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  • Instructor notes: Introduce the instructors and ask the attendees to introduce themselves and provide information about themselves: Institution Position What they hope to learn from workshop Describe the contents of the trainee manual: Table of contents Examples Exercises Glossary Bibliography
  • Instructor note: Place this workshop in the context of the workshop series Other workshops include: Rules and Tools for Cataloging Internet Resources Metadata Standards and Applications Principles of Controlled Vocabulary and Thesaurus Design Metadata Digital Library Design Overview Digital Project Planning and Management Basics (This workshop)
  • Intructor note: Steps in planning a project closely parallel the content that is necessary to know for writing a successful grant for a digital project
  • Instructor note: Add the following What is not covered in this workshop: Details about standards of metadata and scanning Details of metadata, vocabulary control, and technology management These are covered in other workshops in the series
  • Instructor note: Provide better access to resources that would otherwise be unknown and underused Added value to resources, provide content to documents or visual material that has no related textual information (e.g., photographs in an archival collection) Preserve fragile materials (less physical handling means better long-term preservation of fragile material -- you still need to preserve the original material How would a digital project fit into the institutions’ mission, what goals would this meet?
  • Instructor note: Special and Archival collections Collections within the institution that represent unique or rare objects Collaborative projects bringing together disparate but complementary resources Reformatting content from other non-print resour ces Newspaper and mag azines (no longer under copyright) scanned from microforms Slide library converted to a digital library Digitization for commercial purposes Institutional repository material made available for a fee or subscription (scholarly publishing: archived material or current)
  • Instructor: print out separately if needed. Ask a series of questions before writing a grant proposal, do your research up front. Grant proposals are more likely be awarded when the questions on the proposal are accurately and completely answered. Who is the audience, who will be served by the digital project Scholars, university students, K-12 educators and or students Anyone with access to the web, including the general public What resources should/could be digitized and the priority Prioritizing can be tricky How much: everything in all the collections, representative samples, what is expected in high demand, Clifford Lynch (footnote): material not in high use importance and use might increase once digitized and made known/available
  • Instructor notes: When will the project start and is it a finite project or ongoing How will the project workload be supported Outsourcing Issues with the transportation of fragile material Standards followed In-house costs of labor/benefits/equipment software Develop software tools or buy vendor product What software is good enough (and what do you mean by good enough) Training and staff time (hire new staff, who does the work of permanent staff while working on project) How will the institution plan for long term maintenance of the digital collection Where: space where to put people and equipment; ideally should have environmental controlled for scanning
  • Instructor note: Sometimes the library has a specific idea already in mind, however, you may be at the beginning of the process and not have a clear idea where to start Besides an inventory of the type material you have in your collections and prioritizing them, “inventory” your human assets I.e., find out who might have the skill sets time interest to implement the project Born digital -- do not need to worry about a conversion unless the digital format is not acceptable
  • Collaboration and team building (for both intra- and inter-agency collaboration) Not everyone will be equally enthusiastic, resistance may be reflected in attitudes: More hype than content Everyone is already stretched, how can we take on yet another responsibility Quick start: proof of concept so other organizations are willing to come on board Establish clear leadership who is the focual point, authority to make things happen Consensus building does not mean full agreement
  • Instructor note: Realistic in terms of staffing, how much time it will take, in other words the Matching project with granting agency is important
  • You need to consider how you plan to assess or measure your success before you start your digital project. Need to tie results to the goals Last slide: Take questions from the participants and generate short discussion if their institutions have addressed outcomes and metrics. Metrics directly tied to goals of digital project. Points covered in more detail later.
  • Leadership: need to assess skills of the team, what each team brings to the table; are all the skills present, do you outsource or allot time for training
  • Stakeholders: anyone (person or corporate) that may influence of be affected by the outcome of the project Some granting agencies favor collaborative projects where several institutions participate to develop a digital collection Knowledge or skills come from other Inter and intra institutional projects, different dynamics; some have larger stake, resources available, and may expect different responsibilities and results. Institutional MOU between parties so everyone has clear idea of their role
  • In some cases one person will wear several hats. Each of the members involved will have primary responsibilities but they need to work together in order to complete the project “successfully.” How to define “success” comes later Director: who is the primary contact for the granting agency and who is ultimately responsible for the project Grant writer could be a team, some designated as the point of contact with granting institution Curators: who is deciding what content is digitized and developing the policy of selection / recommender Project manager: who is responsible for developing a business plan, a project roadmap, implementation, assessment Who is going to create the best practices of the metadata and scanning to ensure sustainability and interoperability? Even if you purchase out of the box software, Web pages need to be developed to support the project Who will tell the world about your project, do not rely on the “field of dreams” model: “build it and they will come” Staff will be instrumental in developing the workflow and alerting the rest of the project when things do not work out as planned.
  • Instructor note: Example from the CSUN LSTA project staff. Should show instead or in addition any example relevant to the audience
  • Instructor note: May substitute local examples
  • Instructor notes: Who will be involved in the process Decisions about software / hardware Outsource / temporary staff Temporary staff to release current permanent positions so that they
  • Instructor notes: A vehicle for getting buy-in from the different players. Section may be trimmed down depending on audience
  • Instructor notes: Possibly not appropriate for discussing metadata implementation but more appropriate for the “gray” area, creative problem solving
  • Instructor notes: Set up the rules for the session. They should include: letting the leader have control of the process but does not dictate allowing everyone to contribute. ensuring that no one will insult, demean, or evaluate another participant or his/her response. stating that no answer is wrong. recording each idea unless it is a repeat. setting a time limit and stopping when that time is up.
  • Instructor note: Clustering of ideas. Make sure people are in agreement that the concepts are duplicative and are related Ask each person to vote for the topic / problem
  • Arguing from position: its my way or the highway: inefficient, creates hard feelings Objective criteria instead of what willing or not willing to do
  • Instructor notes: The first stage is determining the situation taking into account the emotions, vested interests of everyone at the table. The planning stage may include brainstorming ideas for resolution, again focus on the issues not the people. Create options Make sure everyone understands the interests and goals of each other. Avoid language that is loaded or evaluative
  • Instructor notes; Reflective listening : Repeat back what you heard to make sure you heard what they said
  • Instructor note: I am sure no one has every experienced this in the institution where they work. Feel free to use the example below or one from your own experience. San Fernando Valley History Digital project was created through a consortium of the Oviatt Library and local historical societies who needed constant reassurance that we were not keeping their material and that it would be handled carefully and not lost
  • Organizational mandates may include activities that must be maintained as well as limits concerning the size and scope of the project (space for project staff, for example) Entities is used because its just not individuals but other “departments” or institutional players The business plan is the overall plan, the daily operations come under the operating plan See one page handout What was discussed in the previous sections were at the level of the strategic plan. A business plan deals with more specific goals and actions: stakeholders, outcomes & products
  • Instructior note: Bullet points explained in following First step in creating a business plan or describing the need or a gap is to identify what issue you want to resolve with the project, there are no right answers, but without a clear idea of what you want to accomplish, it will be difficult to measure your “success” or if you are providing content that end users want or need
  • Instructor note: May replace with local example of accepted grant In this case the need was identified by the questions asked at the Reference desk at CSU Northridge, as well as identification of the classes with the assignment by reviewing new course proposals. CSUN identified a number of courses (Urban Studies, Marketing, History, courses for transfer students) which require students to create a profile / description of their neighborhood. The profile can be partially based on census data, supplemented by descriptive or historical information. However, local histories do not exist for all neighborhoods, and the ones which are available may not be reliable.
  • Instructor note: May replace with local example
  • Instructor note: This is a repeat of slide from section 1, adding it to the context of the business plan. Preservation issues and documentation is critical for resources in private or less formal collections which may have already sustained damage (kept in garages, damaged by water, smoke, neglect) or exist insecure environment Remember to tie benefits with overall reasons for digitization delineated in the previous sections. How does the digital project fill the gap.
  • Instructor note: Know your audience. When selling your project to upper management (even if it was their idea), they may not want to hear the nitty gritty details. Packaging information for a specific audience is an art. Practice your presentation to someone who has a similar knowledge base.
