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    CMMI's Project Management Process Area a suitable framework ... CMMI's Project Management Process Area a suitable framework ... Document Transcript

    • CMMI’s Project Management Process Area a suitable framework for ERP Applications Syeda Umema Hani Aleem Khalid Alvi www.syedaumemahani.homestead.com/resume. Assistant Professor. “Sir Syed University of html Engineering and Technology” Software Project Manager Cyber Angels “ IT akalvi@ssuet.edu.pk solution providing company” www.cyberangels.com.pk, Lecturer “Jinnah University for Women, Department of Computer Science and IT” www.juw.edu.pk umema_hani@yahoo.com Abstract Management Framework, which will help the Project Managers to understand practices that are involved for Every organization or program creates and successfully using it. implements projects to help it move toward its goals and every assigned project manager wants to be successful in 1. Introduction executing assigned projects. Nowadays several standard practices exist to assist and guide the project manager. Integrated business applications like ERP systems are Where as Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERP) strategically important business tool for long-term success systems look at connective data, processes and plans in in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. Such an integrated fashion to help us develop not only "best systems require the integration of data and business practices" but also methods that work to outperform processes across the organization or whole enterprise. normal business processes. Being a part of software development team we knows that It is a fact that quality of a product is largely such systems requires to achieve customers coordination determined by the quality of the process that is used to and commitment from management, user and vendor develop and maintain it where as a model is a structured down to the requirement level. With out detailed collection of processes those proven by experience to be knowledge of their business and efficient control of effective. So there is a need of proper framework to give requirements, implementers take large amounts of time. common understanding of guiding principles and a This arise a need for finding suitable process or framework for concerned actions like process standard to follow, which may cover all possible aspects management, project management, engineering and of ERP’s project management processes. For this purpose support activities. applying multiple models that are not integrated within Applying multiple models that are not integrated and across an organization have proven problematic and within and across an organization turn out to be more costly in terms of training, appraisals, and improvement expensive in terms of training, appraisals and adoption activities for those organizations that would like to focus activities [1]. Where as Capability Maturity Model their improvement efforts across the disciplines within Integration (CMMI) is a set of integrated models that their organizations. The differences among discipline- successfully addresses multiple disciplines. specific models, including their architecture, content, and Objective of this paper is to present Analysis of approach, have limited these organizations ability to focus CMMI Project Management framework which include their improvements successfully. On the other hand highlights of sub process that will drive our Software CMMI presents a set of integrated models that organizations toward improving Enterprise Business successfully addresses multiple disciplines and has process continuously by applying proper Project integrated training and appraisal support to solve these management steps, for consistent and quality delivery of problems. CMMI is compliant to international software products and services. organization for standardization ISO and international This paper is actually based on practical electro technical commission IEC and is applicable to implementation to analyze and explore CMMI’s Project software engineering, system engineering and integrated
    • product and process development disciplines. Here profile is one that represents the organization’s process- adopted discipline is software engineering because our improvement objectives. An achievement profile, when target is to improve only our project management process compared with a target profile, enables us not only to area. track our organization’s process-improvement progress, It gives two representations continuous and staged. but also to demonstrate our organization’s progress to Here adopted its continuous representation to focus only management. on Project management process area, for which it has to CMMI allows comparison across and among achieve the specific goals related to only this process area organizations on a process area by process area basis or and some common general goals that are associated with by comparing results through the use of equivalent its all capability levels [2]. staging i.e. the conversion of an achievement profile for Where as staged representation is adopted when some an organization into a maturity level [2]. Whether used for organization wants to improve its overall development process improvement or appraisals, both representations capability and recognize interdependencies across process offer essentially equivalent results. areas, for achieving a single process area all of its goals In current case study the comman business objective must satisfy, and to achieve a specific maturity level, it was to reduce the time we take for the deployment of the must satisfy all of the process areas through that level [2]. software to our clients. The process-improvement It is not