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INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
INFO 420 Chapter 1 1
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INFO 420 Chapter 1 1

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  • 1. SW Project Management Nature of IT Projects INFO 420 Glenn Booker INFO 420 Chapter 1
  • 2. Intro <ul><li>IT projects are organizational investments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to expect commitment of considerable time, money, and people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some aspects of traditional project management need to be tweaked for IT projects; take from software engineering and system analysis & design </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 3. Intro <ul><li>Focus: reducing costs, reducing cycle time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect organization’s strategy to its deployment, help improve competitiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PM and IS evolve in parallel timelines </li></ul><ul><li>Three generations of PM strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The EDP era, micro era, and network era </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 4. EDP era - 1960’s to early 1980’s <ul><li>Central mainframe or minicomputer </li></ul><ul><li>Automate separate tasks, e.g. inventory mgmt, accounting, production scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Data processing manager </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to early steam power use – same process, with more power behind it </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 5. Micro era - 1980’s to mid-90’s <ul><li>Introduction of the PC, and soon client-server computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network is contained within the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lost central control over MIS – IT is everywhere, changing often </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security, data integrity, support issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast, cross-area IT projects </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 6. Network era - mid-1990s to now <ul><li>Due to awareness of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>More strategic partners, alliances, vendors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network focus is outside the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need scalable network architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Digital convergence of data, AV, graphics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates new products and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs new organization and strategy </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 7. Globalization <ul><li>The omnipresence of computers and the Internet is bringing about a globalization previously unimaginable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with anyone, any place, any time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases both risks and rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IT has some budget in both good times and bad, the question is how to use it best </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 8. The key decision <ul><li>So it boils down to: Which IT projects are worth supporting? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which will provide the most benefit and value to the organization? </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 9. IT project management <ul><li>So far, we’re not doing well at managing IT projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1968 the software development crisis was identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1994, CHAOS study said 16% of IT projects were successful, 31% cancelled before completion, and 53% completed badly </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 10. IT project management <ul><li>More recent studies have shown improvement trend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2006, 35% successful, 19% failed, and 46% weak </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors for successful projects, as identified in both 2001 and 2006, included </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User involvement, clear business objectives, and formal methodology </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 11. Why do we fail? <ul><li>Partly a definition problem – how far from the plan is a ‘failure’? 5%? 10%? 20%? </li></ul><ul><li>Traits of failed or weak projects include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete requirements, changing requirements and specs, lack of exec support, technology illiteracy/incompetence, lack of resources, and unrealistic expectations </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 12. Why do we fail? <ul><li>Communication is a key as well </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The #1 reason for project failure, and a factor in many other causes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource issues also include staffing, training, tools, and facility issues </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 13. How help success? <ul><li>Four approaches are themes throughout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A value-driven approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A socio-technical approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A project-management approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A knowledge-management approach </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 14. A value-driven approach <ul><li>Make IT projects prove they provide value to the organization </li></ul><ul><li>The value the project delivers must more than offset its time, money, and opportunity costs </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 15. A socio-technical approach <ul><li>Tools, techniques, and methodologies are not enough </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to consider the impact of the project on its users, and other affected organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does anyone want the new system? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will they use it? </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 16. A project-management approach <ul><li>Need to follow some methodology during the IT project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t just wing it! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the processes and infrastructure? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What tools and controls are used? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan appropriate resources, manage expectations (communicate!), consider outsourcing; efficiency & effectiveness goals </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 17. A knowledge-management approach <ul><li>Have a systematic process for capturing and sharing knowledge from past projects </li></ul><ul><li>Record lessons learned and best practices </li></ul><ul><li>How can we do it better next time? </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 18. Project management context <ul><li>Our approach for project management is based on the Project Management Institute (PMI)’s Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>A project is a temporary effort to accomplish a product, service, or result </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 19. Project attributes <ul><li>Time frame </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose or goal – PM should meet or exceed stakeholders’ needs and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership (mainly by sponsor) </li></ul><ul><li>Resources; the triple constraints of scope, schedule, and budget </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 20. Project attributes <ul><li>Roles – project manager, subject matter experts (SME), technical experts, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Risks and assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risks can be internal or external </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interdependent tasks in the project </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational change may result </li></ul><ul><li>Operating in a larger environment </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 21. Project life cycle <ul><li>The project life cycle (PLC) defines the life of a project in phases </li></ul><ul><li>Any project should have one or more deliverables as its output(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Phases help control the project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide gates to decide whether to proceed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast tracking can be done; start next phase early </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 22. PLC Phases <ul><li>Define project goal </li></ul><ul><li>Plan project </li></ul><ul><li>Execute project plan </li></ul><ul><li>Close project </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate project </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 23. Define project goal <ul><li>Have at least one!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will this project provide value to its organization? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And make sure stakeholders agree </li></ul><ul><li>Define not only the deliverables, but also the way project success will be measured </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 24. Plan project <ul><li>Effort (staffing levels) starts low, then rises until mid-project, then drops off </li></ul><ul><li>Risks are often highest initially </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder input is highest initially </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of correcting scope errors gets higher as the project progresses </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 25. Plan project <ul><li>Define the project’s plan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What will happen? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long will it take? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much will it cost? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the risks, and how will we manage them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did we estimate the duration and budget? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are decisions reached? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Were we successful? </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 26. Plan project <ul><li>Plan must define, for each project phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliverables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This defines the baseline project plan </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 27. Execute project plan <ul><li>Now actually conduct the project! </li></ul><ul><li>Manage project budget, scope, and duration based on stakeholder needs </li></ul><ul><li>Track progress against the baseline plan </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an eye on the overall goal </li></ul><ul><li>At the end, deliver the deliverables </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 28. Close project <ul><li>End the project clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure all obligations have been met </li></ul><ul><li>Document the processes used, final actual budget and schedule data </li></ul><ul><li>Give final report, presentation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Have sponsor sign off the project </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 29. Evaluate project <ul><li>The value of IT projects may be hard to measure – most don’t directly earn $$$ </li></ul><ul><li>Document the lessons learned carefully </li></ul><ul><li>What went well? Don’t forget that part! </li></ul><ul><li>Define best practices, when possible </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the team as well as the project </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 30. System Development Life Cycle <ul><li>In contrast, the actual development of a system has its own life cycle, which takes place inside the project </li></ul><ul><li>The SDLC defines the phases needed to create a system, then maintain it </li></ul><ul><li>There are many versions of SDLC to choose from </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 31. Generic SDLC Phases <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance & support </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 32. Planning <ul><li>Defines the problem to be solved, or opportunity to be taken, and outlines the goal and scope of the system </li></ul><ul><li>The plan for developing the system is defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should include budget, schedule, technology, development processes, methods, and tools </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 33. Analysis <ul><li>Documents the existing system or processes (the ‘as is’ model) </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to requirements analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Might use JAD, surveys, brainstorming, interviews, etc. to determine requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define how the new system will work (the ‘to be’ model) </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 34. Design <ul><li>Define the high level design of the system (architecture) based on the requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Refine the design to produce the low level design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designs include software, hardware, network, databases, user interface concept, etc. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 35. Implementation <ul><li>Construct, test, and install the system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to say, huh? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also develop the documentation, training materials, and supporting information </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 36. Maintenance & support <ul><li>Maintenance of a system is often a separate ongoing project </li></ul><ul><li>After installation, the system is in production mode for most of its life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still need to make improvements (enhancements), and fix bugs (maintenance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May manage a call center or help desk </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 37. Retirement <ul><li>Eventually, a production system becomes obsolete, leading to a new project to replace it </li></ul><ul><li>As part of that project, phasing out the old system will be done, until it’s completely offline </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 38. SDLC Examples <ul><li>Implementing the SDLC can follow several types of approaches </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest is the structured approach, better known as the waterfall life cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s simple and sequential – do each phase completely before moving to the next