  • Instructor note: Success opens many doors, “failures” can close them. The word “failure” is scary to some. Failure in this context: not meeting the goals of the project, especially the goals expressed in the grant
  • Maximize success to know what you are getting into Maintenance: Sustainability
  • Instructor note: This is important to emphasize, it is a difficult sell, but honest Digital initiatives require a high start up costs; Digital environment is not static Technology is always changing Replacement of hardware Software changes impacts how content is stored and retrieved. Changes in metadata standards, harvesting and search protocols need to be addressed, potential migration in the future Long term preservation issues surrounding the digital surrogates, scanned digital objects and metadata; long term cost of human involvement
  • Hardware may include computers or server space Release time: the institution is devoting a % of an employees time to the project, the % of the employee’s salary & benefits considered “In-Kind” costs by the institution
  • Although the numbers provided by Puglia are dated, the relative costs have remained stable Single items: homogeneous collection OCR is listed as very low, but as a warning to OCR and meet ADA standards is more expensive and labor intensive than just mass digitization with OCR This table also does not address migration of data stored in a FileMaker Pro or Access database. Although it might be cheaper than re-keying the data (especially if it is a large collection), the labor will be in the mapping and writing scripts to migrate to a new format. The more complex the original database, the more difficult it will be to migrate. If migrating to a database using Dublin Core, information may be lost or less accessible if the granularity of the two are not comparable. Clean up may be more expensive than re-keying if the fields do not migrate as expected, if information was not consistently recorded in the fields, if the diacritics were not compatible. Etc.
  • Instructor note: SFV project for the first year: $200,000 (grant 153,000 – the rest in-kind): result 2200 images and descriptions ($90.00 per image) sounds like a lot but the first year has the steepest learning curve and start up costs, if amortized over years, the price reduces.
  • Instructor note: A level of expertise to evaluate vendor requirements and responses is needed even when outsourcing (do they really understand the requirements) If the library lacks realistic expectations of are unclear about their goals and objectives, then it will be difficult to articulate your expectations to the vendor
  • Instructor note: Hiring temporary project staff savings: retirement is usually not paid
  • Instructor note: Add in the cost of the documentation of how to use the hardware
  • Instructor note: Emphasize that communication between IT and librarians concerning specs should be open and clear, define terms -- practice good communication skills. If terms are not understood, ask for clarification.
  • Instructor note: Tender What does current system do; what must it do; what you would like it to do Is it compatible with “metasearching = federated searching = cross repository searching”
  • Requirements and preferred solutions need to be weighed: do all requested functions the same in importance? M= Mandatory D= desireable I = request for information
  • What information is needed to articulate the goals and objectives. Emphasize to the attendees the importance of setting realistic goals. One needs to take into account the learning curve, even if you have done projects before -- every project is different and may unexpected issues. Always assume things will take longer than the “ideal” schedule.
  • Instructor notes: Who are the key players for writing the grant? What are their responsibilities? Is there a Development Officer in the library? Is there a University “Corporation” or Grant Office who will be part of the grant management if awarded? This entity will require a percentage of the grant to cover the expenses of managing the grant. What is the role of the Library Director/Dean in the process? Technical Services & Cataloging staff? Who can you consult with for feedback about the process?
  • Instructor notes: Make sure that you have answered the questions appropriately. Grants are reviewed by multiple readers, they will notice if you have not addressed the questions. Make sure the granting institution provides funds for your type of projects
  • Instructor note: The original is much longer. Feel free to use your own examples.
  • Instructor note: Again, feel free to use any example from a successful grant proposal.
  • This is a description of the project management laid out: What are the activities What technology will you be using; in-house or outsourcing Staffing: in-house or outsourcing Public relations
  • Metadata creation: what standards; interoperability
  • Print out as full sheet
  • Metadata Standards: DC: Dublin Core MODS (Metadata Cataloging Cultural Objects (equivalent to AACR2 for cultural heritage institutions) “ V” = VRA = Visual Resource Association: metadata set based on CDWA (categories for Description of Works of Art) developed by slide librarians Markup languages EAD (Encoded archival Description is an XML based transmission standard) MARC21 METS (Metadata encoding Transmission S ) Xmetal one of several editing tools tfor createing XML tags according to a specific DTD like EAD ADOBE = pdf creation and scanning (photoshop) LizardTech = software that allows high resolution images for the web (Zoom capability without pixalation) ContentDM = metadata creation tool and provides public display of content (now solely distributed by OCLC)
  • Understand what standards are appropriate for this project, an be to articulate why the standards were chosen for your project. The different standards will be briefly reviewed in the next section.
  • Instructor notes: Data mapping Are you reusing “catalog” records as the basis for description of the digital object but the repository chosen for the project only supports Dublin Core, then you will need to review the crosswalks (a visualization of where a field from one standard should map (activity) when the data is processed Data migration All libraries know that systems change and more often than we like, libraries change the system (ILS for example) that they use. Consistent use of a standard (AACR2rev, RDA, Dublin Core, etc.) will facilitate moving between systems End Users Consistently used controlled names and descriptions makes the identification and access to a resource much easier for the end user Interoperability Interoperability or the communication between systems is far more effective when data is consistently, added to the same field (author in the author field, using the same or similar content rules (For example, Lastname, FirstName; distinguish between the main title and secondary title information); the most difficult to achieve: the granularity or specificity of the content is the same, Interoperability is of particular importance when the records are going to collected and added to other library holdings, whether it is a “union catalog” (California Digital Library is a type of Union Catalog) or if you allow other digital service providers “harvest” your data for reuse; or if you plan to search multiple databases simultaneously (the OPAC, a specialized index, the digital repository)
  • Instructor note: All to often documentation is put on the back burner, too time consuming, but it is imperative to document all aspects of the digital project process and activities. If a script to migrate data from one platform to another was time-consuming (for example, from FileMakerPro to a DAM), then it is a waste of valuable staff time to figure it out again for the next load, or figure out why the migration did not work as planned.
  • Instructor note: Best to have position descriptions ready so that once you have the grant you can start the hiring process immediately, if you are hiring outside temporary project staff. This always takes longer than expected
  • Instructor note: Emphasize that the goal must be tied to the timeline
  • Instructor note: For all activities, the goals for each month and quarter need to be outlined so that it is possible to track and measure the progress of the project. It is important for the grant process and the “quarterly” reports that need to be made to the granting institution.
  • Instructor note: Benefits may reflect a high % of the total for an employee cost (25%-35%) of total compensation; outside consultants not included in this figure Library materials: books, journals -- any resource added to the library collection to support the activity of the project C. Operation Equipment costing $5,000 or less (e.g., microcomputer) -- Computer software & electronic database subscriptions -- Service/maintenance contracts -- Office and library supplies -- Postage and telecommunications -- Printing and public relations -- Training and conference fees -- Local travel -- Consultants, contract personnel, and short-term temporary labor D. Equipment costing $5,000 or more. There may be restrictions on equipment, for example, it can not be used for normal library functions F. Indirect costs may be costs that are carried by the university (or parent institution) examples: storage, costs of networking. More commonly, it covers the administrative costs for managing the grant (sometimes granting agency has a cap) by the university “corporation” and library administration.
  • Instructor note: Notice In-Kind, this is the Institutions contribution, it can be a percentage of a permanent employees salary/benefit; library materials and equipment, building space and utilities, and other operating or overhead costs. Under operation budget for training and travel that might be necessary
  • Instructor note: Its imperative to clearly explain the budget estimates provided. Granting agencies may reject proposal or request additional information if they do not feel the budget is justified. Often times the applicant submits a short application, if the institution passes that first hurdle, a more detailed proposal is requested. Sometimes the full proposal only is requested. This slides presents some of the information the applicant may need to address. Each grant will ask different sets of specific questions. Although some information can be recycled (e.g., profile of the institution and the audience) be careful to rewrite or write original content that addresses the specific grant.