intended that every CMMI process area maps one objective derived from comman business objective was to to one with organization’s processes. improve the Project Management processes to ensure intime delivery and would be those found in the Project PA6 Planning and Project Monitoring and Control process PA5 PA4 areas. PA3 PA2 Inorder to apply this model in a useful and productive PA1 way we must understand the interactions that exist among its model components. In continuous approach process Generic Goals for PA areas are grouped into four categories i.e. process Specific Goals for 1,2,3,4,5,6 … management, project management, engineering and PA1 support. Process management process areas contain the cross-project activities related to defining, planning, resourcing, deploying, implementing, monitoring, controlling, appraising, measuring, and improving Generic practices for PA Specific 1 processes. Project management process areas cover the Practices for project management activities related to planning, Specific Goals of monitoring, and controlling the project. Engineering PA1 process areas cover the development and maintenance Capability Levels activities that are shared across engineering disciplines Figure 1: CMMI Continious Representaion i.e. system and software engineering. Where as support process areas cover the activities that support product Further going in detail of continuous representation, development and maintenance. the specific goals organize specific practices and the generic goals organize generic practices. Each specific 2. Introduction to CMMI’s Project and generic practice corresponds to a capability level and Management framework applies to individual process areas. Generic goals and generic practices apply to multiple process areas, see A framework for Project Management tasks that is figure 1. required to manage a high quality successful delivery of There are six capability levels from zero through software. It gives two levels of process areas. Basic five. Each capability level corresponds to a generic goal Project Management Process Area (BPMPA) and and a set of generic and specific practices. For each Advance Project Management Process Area APMPA). process area, a capability level consists of related specific Basic Project Management Process Area consists of and generic practices, that when performed achieve a set Project Planning (PP), Project Monitoring and Control of goals that lead to improved process performance. (PMC), Supplier Agreement Management (SAM). See A capability level profile is maintained when using figure 2 for the interactions among the BPMPA and with continuous representation, which contains a list of process other process area categories. PP begins with areas and their corresponding capability levels. requirements that define the product and project (“What Achievement profile is one that represents the to Build” in the figure). The project plan covers the organization’s progress for each process area while various project management and engineering activities climbing up the capability levels. Where as a Target 2
    • that will be performed by the project. The project will Advance Project Management Process Area consists review other plans that affect the project from various of Integrated Project Management (IPM), Integrated relevant stakeholders and establish commitments with Supplier Management (SS), Risk Management (RSKM), those relevant stakeholders for their contributions to the Quantitative Project Management (QPM) and Integrated project. The PMC process area includes monitoring Teaming (IT) and (IPM) is (IPPD). See figure 2 above for activities and taking corrective action. When actual status the interactions among the APMPA and with other deviates significantly from the expected values, corrective process area categories. Each of APMPA is strongly actions are taken as appropriate. These actions may dependent on the ability to plan, monitor, and control the include re-planning. The SAM addresses need of the project i.e. BPMPA. Both versions of the IPMPA (IPM project to effectively obtain those portions of work that and IPM for IPPD) establish and maintain the project’s are produced by suppliers. Once a product component is defined process that is tailored from the organization’s set identified and the supplier who will produce it is selected, of standard processes. a supplier agreement is established and maintained. [2] Advance Project Project’s Statistical Process Q Risk Management Process exposure Process Area Performance Quantitativ e Lessons objectives R Learned, S b Identif Planning and i d Organisation’s Shared I I vision and standard processes integrated Project’s defined Monit Risk processes oring Produc Cordi taxon data t natio omies I n and as archite and collab para Config oratio meter uration Integrated team management for n s, manag status ement Integrated work , Verific environment and people ii Status, issues, results of process and product evaluations; Measures and analyses PMC Re What to Monitor Corrective action What to build PP What to do Engineering and Support Commitment s Plans Process areas Measurement needs SAM Product component requirements Status, issues, Technical issues Supplier agreement Completed product components results Acceptance reviews and tests of progres Supplier s and Basic Project milesto ne reviews Figure 2: Capability Maturity Model Integration’s Project Management Framework 3
