are some example “rules of thumb” from “ Expert derived ” examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(in commercial industry) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>screenplay: 1pg. per finished minute </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>corporate video: $1K - $2K per running minute </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>edit: 1hr. per minute </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>video crew: @ $1200 per day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>corporate scripts: $100 - $200 per minute </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>These types of examples, available for almost any project, must be used to schedule your resources and determine costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hint: usually a simple search on the Web will reveal similar estimates for almost any type of ID PM </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. ID PM Project Time Management
    39. 39. ID PM Project Time Management <ul><li>Estimating time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is difficult to determine the amount of YOUR management time it will require to complete each phase of the ID Project. </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. ID PM Project Time Management <ul><li>Consider times needed for these top-level steps in creating your ID (videotape example) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand/Need/Marketing Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize the Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Blueprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Draft Material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce Master Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. ID PM Project Time Management <ul><li>How about adding resources to cut time? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>be careful when and how you add other IDs, Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), art directors, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they are “artist” …. And can add time if you are not careful in setting deadlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires strong communication skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relationships - ego & knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In creative settings within ID PM … these can be the biggest roadblocks to completing your project! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 42. ID PM Project Time Management <ul><li>Time reduction strategies -- consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>overlap tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modify working calendar/overtime (resources) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce # of tasks or combine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease duration of tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or, change ID project concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be careful not to do this too late, or “in a rush” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 43. ID PM Project Time Management <ul><li>Want to get real sophisticated in your ID time management? Then look into ….. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical path methodology (CPM) (Web link) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shorten critical path by deleting or combining tasks on critical path </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Program Evaluation & Review (PERT) (Web link) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>similar to CPM, used less because each project is so different it is difficult to define statistics </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. ID Project Time Management <ul><li>Final advice on time management …. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use two schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one for distribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one for your planning showing slack time, lead times etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>you probably do not want you boss to see this schedule ..  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 45. ID Cost Management
    46. 46. ID PM Cost Management <ul><li>Here are some basic strategies for controlling costs in your ID project: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change production values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(“trade decisions” on what benefit you get from special features or benefits that add costs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other creative ways? </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. ID Cost Management <ul><li>Use software to schedule tasks and costs and to be used as an approval form. Here is an example aviation video training tape ID project: </li></ul>
    48. 48. ID PM Organization Structuring Tasks, Resources, & Time
    49. 49. My ID Project Phases need or concept SRR PDR DDR FDR production user evaluation next need or concept, project Remember these steps? Let’s look at some issues in the following slides related to each phase.
    50. 50. ID PM Organization - PDR <ul><li>Organize for PDR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>time sensitive since SRR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how have things changed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New objectives, new policy, new costs? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How has the environment changed for creating your ID? </li></ul>
    51. 51. ID Organization - PDR <ul><li>Organize for PDR: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bring to approval meeting (remember that software for building a plan we talked about?): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cost, schedule, resource information & story boards or other supporting information - experts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>get approval for : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>preliminary design, cost, time & resources allocated </li></ul></ul></ul>
    52. 52. ID PM Organization - Team <ul><li>The team members : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsor – could be your supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SME’s – subject matter experts (that’s usually you) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ID’s – instructional designers (that’s usually you, but you may include other teachers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production – who or what organization will produce your videotape or other ID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainers – are others going to use your ID? If so, invite a few users to serve on your team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We also recommend you include a few students as “clients” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Manager – that's you! </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. ID PM Organization - Team <ul><li>Warnings about team members: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsor or boss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ hear no evil, speak no evil, see no evil” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SME </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overkill – let’s keep adding information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>remove critical elements, because of the design constraints or “image” desired </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other teachers provide “infinite advice” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually want high production values … all the time! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MUST balance the strengths and weaknesses of the team! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    54. 54. ID PM Organization - Documents <ul><li>Remember to Document : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proposals, contracts, specs, schedules, financial, status reports, approval forms, conversations, letters, memos, diary </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. ID PM Organization - Meetings <ul><li>Hold a “Kick-off” meeting with your ID Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distribute itinerary well before meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>structured as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you will have one or two formal meetings & many informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use for clarification of roles, responsibilities, specifications </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. ID PM Information Search The research proposal.
    57. 57. ID PM Information Search <ul><li>Finding Needed Information for your ID project </li></ul><ul><li>Seek managers or donor viewpoint: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>info about, users, learning objectives, platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what info is missing vs. time & resources available to find it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use marketing research if available </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. ID PM Information Search <ul><li>Gathering information : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observations, interviews, documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>users, focus groups - interview & sample </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tasks, review documentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As a teacher, you should know how to conduct a literature scan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>product, market analysis - compare existing video tapes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    59. 59. ID PM Information Search <ul><li>Considering the impact of “interventions” on your ID PM due to new information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one of the most difficult task of ID manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>what info is coming in? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is it relating to what you need? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is it causing unneeded secondary issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>do you know where to stop </li></ul></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Beginning the ID Project Managing the design plan.
