EMGT 361 Project Management Neal Lewis Scheduling
Scheduling <ul><li>A schedule is the conversion of a project action plan into an operating timetable </li></ul><ul><li>It ...
Scheduling <ul><li>“ As of tomorrow, employees will only be able to access the building using individual security cards.  ...
Scheduling <ul><li>In a project environment, the scheduling function is more important than it would be in an ongoing oper...
Scheduling <ul><li>The basic approach of all scheduling techniques is to form a network of activity and event relationship...
Scheduling  Figure 8-1, page 309
Scheduling  Figure 8-5
Drawing Networks
Scheduling <ul><li>Such networks are a powerful tool for planning and controlling a project and have the following benefit...
Scheduling  Figure 8-2, page 309
Scheduling <ul><li>Network benefits (cont.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It aids in ensuring that the proper communications take...
Scheduling <ul><li>Network benefits (cont.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It determines the dates on which tasks may be started -...
Network Techniques:  PERT and CPM <ul><li>With the exception of Gantt charts, the most common approach to scheduling is th...
Network Techniques:  PERT and CPM <ul><li>PERT has been primarily used for research and development projects </li></ul><ul...
Terminology <ul><li>Activity  - A specific task or set of tasks that are required by the project, use up resources, and ta...
Terminology <ul><li>Path  - The series of connected activities (or intermediate events) between any two events in a networ...
Terminology <ul><li>An activity can be in any of these conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It may have a successor(s) but no...
Drawing Networks <ul><li>Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) networks use arrows to represent activities while nodes stand for events ...
Scheduling  Figure 8-20
Gantt Charts <ul><li>The Gantt chart shows planned and actual progress for a number of tasks displayed against a horizonta...
Scheduling
Scheduling  Figure 8-26
Typical Software Output <ul><li>Gantt Chart </li></ul>
Gantt Charts <ul><li>There are several advantages to the use of Gantt charts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though they may c...
Break Time  University of Missouri-Rolla Copyright 2001 Curators of University of Missouri
Computerized PMIS <ul><li>New microcomputer-based project management information systems (PMISs) are considerably more sop...
Computerized PMIS <ul><li>The PMIS trend of the 1990s has been to integrate the project management software with spreadshe...
Current Software <ul><li>The explosive growth of project management software during the early 1990s saw the creation of mo...
Current Software <ul><li>In addition to managing the PMIS instead of the project, other problems include: </li></ul><ul><u...
Choosing Software <ul><li>Characteristics of generally desirable attributes in project management software: </li></ul><ul>...
Typical Software Output <ul><li>Software evaluation action plan </li></ul>
Typical Software Output <ul><li>Early and late start and finish dates and slack </li></ul>
Typical Software Output <ul><li>AON Network </li></ul>
Typical Software Output <ul><li>Gantt Chart Tracking progress </li></ul>
Summary <ul><li>Scheduling is particularly important to projects because of the complex coordination problems </li></ul><u...
Summary <ul><li>Although research indicates technological performance is not significantly affected by the use of PERT/CPM...
Summary <ul><li>Networks are usually constructed from left to right, indicating activity precedence and event times as the...
Summary <ul><li>There exist a great number of computerized PMIS’s that are available for project managers, with software e...
Scheduling  <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
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EMGT 361 Project Management Neal Lewis

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EMGT 361 Project Management Neal Lewis

  1. 2. EMGT 361 Project Management Neal Lewis Scheduling
  2. 3. Scheduling <ul><li>A schedule is the conversion of a project action plan into an operating timetable </li></ul><ul><li>It serves as the basis for monitoring and controlling project activity </li></ul><ul><li>Taken together with the plan and budget, it is probably the major tool for the management of projects </li></ul>
  3. 4. Scheduling <ul><li>“ As of tomorrow, employees will only be able to access the building using individual security cards. Pictures will be taken next Wednesday, and employees will receive their cards in two weeks.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 309, Meredith and Mantel </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Scheduling <ul><li>In a project environment, the scheduling function is more important than it would be in an ongoing operation </li></ul><ul><li>Projects lack the continuity of day-to-day operations and often present much more complex problems of coordination </li></ul>
  5. 6. Scheduling <ul><li>The basic approach of all scheduling techniques is to form a network of activity and event relationships </li></ul><ul><li>This network should graphically portray the sequential relations between the tasks in a project </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks that must precede or follow other tasks are then clearly identified, in time as well as function </li></ul>
  6. 7. Scheduling Figure 8-1, page 309
  7. 8. Scheduling Figure 8-5
  8. 9. Drawing Networks
  9. 10. Scheduling <ul><li>Such networks are a powerful tool for planning and controlling a project and have the following benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a consistent framework for planning, scheduling, monitoring, and controlling the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It illustrates the interdependence of all tasks, work packages, and work elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It denotes the times when specific individuals must be available for work on a given task </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Scheduling Figure 8-2, page 309
  11. 12. Scheduling <ul><li>Network benefits (cont.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It aids in ensuring that the proper communications take place between departments and functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It determines an expected project completion date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It identifies so-called critical activities that, if delayed, will delay the project completion time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It identifies activities with slack that can be delayed for specific periods without penalty </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Scheduling <ul><li>Network benefits (cont.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It determines the dates on which tasks may be started - or must be started if the project is to stay on schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It illustrates which tasks must be coordinated to avoid resource timing conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It illustrates which tasks may run, or must be run, in parallel to achieve the predetermined project completion date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It relieves some interpersonal conflict by clearly showing task dependencies </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Network Techniques: PERT and CPM <ul><li>With the exception of Gantt charts, the most common approach to scheduling is the use of network techniques such as PERT and CPM </li></ul><ul><li>The Program Evaluation and Review Technique was developed by the U.S. Navy in 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>The Critical Path Method was developed by DuPont, Inc during the same time period </li></ul>