    • The project uses and contributes to the organization’s partially performed. One or more of the specific goals of process assets and ensures that the relevant stakeholders the process area are not satisfied. associated with the project coordinate their efforts in a To achieve generic goal one, we have to perform timely manner, by providing the identification, base practices i.e. its corresponding specific practices. We negotiation, and tracking of critical dependencies; and the have to perform generic goal one in order to achieve resolution of coordination issues within the project with Capability level one which is known as Performed. A relevant stakeholders to the management. The IPM for critical distinction between an incomplete process and a IPPD process area also creates the shared vision for the performed process is that a performed process satisfies all project and implements an IT structure to perform the of the specific goals of the process area. work of the project in developing a product. This team To achieve generic goal two i.e. Institutionalize a structure is much like a work breakdown structure. managed process; we have to perform all previous goals Although risk identification and monitoring are covered and following practices i.e. to establish an organizational in the PP and PMC process areas, the RMPA takes a more policy, plan the process, provide resources, assign continuing, forward-looking approach to managing risks responsibility, train people, manage configurations, with activities that include identification of risk identify and involve relevant stakeholders, monitor and parameters, assessments, and their handling. The QPMPA control the process, objectively evaluate adherence and applies quantitative and statistical techniques to manage review status with higher level management. Generic goal process performance and product quality. The project’s two corresponds to capability level two which is known defined process comprises, in part, process elements and as Managed. Critical distinction between a performed subprocesses whose process performance can be process and a managed process is the extent to which the predicted. Corrective action is taken when special causes process is managed. A managed process is Planned of process variation are identified. [2] (capability level 1) and the performance of the process is managed against the plan. Corrective actions are taken 3. Analysis and Exploration of framework when the actual results and performance deviate significantly from the plan. A managed process achieves The studied ERP system is a medium level project the objectives of the plan and is institutionalized for that is limited to the working boundary of the customer as consistent performance there is no communication with any external interface of To achieve generic goal three i.e. Institutionalize a the system. Selection process needs number of factors that defined process; we have to perform all previous goals usually influence the client’s decision to go with us like and following practices i.e. to establish a defined process good clientele, PASAHA or PSEB registered and collect improvement information. Generic goal three membership, successful history of delivered critical corresponds to capability level three, which is known as systems with vast skills of team and consultant members, Defined. A defined process is a managed (capability level two-month free maintenance period and cost effective 2) process that is tailored from the organization's set of solutions. Here, our target is to put forward our clients all standard processes according to the organization’s required standard sub-system automated processes after tailoring guidelines, and contributes work products, proper analysis that includes up to five sub systems. We measures, and other process-improvement information to have adopted CMMI framework for proper project the organizational process assets. management of this ERP. To achieve generic goal four i.e. Institutionalize a This framework comprise of three basic and four Quantitatively Managed Process we have to perform all advance processes including project planning, project previous goals and following practices i.e. to establish monitoring and control, supplier agreement management, quantitative objectives for the process and stabilize sub integrated project management, risk management and process performance. Generic goal four corresponds to quantitative project management. First we go through capability level four which is known as Quantitatively generic practices then discuss specific goals one by one in Managed. A quantitatively managed process is a Defined detail. (capability level 3) process that is controlled using As generic practices are the checkpoints for statistical and other quantitative techniques. reminding us that we have done things right. Performing To achieve generic goal five i.e. Institutionalize an each generic goal is equivalent to improving its Optimizing Process; we have to perform all previous corresponding level of capability. Below discussed is a goals and following practices i.e. to ensure continuous brief relation ship between capability levels and their process improvement and correction of root causes of respective generic goals, which we have to follow after problems. Generic goal five corresponds to capability completion of specific goal of each Sub process areas. level five which is known as Optimizing. An optimizing Capability level number zero is known as process is a quantitatively managed (capability level 4) Incomplete. It is a process that is either not performed or 4