  • Instructor note: You may use your own examples Collage of the marketing (outreach or those who are not allowed to “market”) and publicity the Oviatt Library undertook as part of the grant requirements. Opening day celebration with traditional dancers (and square dancers), school children invited to attend and display their California mission projects; local councilman made official proclamation: San Fernando Valley History Day. Dinner honoring Heritage Network partners, and the Project staff (not shown); Kevin Starr, the State librarian at the time as guest speaker; image of brochure distributed. Image of Campus magazine cover (with article); also local newspaper and television networks. Presentations and papers published by Dean, Project director, Manager and Metadata Librarian. Important to write to your congress and senate representatives (state or federal) to let them know about the successful project funded using government funds (Congressional Relational Office);
  • Instructor notes: All federal grants must be submitted online through Print out registration for grant (takes 3 weeks) Even Paul Allen
  • Instructor note: LSTA funding is state by state, contact your state library for information about the grant process and deadlines. Funding comes from IMLS If you think that your project falls within the scope of a national award, apply. IMLS has a detailed tutorial for filling out the grant as well as descriptions for all the types of grants supported and the criteria of eligibility. Start early looking for possible grants and look at the due dates.
  • Instructor notes: Do not propose a digital project to an agency that may support libraries and archives, including processing and preservation, but not digital projects. Look at the scope and size which the agency has funded in the past Geographic area For example, The John Randolph Haynes Foundation grants: Grants are made only to qualified non-profit organizations, never to individuals. Grants are made only to organizations within the United States whose endeavors are focused in or on Los Angeles. Funds are restricted to: * Original social science research into policy issues of the Los Angeles region, * Research into the history of Southern California, * Archival and cataloging projects important to Los Angeles, * Dissertation fellowships at research universities in the five-county Southern California region. Do not attempt to write at the last minute or recycle an older proposal without looking at the criteria and format that is required for each agency Although a library can make hard decisions concerning the scope and nature of a project given the funding and staffing, do not promise a complex and large project without the appropriate budget and staffing to make it work 7. Lack of credibility: no track record but asking for funding for a complex project OR have not successful fulfilled grant goals with previous grants 8. Sometimes the proposal is fine, but it happened to be a very competitive year and more applications than funding.
  • Instructor note: 30-45 minutes to work on project; 30 minutes (at the maximum) all presentations
  • Inastructor notes: Examples handling and scanning microfilm is quite different than scanning photographs and documents. Likewise, rare and fragile special collections materials demand another type of handling. Converting or migrating data from one platform to another requires a different expertise than creating original metadata in a “off the shelf” product
  • Green central circle represents the focus of the project: what you expect to deliver Yellow ring represents the institutional resources that will be impacted by the digital project Outer red ring represents the processes or steps and issues required to produce the desired project
  • Instructor note: DAMA = Digital Asset management If working on several collections, including ones owned by project partners, it is imperative that the workflow protects the organization of the collection and that it remains intact. In other words, parts of one collection does not migrate to another collection
  • Instructor note: One person can not do it all, the manager manages, but others need to support the process. The manager and team members need a clear picture of what their roles and responsibilities are and the timeframe in which they need to do them. The project manager is responsible for “getting it done” and creating open lines of communication and making sure the documentations is being written. We most often think of scanning in terms of 2-dimensional objects like photographs or documents. However, we need to add the term conversion: microforms to digital, sound recordings, and moving images
  • Not everything warrants the expense of digitizing, and it is not feasible to digitize it all. Representative items need to be selected. The condition of the original may be too fragile to risk scanning. Large 3-dimensional objects may need to be professionally photographed If it is not in public domain. Intellectual property rights: have you made the best effort to contact the person, family or corporate body who owned the original? Necessary to get clearance. Some institutions will mount digital images if they were not able to find the copyright holder with the understanding they will remove any images found to be under copyright. In the case of the San Fernando Valley History Digital Library, we were given material from various local historical societies who did not have deeds of gift, and sometimes (often) did not know the source. We occasionally received photographs stamped on the back: study photograph from UCLA may not be reproduced. We did not digitize those photographs and at the time did not have the time to wait to seek permission.
  • Massachusetts Historical Society digitized the ledgers of Thomas Jefferson. As part of the digitization process, they added variant forms of the spelling: modernized and corrected and provided a transcribed and the original pages. Adams papers: mention of an event in a letter to his wife can be linked to his journal entry as well as news items published at the time. Links to finding aids from the individual digitized images
  • MODS Metadata for DACS: Description for archival collections (2004) published by SAA (Society of American Archivists) See bibliography for suggested readings; ALCTS has 2 other courses in this series that deal with metadata standards
  • Instructor Notes: The best selection of the metadata standard, content standards, controlled vocabularies will be determined by the nature and scope of the digital resources and what standards are already in use. Syntax (Communication format) RDA: Resource Description and Access CCO Cataloging Cultural Objects DACS Describing Archives: A Content Standard RDF Resource Description Framework METS Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard
  • Interoperability: Are forms of the access points the same as in other databases (like your catalog), especially important if you are planning to use a search engine for searching across your ILS and digital collections Are you using the metadata standards in a way that an OAI harvester would expect? Would you be able to migrate the content to another platform? Are you creating uncompressed tiffs for archival purposes?
  • 1st definition from: 2nd definition: Burnett, et. al. 1999: two traditions: bibliographic and data management (integration of two traditions)
  • Recent research by Turner and Brackbill showed that embedded keyword metatags improved the retrieval of Web pages and increased their relevancy -- description metatags seemed to have ignored. Unfortunately, the algorithms that determine how any one searchengine retrieves Web pages is a closely guarded secret (to avoid spamming) and therefore makes it difficult to exploit the metatags to improve retrieval. However, many of the “scholarly” electronic resources are not part of the surface web but are in the deep web and usually only accessible through a single portal or homepage: part of a repository.
  • Instructor notes: The 3rd mechanism involves use of databases to store and manage metadata descriptions. Metadata databases with standard query interfaces are often called metadata repositories. Metadata databases are queried for metadata records using standard information retrieval protocols such as Z39.50 or X.500/LDAP. Examples of resource management systems include recordkeeping systems, document management systems, web management systems, records management systems and collection management systems. Such metadata can often be translated to the standards required by a resource discovery system.
  • Instructor Notes: OPTIONAL SLIDE
  • Instructor notes: OPTIONAL SLIDE Metadata used to describe or identify information resources - Cataloging records - Finding aids - Specialized indexes - Hyperlinked relationships between resources - Annotations by users - Metadata for recordkeeping systems generated by records creators
  • Instructor notes: OPTIONAL SLIDE Preservation: - Documentation of physical condition of resources - Documentation of actions taken to preserve physical and digital versions of resources, e.g., data refreshing and migration Technical includes : define the file type, the resolution at which the image was scanned, the hardware and software used in producing the image, compression, color space, pixel dimensions, and the date on which the digital file was made. Hardware and software documentation - Digitization information, e.g., formats, compression ratios, scaling routines - Tracking of system response times - Authentication and security data, e.g., encryption keys, passwords Use Metadata related to the level and type of use of information resources Exhibit records Use and user tracking Content re-use and multi-versioning information Rights: restrictions and terms of use .
  • Instructor notes: OPTIONAL SLIDE Information used to display digital resources so that we can navigate among them and within them; also includes information on the internal organization of the digital resource. Structural metadata might include such information as the major physical divisions of a resource (i.e., series in a collection, chapters in a book); sub-object relationships (i.e., individual pages in a diary); and elaborate hierarchical structures that can be used to navigate in diverse collections such as archives.
  • Instructor Notes: OPTIONAL SLIDE What standards are being used by your institution?
  • Instructor Notes: OPTIONAL SLIDE
  • The standard for finding aids on the web is using the Encoded Archival Description which is expressed in xml (so can define tags) and uses a transforming style sheet to display as if html Preservation of the originals is outside the scope of this presentation. But the standard is to create a TIFF (uncompressed) file which is not manipulated. There is software that allows you to use the original TIFFS that are compressed for display but keeps the original resolution. However, jpgs is still the standard for web display. JPGS can not be used successfully for commercial purposes. TIFFS are used as the masters. Preservation of the masters is not being adequately addressed by some projects. Backups are essential
  • Instructor Notes Not only are their specific formats used for specific types of content, but there are standards within each. There are standards for the size and resolution for images of photographs, text and 3-D objects which correspond to their legibility on the web.
  • Instructor Notes: Scanning standards adopted by your project need to be well documented so the practice continues after grant is over (sustainability) and for archival purposes, that is, preserving the archival masters
  • We found that human labor, especially in terms of IT, is very expensive. Despite annual fees it is far less expensive to use a ‘service” rather than developing our own software. Does the database do everything we want? No, but there is always compromise in a project. It was considered “good enough.”