    61. 61. ID PM Plans <ul><li>Types of plans – these should be considered in your concept planning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ongoing plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllabus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>your project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesson plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>task element </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning objectives, lesson content, completion standards </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    62. 62. ID PM Plan - Syllabus <ul><li>Management concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>does the project integrate with the curriculum ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what are the performance objectives for each syllabus phase ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what are the teaching strategies for each phase ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what is the content of each phase ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what is the time schedule for each phase ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what resources are the resources needed ? </li></ul></ul>
    63. 63. ID PM Plans - Lesson <ul><li>Lesson plans should consider : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesson objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>elements of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instruction actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>user actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>completion standards </li></ul></ul>
    64. 64. ID PM Plans - Management <ul><li>YOUR top management tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keep ID staff within cost, performance & schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality assurance supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain regular feedback from SME’s & ID’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsor/boss approval </li></ul></ul>
    65. 65. ID Testing, Production, Distribution & Evaluation
    66. 66. ID Testing <ul><li>Test draft: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test components or drafts of your ID for risk reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use statistics, qualifications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>get a good sample of population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>test in actual environment if possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use full scale draft or model </li></ul></ul></ul>
    67. 67. ID PM Testing <ul><li>Phases & methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept: analyze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDR: test components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DDR: test the model/draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FDR: on site test (in class) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life cycle: continuous evaluation (curriculum) </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. ID PM Production <ul><li>This is the creation of the master copy of you ID material </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional integrity vs. production values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sending your ID materials out for production can be a “risky stage” – even if in-house! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost overruns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flaws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not packaged or formatted correctly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And others! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    69. 69. ID PM Production <ul><li>During production, here are YOUR PM tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brief producers in writing & verbal – seek feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coordinate production schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>require samples of master material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>go on site if possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obtain sponsor approval </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. ID PM Production <ul><li>During production, here are YOUR PM tasks (con’t): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>raw materials: inspect, inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assembly: inspect, test, inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modifications: inspect, test, inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>finished product: inspect, test, reproduce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reproductions: inspect, random test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>end user: packaging, shipping </li></ul></ul>
    71. 71. ID PM Reproduction & Distribution <ul><li>Master copy reproduction & distribution – some considerations for you as the PM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consult with reproduction firm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>review samples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>storage & distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sponsor approval for distribution </li></ul></ul>
    72. 72. ID Testing <ul><li>Test your ID materials for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supportability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>software compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meeting objectives as related to end user! </li></ul></ul>
    73. 73. ID Evaluation & Test <ul><li>Get an outside evaluation consultant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>try to hire that consultant yourself! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>get sponsor approval for evaluation strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>watch out for analysis traps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate what needs to be evaluated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>very sensitive area, relationship problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
    74. 74. ID PM Design Reviews Checklist <ul><li>Conducted from both organizational & worker perspective </li></ul><ul><li>why this program? </li></ul><ul><li>identify source of problem </li></ul><ul><li>determine possible solutions </li></ul><ul><li>communicate results </li></ul><ul><li>performance problem? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>training or educational </li></ul></ul><ul><li>environment problem? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>procedural or educational </li></ul></ul>
    75. 75. ID Design Review Checklist <ul><li>Educational? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>then compare what is known to what should be known </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>then compare actual performance to what the performance should be </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statement of the Problem: </li></ul>“ Determine what we need to teach for increased learning.” or “ Determine the specific areas of each individual student’s technique or knowledge-base that needs improvement.”
    76. 76. ID Design Review Checklist <ul><li>Report analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>features and benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instruction not needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>results, proposed solutions, rationale, trade - off studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine standards & conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Write performance statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>procedural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test </li></ul><ul><li>Select, order content </li></ul><ul><li>Develop lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Determine platform </li></ul>
    77. 77. ID PM Management Summary <ul><li>Summary: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>understand the role & responsibilities of the ID Project Manager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>integrate basic learning theories into ID </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identify the task elements for successful ID management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>construct an ID project for: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>performance, cost, time, & social parameters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>understand ID basic and subcontractor relationships </li></ul></ul></ul>
    78. 78. Instructional Design (ID) using Project Management (PM) Presented by: The Community College of Denver Metro State College of Denver Thank you!

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