one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements, design, code, test, & deploy </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 39. Waterfall SDLC <ul><li>Some versions of the waterfall model ( DOD-STD-2167a , MIL-STD-498 ) defined very precisely how the results of each phase were documented </li></ul><ul><li>Waterfall depends on very clearly defined requirements and well known methodology and tools – rarely the case </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 40. Waterfall SDLC <ul><li>Still useful for maintenance or small projects </li></ul><ul><li>Also good for inexperienced development teams </li></ul><ul><li>Can be good for shrink wrapped software development </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 41. Iterative system development <ul><li>Need for faster development, and accommodation of changing requirements led to a variety of iterative SDLC models </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative approaches include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RAD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototyping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RUP </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 42. RAD <ul><li>Rapid Application Development (RAD) compresses the life cycle using special software development tools (CASE tools) </li></ul><ul><li>Each iteration produces more and more of the final product in usable form, until it’s completed </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 43. Prototyping <ul><li>Generally, prototyping is used to refine or discover system requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Prototyping depends on close work between the developer and the customer to create a partially functional system </li></ul><ul><li>Then full system development takes place </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 44. Spiral <ul><li>The spiral model (Boehm, 1988) is used to address big risks facing a project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each spiral ‘miniproject’ is a short life cycle devoted to resolving one key risk area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After all the major risks have been resolved, then another life cycle is used for full system development </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 45. Agile <ul><li>Agile software development is defined loosely as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ An iterative and incremental (evolutionary) approach to software development which is performed in a highly collaborative manner by self-organizing teams within an effective governance framework with &quot;just enough&quot; ceremony that produces high quality software in a cost effective and timely manner which meets the changing needs of its stakeholders.’ </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420 From http://www.agilemodeling.com/essays/agileSoftwareDevelopment.htm
  • 46. Agile <ul><li>Agile methods include various methodologies, such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SCRUM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSDM (Dynamic Systems Development Method) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASD (Adaptive Software Development) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XP (eXtreme Programming) </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 47. Extreme Project Management <ul><li>Extreme Project Management (XPM) is a project management approach to go with eXtreme Programming (XP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is designed for projects with very high rates of requirements and environment change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change is inevitable, so planning is iterative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has been adapted for architectural projects </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 48. RUP <ul><li>The Rational Unified Process ( RUP ), now owned by IBM, is an object oriented, iterative life cycle methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ RUP promotes iterative development and organizes the development of software and systems into four phases, each consisting of one or more executable iterations of the software at that stage of development.” </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420 From http://www-01.ibm.com/software/awdtools/rup/
  • 49. PLC vs. SDLC??? <ul><li>So how does the project life cycle relate to the software development life cycle? </li></ul><ul><li>The SDLC is conducted entirely within the PLC phase of “Execute project plan” </li></ul><ul><li>The structure and details of the project plan depend on your choice of SDLC </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 50. PMBOK <ul><li>The Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge captures the major topics within project management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First defined in 1987 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current version is ISBN 1933890517 (2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It has nine “knowledge areas” </li></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 51. PMBOK knowledge areas <ul><li>Project integration management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating changes to the project plan’s development and execution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project scope management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring complete definition and completion of the project scope </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 52. PMBOK knowledge areas <ul><li>Project time management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing, monitoring, and managing the project schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project cost management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop and complete project per its budget </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project human resource management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create, develop and manage the project team </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 53. PMBOK knowledge areas <ul><li>Project quality management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a quality environment to help project meet stakeholder needs and expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project communications management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure project communicates with stakeholders </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 54. PMBOK knowledge areas <ul><li>Project risk management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and respond to risks facing the project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project procurement management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage procurement of products and services from outside the organization </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420
  • 55. Summary <ul><li>We’ve introduced the major topics in IT project management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History of IT project management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for project failure and success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our approach for encouraging success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define a project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project and system development life cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PM body of knowledge </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 INFO 420

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