  • Instructor notes: OPTIONAL SLIDE PREMIS preservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies
  • Instructor notes: OPTIONAL SLIDE
  • Instructor notes: Whatever metadata standard you adopt. It is vital to document the guidelines established locally. For interoperability, its important to adhere to the metadata standard as closely as possible. This is particularly important if you plan to submit your images and metadata to larger collections or allow another project to harvest your content.
  • Instructor notes: Example of a best practices document. The Western States Best Practices for using Dublin Core for digital projects is an extensive document which is shared by multiple states and adopted by the LSTA standards of their state libraries. (California does not belong) Contains both extensive information about the use of each element and examples. Geared for non-librarians to implement.
  • Or “How do we know we did good?”
  • Instructor note: Knowing how to determine what information needs to be collected and analyzed in one of the primary concerns of any assessment plan in the library. What we will focus on are the criteria and measures which are specific to digital projects within the general principles of assessment
  • Processes: processing of collections, preservation
  • Instructor note: Quantifiable output measures Qualitative measures would be lessons learned, observations about the process
  • Instructor note: Remember the audience description and needs gap? Special collections and archives may experience a significant increase in requests for their resources as more people become aware what a rich collection you own. May need to add support staff to monitor the increased use of the reading room, and create copies of digital objects for scholarly publications. Although a specific item may be handled less,, overall, use will go up
  • Instructor note: This why you need to think about your measures of success before you start the project
  • Instructor note: Although some systems can track the name of the user, and a unique identifier to track client between requests (interesting to analyze clusters of searches), not every library will want to keep transaction logs about individuals.
  • Some survey information can provide both quantitative and qualitative measures. Open end questions are qualitative; Likert scale SurveyMonkey -- setting up a question
  • Precision and recall quality will be determined by the quality of the metadata associated with the digital object; the functional requirements Discovery by name, topic, place, date; distinctions and collocations Video people usn the site Develop a focus group for feedback (in-person) Develop a web or print based survey
  • Precision and recall quality will be determined by the quality of the metadata associated with the digital object; the functional requirements Discovery by name, topic, place, date; distinctions and collocations
  • What is accessibility? Access to people with vision, hearing and motor impairments Includes color blindness, cognitive and developmental limitations Web pages need to facilitate adaptive technologies
  • ADA: Title II requires a public college to take appropriate steps to ensure that communications with persons with disabilities “are as effective as communications with others.” Assistive technology act of 1998: provides financial assistance to states to maintain and strengthen a permanent comprehensive statewide program of technology-related assistance for individuals with disabilities of all ages. Standards for Electronic … why we are here today 16 technical standards regarding Web-based Intranet and Internet information and applications that detail the technical and functional performance criteria for accessibility Section 508 Dates from 1973 guidelines added to insure electronic information be accessible to people with disabilities Universities in the CSU have nondiscrimination policies regardless of race color, national origin, gender, age, marital status , religion, disability or sexual preference.
  • Instructor note: Adobe prior to version 5 is not accessible; for later versions, the document still needs to be properly formatted in order to accessible.
  • Instructor notes: Demonstrate the AIS tool bar (Download to IE browser) if there is time Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards Published in the Federal Register on December 21, 2000]
  • DigitalPlanManage.ppt

    1. 1. Section 1 Introduction: Background, Goals, and Course Outline Course design: Mary S. Woodley CSU Northridge Digital Project Planning & Management Basics 1
    2. 2. Cat21 Series Objectives <ul><li>To equip catalogers to deal with new types of resources and to recognize their unique characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>To equip catalogers to evaluate competing approaches to and standards for providing access to resources </li></ul><ul><li>To equip catalogers to think creatively and work collaboratively with others inside and outside their home institutions </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure that catalogers have a broad enough understanding of the current environment to be able to make their local efforts compatible and interoperable with other efforts </li></ul><ul><li>To prepare catalogers to be comfortable with ambiguity and being less than perfect </li></ul><ul><li>To enable practicing catalogers to put themselves into the emerging digital information environment and to continue to play a significant role in shaping library services </li></ul>2
    3. 3. Workshop Goals <ul><li>Learn basic steps in planning a digital project </li></ul><ul><li>Review grant writing for digital projects </li></ul><ul><li>Understand basic management issues </li></ul><ul><li>Explore assessment goals and tools for measuring success </li></ul>3
    4. 4. Workshop Objectives <ul><li>Create a project management roadmap </li></ul><ul><li>Understand needed for collaboration and team building (for both intra- and inter-agency collaboration) </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the skills need to develop a work plan and grant writing </li></ul><ul><li>Develop criteria for assessment and selection of tools to measure success of a digital project </li></ul>4
    5. 5. Outline for this Workshop <ul><li>Section 1: Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2: Team Building and Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Section 3: Development of a Business Plan or Making your Case </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4: Planning and Grant Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Section 5: Project Management Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6: Evaluation & Assessment or How to Measure Success </li></ul>5
    6. 6. Why Digitize? <ul><li>Provide better access </li></ul><ul><li>Added value to resources </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve fragile materials </li></ul><ul><li>Support educational and research activities </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfill strategic mission and goals of institution </li></ul>6
    7. 7. Types of Digital Projects <ul><li>Special and Archival collections </li></ul><ul><li>Reformatting content from other non-print resources </li></ul><ul><li>Born digital projects </li></ul><ul><li>Digitization projects in a consortium </li></ul>7
    8. 8. Define the Project : Who, What, When <ul><li>Who is the audience? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary audience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary audience? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is digitized? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What should/could be digitized? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priorities? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who decides the priorities? </li></ul></ul>8
    9. 9. Define the Project : How and How Much <ul><li>How much do you digitize? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All or representative samples? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When will the project start? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the timeline? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the project workload be supported? </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term plans (sustainability) </li></ul>9
    10. 10. Steps in the Process <ul><li>Identify the key players </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct an “information audit” </li></ul><ul><li>Have a clear idea of management’s vision </li></ul><ul><li>Create a planning team who will be responsible for research, planning and writing the grant </li></ul>10
    11. 11. Collaboration and Team Building <ul><ul><li>Negotiation skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening and coaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influencing and persuasion skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate technology tools </li></ul></ul>11
    12. 12. Grant Writing and Work Plan Development <ul><li>Grant writing and development of a feasible work plan includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of grants and agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Writing a successful grant proposal </li></ul>12
    13. 13. Plans for Assessing the Success of the Digital Project <ul><ul><li>Steps to follow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements / criteria for measuring success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation tools and techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing the right tool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing how and when to design a local tool </li></ul></ul></ul>13
    14. 14. Section 2: Team Building and Planning Digital Project Planning & Management Basics 1
    15. 15. Goals of the Teambuilding Section <ul><li>Understand the process for team building </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to effectively plan and develop ideas through the team </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to effectively negotiate when parties disagree </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the importance of building consensus -- working together towards the same goals </li></ul>2
    16. 16. Cooperation, Collaboration & Partnerships <ul><li>Success of projects depends on developing a core team of stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders may be part of the institution, parent institution, or partners in the project </li></ul>3
    17. 17. Potential Stakeholders / Team Members <ul><li>Digital project director </li></ul><ul><li>Grant writer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Curators </li></ul><ul><li>Project manager </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist in metadata creation </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist in scanning standards </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion specialist </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware / software developer or procurer </li></ul><ul><li>Web page / interface developer </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing and promoter of project </li></ul><ul><li>Staff responsible for the tasks of implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment specialist </li></ul>4
    18. 18. Staffing Every project will vary Not shown on this page: Heritage Network members of partnership 5
    19. 19. Another example Digital Gutenberg Project: team of 9 6
    20. 20. <ul><li>Impact on institution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on staffing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on space, equipment, software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on workflow / routines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on relations with other institutions, organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Selection process </li></ul>Plan Meetings to Discuss Impacts on Organization 7
    21. 21. <ul><li>Effective tool for hearing multiple viewpoints, issues, and general ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to the development of more specific ideas and solutions to issues </li></ul>Brainstorming 8
    22. 22. <ul><li>Supporting institutional SWOT analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strenths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scope and nature of projects </li></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul>Brainstorming Techniques Useful for: 9