    • process that is changed and adapted to meet relevant Table 2: Project Life Cycle Phases current and projected business objectives. Project Life Cycle Phases As Specific goals and practices are the actual project management steps that a project manager should follow 1. Analysis therefore they are discussed in more detail here. 2. Design - Data design ERD - Architecture design Client Server 3.1 Project Planning - Interface design GUI - Component design Project Planning is the establishment and 3. Implementation 4. Testing maintenance of plans that define project activities. - Unit - Integration 3.1.1 Specific Goal 1 (Establish Estimates): It requires - Stress testing performing four specific practices. First practice includes that while estimating the scope Table 3: Estimations of the Project we define descriptions of tasks, Work COCOMO’ Basic Model for Semi-detached type of projects package and Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) which permits identification of Identified risks and their Model: The Basic COCOMO model is a static, single-valued mitigation tasks, The amount of detail in the WBS helps model that computes software development effort (and cost) as a in developing realistic schedules, see table 1. function of program size expressed in estimated lines of code (LOC). Table 1: Final Work Breakdown Structure Software project type: Semi-detached (an intermediate (in size and complexity) software project in which teams with mixed Final Work Breakdown Structure experience levels must meet a mix of rigid and less than rigid requirements); ab =1.1, bb=1.10, cb =1.5, db =0.29 1. Inventory Management System Note: Component data a, b, c & d is driven according to Pakistani 7 – Screens, 9 Reports software development market. 2. Human Resource System E = ab KLOC bb 10 Screens, 6 Reports D = cb E db 3. Account Payable System Where E is the effort applied in person-months, 6 Screens, 7 Reports D is the development time in chronological months and 4. Account Receivable Systems KLOC is the estimated number of delivered lines of code for the 3 Screens, 8 Reports project (express in thousands). 5. General Ledger System ab and cb and the exponents bb and db are given in above Table. 6 Screens, 13 Reports E = 1.1 (KLOC) 1.10 6. Export Invoice = 1.1(30) 1.10 4 Screens, 7 Reports = 46 person-months To compute project duration, we use the effort estimate described above: Second practice includes establishment of estimates D = 1.5 E 0.29 of the Work Product and task attributes; proper technical = 1.5 (46) 0.29 approach is to be adopted here like a distributed client = 4.5 months server Application, or real-time application etc. Attributes The value for project duration enables the planner to determine a are determined and estimated for the work products and recommended number of people, N, for the project: tasks that will be used to estimate the resource N = E/D requirements. Work products for which size estimates are = 46/5 = 9 peoples made included daily activity sheets, SRS, System Total Cost calculated = No of months [(No of peoples expenses per Operational Manuals, and Operational Modules. month * Total No of People) + Other Expenses per month] Estimating method that we had used is based on based Total Cost calculated = 4 [(10,000 * 9)+3000] = 372,000 Rupees historical data and lines of code. Third Practice includes defining project life cycle life First practice includes establishment of the budget spiral, distributed or RAD model, which depends on and schedule; Gantt chart and PERT chart are used to development time, cost and business focuses. See table 2. generate basic scheduling. Corrective action a criterion is Fourth Practice includes determination of estimates taken like few more days as compared to scheduled time, of effort using any suitable model like here used after this time is taken for immediate action over it. COCOMO’s basic model for Semi-detached type of Which include revising the original Project plan, projects having component data as driven according to establishing new agreements, or including mitigation Pakistani software development market, see table 3. improvement activities within the current plan, see figure 3.1.2 Specific Goal 2 (Develop a Project Plan): It 3 and 4. requires performing seven specific practices. 5
    • 2. Cost risks: project budget increase 3. Support Risks: easy enhancement in resultant software 4. Schedule Risks: component deliver in time Category made for drivers: 1. Catastrophic – tragic actions --1 2. Critical – important --2 3. Marginal – minor --3 4. Negligible – unimportant – 4 Risk Projection/Estimation, Risk rating based on probability of its occurrence Risk Table Risk Information Sheet Risk ID: Date: Probability: Impact: Figure 3: Gant chart to make Time lines for tracking milestone 002 19/3/02 80% Critical Reason: One of the programmers left & moves to another company. RE estimated: 50,000 Rs. approx. Trigger: Mitigation steps unproductive as of 25/2/02 Current Status: Interviews for new hiring started Originator: Project Assigned: Human Resources Manager Manager 1. Scale was established to remark possibility of a risk 2. Mark out consequences/penalty of the risk 3. Estimate the impact of risk on product or project (risk categories as defined above) 4. Note over all risk accuracy for no misunderstandings. Cut-off line: high impact value limit has made so that if any risk had crossed that line than it can be managed, pointer value of Risk information sheet was assigned in RMMM column. --- if risk probability increases more than 80% Figure 4: Task Network diagram PERT chart Assessment Risk Impact ---consequences or penalty of risk Risk Exposure was calculated using probability of risk occurrence and Cost that risk should occur on project RE = P * C, Total risk Second practice includes identification of project exposure cost provide mean for adjusting final cost estimate or risks; Risk assessments and checklists are used as risk predict probable increase in resources required at various point identification and analysis tools. Risks are document during scheduling. properly, and agreements are obtained with relevant Risk assessment for accuracy of estimates was made that may help in thinking about its control strategies stakeholders on the completeness and correctness