  14. 15. Network Techniques: PERT and CPM <ul><li>PERT has been primarily used for research and development projects </li></ul><ul><li>CPM was designed for construction projects and has been generally embraced by the construction industry </li></ul><ul><li>The two methods are quite similar and are often combined for educational presentation </li></ul>
  15. 16. Terminology <ul><li>Activity - A specific task or set of tasks that are required by the project, use up resources, and take time to complete </li></ul><ul><li>Event - The result of completing one or more activities. An identifiable end state occurring at a particular time. Events use no resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Network - The combination of all activities and events define the project and the activity precedence relationships </li></ul>
  16. 17. Terminology <ul><li>Path - The series of connected activities (or intermediate events) between any two events in a network </li></ul><ul><li>Critical - Activities, events, or paths which, if delayed, will delay the completion of the project. A project’s critical path is understood to mean that sequence of critical activities that connect the project’s start event to its finish event </li></ul>
  17. 18. Terminology <ul><li>An activity can be in any of these conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It may have a successor(s) but no predecessor(s) - starts a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may have a predecessor(s) but no successor(s) - ends a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may have both predecessor(s) and successor(s) - in the middle of a network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The interconnections depend on the technological relationships described in the action plan </li></ul>
  18. 19. Drawing Networks <ul><li>Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) networks use arrows to represent activities while nodes stand for events </li></ul><ul><li>Activity-on-Node (AON) networks use nodes to represent activities with arrows to show precedence relationships </li></ul><ul><li>The choice between AOA and AON representation is largely a matter of personal preference </li></ul>
  19. 20. Scheduling Figure 8-20
  20. 21. Gantt Charts <ul><li>The Gantt chart shows planned and actual progress for a number of tasks displayed against a horizontal time scale </li></ul><ul><li>It is an effective and easy-to-read method of indicating the actual current status for each set of tasks compared to the planned progress for each item of the set </li></ul><ul><li>It can be helpful in expediting, sequencing, and reallocating resources among tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt charts usually do not show technical dependencies </li></ul>
  21. 22. Scheduling
  22. 23. Scheduling Figure 8-26
  23. 24. Typical Software Output <ul><li>Gantt Chart </li></ul>
  24. 25. Gantt Charts <ul><li>There are several advantages to the use of Gantt charts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though they may contain a great deal of information, they are easily understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While they may require frequent updating, they are easy to maintain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gantt charts provide a clear picture of the current state of a project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are easy to construct </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Break Time University of Missouri-Rolla Copyright 2001 Curators of University of Missouri
  26. 27. Computerized PMIS <ul><li>New microcomputer-based project management information systems (PMISs) are considerably more sophisticated than earlier systems </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the microcomputer’s graphics, color, and other features more extensively </li></ul><ul><li>Many systems can handle almost any size project, being limited only by the memory available in the computer </li></ul>
  27. 28. Computerized PMIS <ul><li>The PMIS trend of the 1990s has been to integrate the project management software with spreadsheets, databases, word processors, communication, graphics, and the other capabilities of Windows-based software packages </li></ul><ul><li>The current trend is to facilitate the global sharing of project information, including complete status reporting, through local networks as well as the Internet </li></ul>
  28. 29. Current Software <ul><li>The explosive growth of project management software during the early 1990s saw the creation of more than 500 packages </li></ul><ul><li>Systems can be easily misused or inappropriately applied - as can any tools </li></ul><ul><li>The most common error is managing the PMIS rather than the project itself </li></ul>
  29. 30. Current Software <ul><li>In addition to managing the PMIS instead of the project, other problems include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer paralysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PMIS verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information overload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer dependence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PMIS misdirection </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Choosing Software <ul><li>Characteristics of generally desirable attributes in project management software: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friendliness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schedules </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calendars </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Budgets </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Typical Software Output <ul><li>Software evaluation action plan </li></ul>
  32. 33. Typical Software Output <ul><li>Early and late start and finish dates and slack </li></ul>
  33. 34. Typical Software Output <ul><li>AON Network </li></ul>
  34. 35. Typical Software Output <ul><li>Gantt Chart Tracking progress </li></ul>
  35. 36. Summary <ul><li>Scheduling is particularly important to projects because of the complex coordination problems </li></ul><ul><li>The network approach to scheduling offers a number of specific advantages of special value for projects </li></ul><ul><li>Critical project tasks typically constitute fewer than 10 percent of all the project tasks </li></ul>
  36. 37. Summary <ul><li>Although research indicates technological performance is not significantly affected by the use of PERT/CPM, there did seem to be a significantly lower probability of cost and schedule overruns </li></ul><ul><li>Network techniques can adopt either an activity-on-node or activity-on-arc framework without significantly altering the analysis </li></ul>
  37. 38. Summary <ul><li>Networks are usually constructed from left to right, indicating activity precedence and event times as the network is constructed </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt charts are closely related to network diagrams, but are more easily understood and provide a clearer picture of the current state of the project </li></ul>
  38. 39. Summary <ul><li>There exist a great number of computerized PMIS’s that are available for project managers, with software evaluations occurring regularly in various magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Project managers’ preferred PMIS features are friendliness, schedules, calendars, budgets, reports, graphics, networks, charts, migration, and consolidation </li></ul>
  39. 40. Scheduling <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
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