    23. 23. <ul><li>Create a relaxed and non-threatening atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Decide if all staff involved or representatives from various departments </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest that if representatives are only participants, that the representative meets with constituents to collect ideas, issues, viewpoints </li></ul>Environment for Brainstorming 10
    24. 24. Brainstorming Rules <ul><li>Select a facilitator (sometimes using an outsider has an advantage – facilitator does not have a vested interest in the results, or influences or directs the discussion) </li></ul><ul><li>Write down all comments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No evaluation of ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone has an opportunity to speak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use flip chart, white board or software to record comments </li></ul></ul>11
    25. 25. <ul><li>Define ideas or problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rephrase idea to make sure that everyone understands the point; write it down concisely </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Break down broad issues into smaller issues to be “brainstormed” separately </li></ul><ul><li>Time limit for each section </li></ul><ul><li>Select the most important issues </li></ul>Brainstorming Process 12
    26. 26. Building a Consensus <ul><li>Review all ideas presented then refine by: </li></ul><ul><li>Look for items that duplicate each other </li></ul><ul><li>Combine related concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow list down </li></ul><ul><li>Work towards a consensus: find common ground </li></ul>13
    27. 27. “ Getting to Yes”* <ul><li>Decide issues based on their merit </li></ul><ul><li>Look for options that will lead to mutual gains (win-win) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid arguing from positions </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the issues/interests, not the people </li></ul><ul><li>Use objective criteria </li></ul>*By Roger Fisher, William Fry, Bruce Patton. Harvard Negotiation Project 14
    28. 28. Stages Getting to Agreement <ul><li>Analysis stage </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gather, organize, consider information from all sides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning stage </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the information, think of options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion stage </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate interests & options </li></ul></ul></ul>15
    29. 29. Active Listening Skills <ul><li>Hear the message </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret the message </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the message </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to the message </li></ul>16
    30. 30. Tips for Effective Listening <ul><li>Take notes (locate key points) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective listening </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on listening </li></ul><ul><li>Build rapport with speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Show respect </li></ul>17
    31. 31. What Blocks Effective Communication? <ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul><ul><li>Advise-giving </li></ul><ul><li>One-up-manship </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosing, prescribing </li></ul><ul><li>Prying </li></ul><ul><li>Warning </li></ul><ul><li>Lecturing </li></ul><ul><li>Shaming </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawing </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of trust </li></ul>18
    32. 32. Communication Break Down <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Competing agendas </li></ul><ul><li>Concern about long-term support </li></ul><ul><li>Partners lack of skill sets to equally share responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Partners fear cultural material will be damaged or lost if “loaned” to lead institution </li></ul>19
    33. 33. Revisit Decision process <ul><li>Start over </li></ul><ul><li>Change management add Sue Curzon’s diagram </li></ul>20
    34. 34. Exercise 1: Learning Objectives <ul><li>Practice brainstorming techniques and negotiation skills </li></ul><ul><li>Experience working in a team </li></ul>21
    35. 35. Section 3: Developing the Business Plan or Making Your Case Digital Project Planning & Management Basics 1
    36. 36. Goals of Section <ul><li>Understand the process of developing a business plan and the role of the business plan in the overall planning process </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the components of a business plan </li></ul>2
    37. 37. Planning Process* *Based on Bishoff and Allen (2004) 3 How the organization will look when plan is implemented Vision for success Specifics of business plan for given period Operating Plan General description of implementation Business Plan “ Entities” who have a stake in the results Stakeholder analysis Within mission, set realistic goals and objectives / activities Strategic Plan Institutional purpose & values Mission Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and threats SWOT analysis Organizational mandates Internal Constraints Description Component
    38. 38. Components of a Business Plan <ul><li>The business plan needs to address the following issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the need? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is the target audience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is the digital project the best solution? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will be the impact on the institution? </li></ul></ul>4
    39. 39. Components of a Needs Analysis <ul><li>Determine types of data needed </li></ul><ul><li>Collect and analyze data </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how the digital project is a solution </li></ul>5
    40. 40. Types of Data Needed <ul><li>Who is your target audience? </li></ul><ul><li>How are their needs being meet, or not? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are the gaps in service, in content? </li></ul><ul><li>What audience skill, knowledge, or behavior can be improved? </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental scan of what other projects </li></ul>6
    41. 41. How to Find or Discover Data <ul><li>Use US Census statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Use Library statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference desk statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Published studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul>7
    42. 42. Audience & Needs Gap example <ul><li>The San Fernando Valley, which makes up fully 80 percent of CSUN's service community, is quite diverse ethnically, linguistically, and socio-economically. On the weekends, about 50% of the Library's service requests are by persons who are not affiliated with CSUN such as high school and elementary school students, local historical groups, and individual members of the local business community. [CSUN’s] Special Collections and Archives …contain extensive collections that document the history of the San Fernando Valley through a mixed media of rare illustrated items, drawings, photographs, brochures, pamphlets, maps, official and unofficial reports and studies, personal letters, oral remembrances and related records. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the CSUN undergraduate students and the K-12 students seek primary source material about their neighborhood, history of the valley, and history of California missions. It is difficult for them to find reliable information. </li></ul>8
    43. 43. Benefits of Solution <ul><li>Describe the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Detail the benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how the solution will close the gap </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the cost of the solution </li></ul>9
    44. 44. Benefits of Project example <ul><li>The San Fernando … Digital Library opens accessibility to an unlimited number of client and user groups … including scholars, teachers, students, local historical societies, and members of the community, material otherwise accessible only by on-site visits. The project will: </li></ul><ul><li>Open holdings to a wider audience </li></ul><ul><li>Heighten interest in the historic development of the Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Provide primary source materials for K-14 classroom use </li></ul><ul><li>Link historical collections throughout the Valley </li></ul>10
    45. 45. Why Digitize? <ul><li>to support collection management and preservation </li></ul><ul><li>to make information and assets more readily available </li></ul><ul><li>to provide material for educational programs and address curriculum needs </li></ul><ul><li>to provide material for curators and researchers (internal and external) </li></ul><ul><li>to eliminate redundant work, and creation of redundant assets (photographs, slides, digital images, etc.) </li></ul>11
    46. 46. Presenting your Case <ul><li>“ Selling” the project to internal staff, library administrators, campus administrator or governing boards, all may need to hear different content </li></ul><ul><li>Explaining the uneasy part without putting people off: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explaining what the project is using the right amount of information: products developed </li></ul><ul><li>Managing expectations </li></ul>12
    47. 47. <ul><li>How does the project help fulfill institutional mission & goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports community outreach & public relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases user base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases revenue (through commercial profit but also through donations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates more efficient workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps preserve original materials (less wear & tear) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports educational function of institution </li></ul></ul>Selling your Project 13
    48. 48. <ul><li>Include a succinct statement of project goals </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly state which (original) collections will be included </li></ul><ul><li>What equipment is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing—how many, and what skill sets? </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden costs: “marketing,” benefits for new staff members, grant management costs </li></ul><ul><li>In-kind costs (e.g. staff release time)—effect on other projects </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance—“care and feeding” </li></ul>Presenting the Costs to Your Administration 14
    49. 49. Cost benefits <ul><li>“ There are no short-term cost savings to be realized by digitizing collections” </li></ul>Hughes, Lorna M. (2004). Digitizing collections: strategic issues for the information manager . London: Facet. p. 7 15
    50. 50. Factors to Consider <ul><li>Every project is unique, costs will vary depending on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scope and material of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>staff and equipment costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>database development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data migration is not a “once-in-a-lifetime” thing, but rather its ongoing </li></ul>16
    51. 51. Criteria for Evaluation <ul><li>Feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Legal issues </li></ul><ul><li>Costs / Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Scope / nature of material </li></ul>17
    52. 52. Categories of Cost <ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware/Software </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>Release time </li></ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul>18
    53. 53. Relative Costs Puglia NO OCR to meet ADA standards in more labor intensive than this represents 19
    54. 54. Reported Cost Ranges Puglia 1998 20