of the A risk component as given above was taken as a referent level to documented risks. Risk component is taken as a referent make decision if degradation occurs and breakpoint will come than level to make decision if degradation occurs and project may be terminated. breakpoint will come than project may be terminated, like Risk Refinement –condition transition consequences CTC used to refine risk in set of more detailed risk, its possible in case of COTS. if risk probability increases more than 80% or 70%, see – No refinement done table 4. Risk Mitigation Monitoring & Management, strategy for dealing Table 4: Risk Management with risks contain Risk avoidance, for proactive approach to risk avoidance is best Risk Identification: strategy; risk mitigation plan was made to reduce turn over. Risk Item Check List a focus on Product specific Predictable risks Turnover Li * Xi likelihood and impact for risk Ri. includes following sub category: Risk monitoring is done to identify more or less likely risks and to 1. Product size – No take possible actions before risk impact increased 2. Business Impact -- No Risk management if risks fail than we did backup activity ---- new 3. Customer characteristics -- No 4. Process definition --No 5. Development environment --No Third practice includes plan for data management; to 6. Technology to be build --No ensure privacy and security of the data related to Project 7. Staff size and experience –No plan and management, only access is allowed to the Risk Component and Drivers list along with their probability of concerned, like data resource manager and project occurrence. Risk Drivers, actions that effect risk components’ performance cost manager on relevant dates. Document issuance dates must support and schedule. also be monitored separately. Separate files are to be Risks Category Proba Impact RIS No maintained to store every record including daily task Components of Risk bility sheet. Funding will Cost 30% 1 001 Fourth practice includes plan for project resources; be lost Staff turnover by considering the knowledge and skills required for each Support 80% 2 002 of the identified positions, as defined in the Plan staffing will be high Risk components include: must be done after the decomposition of the project 1. Performance: product meets requirement requirements into tasks, roles, and responsibilities for 6
    • accomplishing the project requirements as lay out within relevant stakeholders. Stakeholder interaction plan is used the work packages of the WBS. A list is also compiled to identify all parties from whom commitment is to be that contains facilities, equipment, and parts. obtained. All organizational commitments are supposed Fifth practice includes plan for needed knowledge to be documented and ensuring appropriate level of and skills; the required knowledge and skills are identified signatories with senior management as appropriate. before staffing team member. Study of CMMI’s project management process area is also required by assigned 3.2 Project Monitoring and Control Project management team to fulfill and adopt proper steps. Mechanisms for providing needed knowledge and Project Monitoring and Control provides an skills are also required to attach with identification and understanding of the project’s progress so that appropriate removal or risks like staffing and new hires. All above corrective actions can be taken when the project’s selected criteria’s are supposed to be mentioned in project performance deviates significantly from the plan. plan Sixth practice includes plan for stakeholder 3.2.1 Specific Goal 1 (Monitor Project Against Plan): It Involvement; which require list of all relevant requires performing seven specific practices. stakeholders like managers, team members and vendors, First practice includes monitoring project-planning see table 5. Justification for stakeholder involvement is parameters; significant deviations are identified from the also required that is actually responsibility of concerned estimates in the project plan. Provided resources are person for any particular task like most software monitored. Project personnel, particularly the Project organization’s Manager are responsible to provide In- Managers are also monitored. Weekly measurement is house resources that includes machines staffing support performed for measuring knowledge and skills of project software’s etc and like client are responsible and personnel. At the end of each monitoring activity, committed to provide full cooperation during system significant deviations in the project planning parameters Analysis and regression testing phase at client site. are documented and attached with the Software Project Relationships between relevant stakeholders are also Plan. defined like for new staffing Project or Human resource Second practice includes monitoring commitments; manager is committed to interact with Manager of the results of the commitment reviews are documented software organization to hire new team members. specially those commitments that are at a significant risk of not being satisfied, such as a delay in hiring. Table 5: Team members Third practice includes monitoring project risks; the Project Manager –1 System Analyst -- 3 documentation of the risks in the context of the project’s Senior Software Engineer –1 Programmer -- --- 4 current status and circumstances is reviewed regularly and revised as additional information became available to Seventh practice includes establishing the project incorporate changes. Communication about risk status to plan document to addressed all relevant planning items relevant stakeholders is performed regularly because its that are necessary to achieve the mutual understanding, delay mostly resulted in change in the probability that the