    55. 55. In-House and Outsourcing: Various Combinations <ul><li>Permanent staff assigned, equipment purchased, software developed locally </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary staff hired, equipment purchased, software developed locally </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent and temporary staff employed, hardware purchased, software “subscription” </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning and metadata creation performed by vendor </li></ul>21
    56. 56. <ul><li>Work that can be outsourced: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>database development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcription of audio (e.g., oral histories) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic tagging (markup) for TEI, or EAD in XML) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In-house labor issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release time (“in kind”), duties performed by temporary help? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time supported by grant, duties performed by temporary help? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New staff hired for project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor costs represent the largest percentage of costs in a digital project </li></ul></ul>Staffing 22
    57. 57. Staffing Costs <ul><li>Salaries </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sick Leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holidays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance at conferences and meetings </li></ul>23
    58. 58. Hardware <ul><li>Scanners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slide scanners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flatbed scanners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfilm/Microfiche scanners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Audio/video conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Server for storage/delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Server for streaming audio/video </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term maintenance/replacement </li></ul>24
    59. 59. Software <ul><li>In-house database development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires skilled programmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How and by whom will the system be updated, enhanced, and maintained? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purchase of an off-the-shelf product: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the vendor reliable, responsive, and likely to stay in business? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are funds (and staff liaisons) available for system enhancements, updates, and ongoing technical support? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Documentation of decisions made, code written </li></ul>25
    60. 60. Vendor Selection <ul><li>Visit website whose “product” you would want to emulate </li></ul><ul><li>Take note of the solutions the project used to create the digital product </li></ul><ul><li>Make a list of desired features & prioritize them </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what features are necessary and what you may not be able to afford </li></ul>26
    61. 61. Timeline <ul><li>Environmental scan of IT solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Issue RFP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deadline when due </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow up questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Short-list vendors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site visits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview current (and past) customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify preferred vendor </li></ul><ul><li>Award contract </li></ul>27
    62. 62. Request For Proposal (RFP) <ul><li>User requirements </li></ul><ul><li>System or technical requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Functional requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability with other OS / platforms </li></ul>28
    63. 63. RFP Assessment <ul><li>Does the proposed solution meet all the stated requirements? </li></ul><ul><li>To what degree do they meet your ideal solution? </li></ul><ul><li>Contacts and business history </li></ul><ul><li>What support do they provide (e.g., in-house training)? </li></ul><ul><li>Costs/prices clearly delineated </li></ul><ul><li>How well do they communicate with their customer base </li></ul>29
    64. 64. Points to Remember <ul><li>Keep the IT solution in sync with the stated goal of business deliverable </li></ul><ul><li>Link the “business case” to the goal </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the stakeholders informed of the process </li></ul><ul><li>Remain flexible -- it’s a dynamic environment </li></ul>30
    65. 65. Collaborative Digitization Project <ul><ul><ul><li>Website provides information about: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital imaging vendors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic planning documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project manuals and presentations and more </li></ul></ul></ul>31
    66. 66. Other Useful Web Sites <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Technology resources for nonprofits </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Review (MIT) </li></ul><ul><li>Articles on technology, broader than digital libraries </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>32
    67. 67. Exercise 2 <ul><li>Attendees work in teams </li></ul><ul><li>For each team scenario, think about the issues involved </li></ul><ul><li>Goals of exercise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice brainstorming techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the staffing considerations for each scenario </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss hardware and software options for metadata . creation and presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appoint a spokesperson to report back to the group </li></ul></ul>33
    68. 68. Section 4: Planning and Grant Writing Digital Project Planning & Management Basics 1
    69. 69. Goals of this Section <ul><li>Learn the basics of grant writing </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the connection between planning and grant writing </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to write an operational or implementation plan </li></ul>2
    70. 70. Parallels between Planning and Grant Writing <ul><li>Clearly articulated goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Succinct description of the content to be digitized and its relevancy to achieving the goals </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic estimates concerning time, costs, staffing and IT </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the appropriate metadata and scanning standards </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for implementation: workflows </li></ul><ul><li>Defined criteria to measure success </li></ul>3
    71. 71. Grant Writing Team <ul><li>Who are the key players for writing the grant and their responsibilities? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of the Development Officer and a University “Corporation”? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of the Library Director/Dean in the process? Technical Services & Cataloging staff? </li></ul><ul><li>Whom can you consult with for feedback about the process? </li></ul>4
    72. 72. Remember! When Applying for a Grant … <ul><li>READ THE DIRECTIONS! </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE SURE THEY FUND THE TYPE OF PROJECT YOU ARE PROPOSING! </li></ul>5
    73. 73. Proposal Components <ul><li>Letter of transmittal </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Table of Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Summary/Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of need </li></ul><ul><li>Goals / outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Work plan </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation / Assessment plans </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul>Components of a Grant Proposal 6
    74. 74. Proposal Summary <ul><li>Concise statement includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Who you are </li></ul><ul><li>What project you are requesting funds for </li></ul><ul><li>How the project relates to the mission of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>How much funding is required </li></ul>7
    75. 75. Introduction to Proposal <ul><li>Describe the institution and its community </li></ul><ul><li>What is the significance of the content you plan to digitize </li></ul><ul><li>Does your institution have a track record with grants? With digital projects? </li></ul>8
    76. 76. Example of Library Description (abbreviated) <ul><li>The University Library is at the heart of the CSU Northridge (CSUN) campus. The building is 235,000 square feet … The Library is staffed by 23 full and part-time librarians, 51 technical and research specialists, and 250 student assistants. With over 1.2 million volumes, 3 million microforms … and an extensive historical of collection of mixed media, rare books and archives … </li></ul>9
    77. 77. Example of Description of the Wider Community (abbreviated) <ul><li>CSU Northridge (CSUN) is a public University, located in the San Fernando Valley, in the north west section of Los Angeles. As the only major university in this area, CSUN also serves the adjacent incorporated and unincorporated urban and rural areas … The San Fernando Valley is quite ethnically, linguistically, and socio-economically. </li></ul>10
    78. 78. Statement of Need <ul><li>What need will be addressed? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the significance of the project? </li></ul><ul><li>Why the need matches funding institution’s mission </li></ul>11
    79. 79. Audience & Needs Gap <ul><li>The San Fernando Valley, which makes up fully 80 percent of CSUN's service community, is quite diverse ethnically, linguistically, and socio-economically. On the weekends, about 50% of the Library's service requests are by persons who are not affiliated with CSUN such as high school and elementary school students, local historical groups, and individual members of the local business community. [CSUN’s] Special Collections and Archives …contain extensive collections that document the history of the San Fernando Valley through a mixed media of rare illustrated items, drawings, photographs, brochures, pamphlets, maps, official and unofficial reports and studies, personal letters, oral remembrances and related records. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the CSUN undergraduate students and the K-12 students seek primary source material about their neighborhood, history of the valley, and history of California missions. It is difficult for them to find reliable information . </li></ul>12
    80. 80. Example of Solution to Need <ul><li>“ The goal of the Digital Library is to provide full, open, and equal access to a wide variety of primary research materials about the socio-economic growth and cultural evolution of the Valley, from its earliest foundation, to its explosive growth post World War 2.” </li></ul>13
    81. 81. Goals / Objectives of Project <ul><li>How does project meet the mission of the institution? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the project provide a solution to the need stated earlier? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is involved? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is being served? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it realistic or overly ambitious? </li></ul>14
    82. 82. Example of Goal or Objective Statement <ul><li>“When completed at the end of the first year, the project will have digitized a minimum of 2,400 images and related historical records and textual documentation into the San Fernando Valley History Digital Library.” </li></ul>15
    83. 83. Project Work Plan <ul><li>What is the quantifiable goal? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the work plan to accomplish project? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timeframe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do the methods compare to other similar projects? </li></ul>16
    84. 84. Digital Life Cycle <ul><li>Activities surrounding the creation and maintenance of digital objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iterative </li></ul></ul>17
    85. 85. 18
    86. 86. Digitization Issues <ul><li>Metadata standards </li></ul><ul><li>Digital standards: imaging and file formats </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery of digitized content </li></ul><ul><li>Rights management </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul>19
    87. 87. Example of Standards Statement <ul><li>The … Digital Library will conform to [ State] Digital Library. Digital Image Format Standards (2001) for documents, photographs, graphic material, oral history transcripts, and related items. The [ State] Digital Library. Digital Object Standard: Metadata, Content, and Encoding (2001) and the guidelines established by Dublin Core will be followed to support retrieval, storage and migration of data resources. Describing archives : a content standard . (2004) will guide the library cataloging of finding guides and related indexes to archival collections. </li></ul>20
    88. 88. Standards 21
    89. 89. Why go to the trouble to follow standards? With Permission, Murtha Baca Sustainability Interoperability 22
    90. 90. The Use of Metadata Standards Facilitates... <ul><li>Data mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Data migration and preservation </li></ul><ul><li>End-user access </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>participation in union resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OAI harvesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cross-repository searching </li></ul></ul>23
    91. 91. <ul><li>To ensure consistency in the current project and in the future, the project team must develop a suite of documents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for cataloguing policies and procedures, data standards, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for system (e.g. CMS, DAM) usage, data integrity, reports, etc. </li></ul></ul>Documentation 24
    92. 92. Measurable Objectives & Project Actions Timeline <ul><li>Review {number} of historical documents for possible inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>{number} of documents will be digitized and incorporated into a searchable database that is Internet accessible </li></ul>25
    93. 93. Example of a Goal Statement <ul><li>In the first year, the project will make freely available to the academic community as well as the community at large, 1400 digital objects accompanied by full descriptions. These digital objects will directly support general interest in the fauna of the valley as well as K-12 biology courses. The school district will create 6 curriculum packages based on the digital objects and state curriculum standards. </li></ul>26
    94. 94. Project Actions Timeline 27 Development Librarian, Outreach Librarian, Library Director, project staff Project technicians Project director, manager, catalogers Who is responsible News Media & Listservs contacted; Official opening; Presentations organized Publicity, Presentations, Post-Grant activities 12-13 Project Technicians will scan items and add data Scanning and metadata creation 02-11 Interview candidates; training Hire Project staff; buy equipment 01-03 Steps Taken Action Project Month
    95. 95. Proposed Project Budget <ul><li>Salaries & Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Library materials </li></ul><ul><li>Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment (5k+) </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Costs </li></ul>28
    96. 96. Example of Budget Summary 29
    97. 97. Detailed Information Requests <ul><li>Contact info </li></ul><ul><li>Budget details with narrative support for budget </li></ul><ul><li>Client needs and project goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship between Library Service and client group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measurable objectives and actions </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting of results </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing and publicity </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>30
    98. 98. Marketing & Publicity for Completed Project 31
    99. 99. Grant Resources <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Corporate and private foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Subject related grants </li></ul><ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul>32
    100. 100. Government Agencies: Examples <ul><li>IMLS (Institute of Museum and Library Services) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LSTA (Library Services and Technology Act) </li></ul><ul><li>NEA (National Endowment for the Arts) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>NEH (National Endowment for the Humanities </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NSF (National Science Foundation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>33
    101. 101. Why Some Proposals are not Funded <ul><li>Type of project not funded by the awarding agency </li></ul><ul><li>Application must be in the geographic area </li></ul><ul><li>Grant proposal poorly written and does not follow the format required by granting agency </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed budget and timeline are unrealistic </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability not addressed </li></ul><ul><li>No assessment plan articulated </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of funds </li></ul>34
    102. 102. Exercise 3 <ul><li>For your scenario, fill out the abbreviated grant application form found in your notebook </li></ul><ul><li>Work in groups to wordsmith the document </li></ul><ul><li>OUTCOMES? Understand the importance of following directions and the complexity of answering grant questions </li></ul>35
    103. 103. Section 5 : Project Management or Doing the Project Digital Project Planning & Management Basics 1
    104. 104. Goals of this Section <ul><li>Understand the issues in managing a digital project: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of project team and tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling the original material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase knowledge about the issues of standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons some projects do not achieve their goals </li></ul></ul>2
    105. 105. Process and Workflow <ul><li>All projects are different and workflows will vary by project </li></ul><ul><li>Project Manager will need to address and document: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staff and Space </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workflow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion of resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Storage and display of digital collection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Budget and timeline constraints </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality control </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>3
    106. 106. Aspects of a Digital Project processes or steps that encompass digital imaging initiatives institutional resources 4
    107. 107. What is the Project Manager Managing? <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Assets (DAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata production </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation software </li></ul>5
    108. 108. Ideally, Project Managers Are Not Alone <ul><li>Teamwork with subject expertise is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Curatorial expert </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning expert </li></ul><ul><li>Database expert </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright expert </li></ul><ul><li>Web design expert </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata expert </li></ul>6
    109. 109. Selection: Setting Priorities <ul><li>What is the value of the item in terms of the goals of the project? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the physical nature and condition of the the original? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the material out of copyright? Does the institution have a deed of gift that allows dissemination </li></ul>7
    110. 110. Selection Process: <ul><li>Survey collections </li></ul><ul><li>What resources match goals </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate collections: </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural or educational value </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate for scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation issues </li></ul>8
    111. 111. Value? <ul><li>May be defined by the mission or goals of the institution </li></ul><ul><li>Rarity or intrinsic artistic value </li></ul><ul><li>Provides insight or illustrates a subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>Provides content to areas poorly documented </li></ul><ul><li>Added value </li></ul>Display images enhanced Links to related resources 9
    112. 112. Common Standards <ul><li>Dublin Core : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>metadata for document and image collections; often combined with LC name and subject authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MODS ( Metadata Object Description Standard) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simpler MARC that can be expressed in XML with language (not number) tags </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EAD (Encoded Archival Description) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>standard for structuring find aids for the Web; often combined with DACs and LC name and subject authorities </li></ul></ul>10
    113. 113. Standards Typology 11 Based on slide courtesy of Luiz Mendes <ul><li>MARC </li></ul><ul><li>MARCXML </li></ul><ul><li>RDF </li></ul><ul><li>METS </li></ul><ul><li>LCAF </li></ul><ul><li>LCSH </li></ul><ul><li>MeSH </li></ul><ul><li>TGM </li></ul><ul><li>AAT </li></ul><ul><li>TGN </li></ul><ul><li>MARC </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin Core </li></ul><ul><li>MODS </li></ul><ul><li>VRA Core </li></ul><ul><li>CDWA </li></ul><ul><li>EAD </li></ul><ul><li>ONIX </li></ul><ul><li>AACR2 </li></ul><ul><li>RDA </li></ul><ul><li>CCO </li></ul><ul><li>DACS </li></ul>Syntax Data Values Data Structures Content Standards
    114. 114. Why go to the trouble to follow standards? With Permission, Murtha Baca Sustainability Interoperability 12
    115. 115. Interoperability <ul><li>The ability of different types of computers, networks, operating systems, and applications to work together effectively, without prior communication, in order to exchange information in a useful and meaningful manner. </li></ul>13
    116. 116. Metadata Standards: Issues <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul>14
    117. 117. Metadata Definitions <ul><li>Data about data </li></ul><ul><li>“ Metadata are structured, encoded data that describe characteristics of information-bearing entities to aid in the identification, discovery, assessment, and management of the described entities.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Data that characteristics source data, describes their relationships, and supports the discovery and effective use of source data.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Another name for cataloging” </li></ul>15
    118. 118. Functions of Metadata <ul><li>Metadata can be used for any one or all of the following purposes: </li></ul><ul><li>Resource discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially can enhance discovery of resource by web crawlers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manage a digital resource </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership and authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the nature of the resource </li></ul>16
    119. 119. Mechanisms for Accessing Metadata <ul><li>Embedded HTML </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded XML/RDF </li></ul><ul><li>Repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Record Management Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Analog files (paper or card files) </li></ul>17
    120. 120. Metadata Selection Principles <ul><li>Appropriate t the materials, users and intended and future use of digital objects </li></ul><ul><li>Supports interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Allows use of controlled vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>Clear statement on terms of use (rights) </li></ul><ul><li>Supports long-term management </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata standard itself should have: authority, authenticity, archivability, persistence, & unique identification </li></ul>18
    121. 121. Types of Metadata <ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul><ul><li>Adminstrative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul>19
    122. 122. Descriptive Metadata <ul><li>Metadata that supports the discovery of a digital object </li></ul><ul><li>Contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides links to other digital objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about the digital object (electronic resource) </li></ul></ul>20
    123. 123. Administrative Metadata <ul><li>Metadata used in managing and administering information resources, e.g., location or donor information </li></ul><ul><li>Includes rights and terms & conditions to access information </li></ul><ul><li>Data on the creation and preservation of the digital object </li></ul>21
    124. 124. Administrative Metadata Includes <ul><li>Preservation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Records information about formats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Records information about processes, logs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Records information about access rights copyright, use </li></ul></ul></ul>22
    125. 125. Structural Metadata <ul><li>Defines the digital object’s internal organization and is needed for display and navigation of that object. </li></ul>23
    126. 126. Semantic Interoperability “ The ability to seamlessly search for digital information across heterogeneous distributed databases through a federated search.” The definitions of the fields * have a standard meaning across multiple implementations and across different metadata schema. The effectiveness of mapping from one database to another, or create crosswalks, is weakened when the interpretation/use of the fields varies. * aka elements, categories of information 24
    127. 127. Structural Interoperability <ul><li>Achieved through agreements about content description standards. For example, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled vocabularies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LCSH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AAT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAFL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Description standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AACR2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best Practices </li></ul></ul></ul>25
    128. 128. Scanning: Formats <ul><li>Finding Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs and documents </li></ul><ul><li>Oral history audio-recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Transcript s </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>EAD </li></ul><ul><li>TIFFs (masters) JPGs (web) </li></ul><ul><li>.wav files or mp3 files </li></ul><ul><li>PDFs </li></ul><ul><li>TEI </li></ul>26
    129. 129. Image Standards <ul><li>CDL Guidelines for Digital Images </li></ul><ul><li>TIFFS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for archival masters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too large for Web delivery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>JPGs </li></ul><ul><li>Standard for Web delivery </li></ul><ul><li>All browsers support </li></ul><ul><li>Compresses (lossy) = loss of information </li></ul><ul><li>Not suitable for archival purposes </li></ul><ul><li>JPG2000 </li></ul>27
    130. 130. 28
    131. 131. System Requirements <ul><li>Is your system able to support mounting multiple formats: images, streaming audio and video, PDFs? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you developing a platform which you will require support or will use off the shelf software which will require annual fees? </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware: scanners, computers </li></ul><ul><li>Software: imaging and metadata creation </li></ul>29
    132. 132. PREMIS: Fields Pertaining to Objects <ul><li>objectIdentifier </li></ul><ul><li>preservationLevel </li></ul><ul><li>objectCategory </li></ul><ul><li>objectCharacteristics </li></ul><ul><li>creatingApplication </li></ul><ul><li>originalName </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>signatureInformation </li></ul><ul><li>relationship </li></ul><ul><li>linkingEventIdentifier </li></ul><ul><li>linkingIntellectual Entity Identifier </li></ul><ul><li>linkingPermission StatementIdentifier </li></ul> 30
    133. 133. PREMIS Fields for … 31 <ul><li>compositionlevel </li></ul><ul><li>fixity </li></ul><ul><li>size </li></ul><ul><li>format </li></ul><ul><li>significantProperties </li></ul><ul><li>inhibitors </li></ul><ul><li>agentIdentifier </li></ul><ul><li>agentName </li></ul><ul><li>agentType </li></ul><ul><li>eventIdentifier </li></ul><ul><li>eventType </li></ul><ul><li>eventDateTime </li></ul><ul><li>eventDetail </li></ul><ul><li>eventOutcome </li></ul><ul><li>eventOutcomeDetail </li></ul><ul><li>linkingAgentIdentifier </li></ul><ul><li>linkingObjectIdentifier </li></ul>Characteristics Agents Events
    134. 134. 32
    135. 135. 33
    136. 136. Why Some Projects Do not Reach Expected Goals <ul><li>Poor selection policy </li></ul><ul><li>Unrealistic expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear or fuzzy measures of success </li></ul><ul><li>Poor selection of presentation software </li></ul><ul><li>Poor communication within team </li></ul><ul><li>Poor documentation of process and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Poor quality control </li></ul>34
    137. 137. Exercise 3 <ul><li>Teams reconvene </li></ul><ul><li>Goals of Exercise 3: </li></ul><ul><li>- Demonstrate an understanding of implementation issues </li></ul><ul><li>- Practice consensus building </li></ul><ul><li>- Summarize how the team would answer grant questions </li></ul>35
    138. 138. Section 6 How to Measure Success: Outcome Evaluation & Assessment Digital Project Planning & Management Basics 1
    139. 139. Goals of this Section <ul><li>Learn what is an “outcome-based” evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Learn why is assessment important </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to conduct an “outcome-based” evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Know how to decide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>who will conduct the evaluation of the project when will it take place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what will be the criteria for judging success </li></ul></ul>2
    140. 140. Outcome-based Evaluation <ul><li>Encouraged by IMLS & LSTA grants </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates that the goals of the digital project were met </li></ul><ul><li>Includes assessment of operations or management (staffing, workflow efficient) </li></ul><ul><li>Includes quantitative and qualitative measures </li></ul><ul><li>Are user-centric </li></ul>3
    141. 141. Outcome-based Evaluations Look at: <ul><li>Impact and benefits that are the result of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term changes </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term changes </li></ul>4
    142. 142. Components of Outcome-Based Evaluations <ul><li>Inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome indicators (quantifiable outcomes) </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome targets </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome measures </li></ul>5
    143. 143. Typical Inputs <ul><li>Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul>6
    144. 144. Typical Activities <ul><li>Assessment of collection </li></ul><ul><li>Processing of archival and special collections </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation activities </li></ul><ul><li>Digitization and metadata creation </li></ul>7
    145. 145. Typical Outputs <ul><li>Number of images / objects scanned or digitized </li></ul><ul><li>Number of metadata records created </li></ul><ul><li>Number of supporting web pages created </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum packages created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey or summary of collection </li></ul></ul>8
    146. 146. Typical Outcome Targets <ul><li>Size of collection estimated in grant proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on target audience </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of new audience </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of fragile resources (less handling) </li></ul><ul><li>24/7 access </li></ul><ul><li>Need gap closed </li></ul>9
    147. 147. Typical Outcome Measures <ul><li>Indicators of change </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to the stated goals of project </li></ul><ul><li>Measured against a benchmark through data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul></ul>10
    148. 148. Benchmark <ul><li>Represents the starting point </li></ul><ul><li>Determine what you plan to measure at the onset of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many students and faculty use the archives and special collections for research? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many assignments on local history are answered by library resources, and which resources are use? </li></ul></ul>11
    149. 149. Examples of Quantitative Measures <ul><li>Size of the digital collection </li></ul><ul><li>Number of inquires </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction logs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of visits to the sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referring urls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP address of user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Date and time of searches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of searches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of searches </li></ul></ul>12
    150. 150. Qualitative Outcomes <ul><li>Qualitative in terms of accessibility, usability, functionality, user satisfaction and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Check with institution concerning guidelines for using human subjects </li></ul>13
    151. 151. Usability <ul><li>Assesses the structure of the digital site </li></ul><ul><li>Assess how the user interacts with site </li></ul><ul><li>Measured by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Features clearly labelled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logic of presentation </li></ul></ul>14
    152. 152. Functionality <ul><li>Does the software and web site perform as intended? </li></ul><ul><li>Can it deliver the results expected? </li></ul><ul><li>Measured by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precision and recall of search engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search options allow: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic and advanced </li></ul></ul></ul>15
    153. 153. Accessibility <ul><li>Can the site be used by anyone regardless of disability or impairment? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive access </li></ul></ul>16
    154. 154. Legislation <ul><li>Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications Act of 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Assistive Technology Act of 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications Act Accessibility Guidelines (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Standards for Electronic and Information Technology (12/2000) </li></ul>17
    155. 155. Accessibility Problems <ul><li>Images without alt tags </li></ul><ul><li>Some tables for layout </li></ul><ul><li>Content presented as graphics without text version </li></ul><ul><li>Video and audio clips without text versions </li></ul><ul><li>Older versions of Adobe </li></ul><ul><li>Links that are not text readable </li></ul>18
    156. 156. Web Standards & Testing <ul><li>Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) </li></ul><ul><li>Bobby </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>19
    157. 157. Exercise 4 <ul><li>Teams reconvene for 30 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Consider what criteria will be used to measure success and how to build in the quality necessary to reach success </li></ul>20