commitment, and performance of individuals that must risk occurred. execute or support the plans. Fourth practice includes monitoring of data management; data management activities against their 3.1.3 Specific Goal 3 (Obtain Commitment to the description in the project plan are reviewed regularly. Plan): It requires performing three specific practices. Identified, significant issues and their impacts are also First practice includes reviewing plans that affect the documented. project; separate records are maintained properly if any of Fifth practice includes monitoring stakeholder project plans are reviewed Involvement; the status of stakeholder involvement is Second practice includes reconciliation of work and reviewed regularly. Significant issues and their impacts resource levels; to obtain commitment from relevant are identified and documented. stakeholders, it is really important to resolve any Sixth practice includes conducting progress reviews; differences between the estimates and the available here daily progress sheets are maintained for regular resources by lowering or deferring technical performance communication to keep stakeholders informed. Managers requirements, negotiating more resources, finding ways to and team members within the organization are included in increase productivity, outsourcing, adjusting the staff skill the reviews. Results of collecting and analyzing measures mix, or revising all plans that affect the project or are reviewed and documented for controlling the project. schedules. Seventh practice includes conducting milestone Third practice includes obtaining plan of reviews; reviews are conducted at meaningful points in commitment; WBS is basically used as a checklist for the project's schedule like commitments, plan, status, and ensuring that commitments are obtained for all tasks with risks. Managers, staff members, and customers within the 7
    • organization are included in the milestone reviews as 3.3.2 Specific Goal 2 (Satisfy Supplier Agreements): It appropriate. Track action items to closure. requires performing four specific practices. First practice includes reviewing COTS products; 3.2.2 Specific Goal 2 (Manage Corrective Action to Supplier performance is tracked before mid-completion of Closure): It requires performing three specific practices. our ongoing project to guarantee timely supplier related First practice includes analyzing Issues; Issues are process completion, like installation of LAN in our case. analyzed to determine need for corrective action. Second practice includes execution of the Supplier Corrective action is required when the issue is left agreement; Supplier progress is monitored during Quality unresolved. Issues gathered for analysis from reviews and assurance process. Final review is conducted with the the execution of other processes like: Significant supplier as specified in the supplier agreement. Results of deviations in the project planning parameters from the management reviews are taken to improve the supplier's estimates in the project plan, Commitments that have not performance and to establish and nurture long-term been satisfied, Significant changes in risk status, relationships with preferred suppliers Stakeholder representation or involvement issues. Third practice includes acceptance of the acquired Second practice includes taking corrective action; product: acceptance procedure is made here like the appropriate actions are determined and documented which installed network and hardware must perform accurately are needed to address the identified issues, like after installation of client system. After verifying that the renegotiating commitments and revising project risks. acquired products fulfilled their requirements, Actions to be taken are reviewed and agreements obtained confirmation is made that the non-technical commitments with relevant stakeholders. Changes are negotiated to associated with the acquired work product are satisfied. internal and external commitments. Confirmation includes the appropriate license, warranty, Third practice includes managing corrective action; ownership, usage, and support or maintenance agreements appropriate actions to correct deviations from planned is in place and that all supporting materials are received. results for corrective actions determined and documented. Acceptance is finally documented after satisfactory Lessons learned as a result of taking corrective action are verification and confirmations. inputted to planning and risk management processes. Fourth practice includes transitioning of products; here it is ensured that distribution and usage of the 3.3. Supplier Agreement Management acquired products are performed according to the terms and conditions specified in the supplier agreement or Supplier Agreement Management manages the license. acquisition of products from suppliers for which there exists a formal agreement. 3.4. Integrated Project Management 3.3.1 Specific Goal 1 (Establish Supplier Agreements): Integrated Project Management is the establishment It requires performing three specific practices. and management of the project and the involvement of the First practice includes determination of acquisition relevant stakeholders according to an integrated and type: Here we usually produce a list of the acquisition defined process that is tailored from the organization's set types that will be used for all products and product of standard processes. components to be acquired like purchasing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products, obtaining products 3.4.1 Specific Goal 1 (Use the Project’s Defined through a contractual agreement, obtaining products from Process): It requires performing five specific practices. an in-house vendor etc. First practice includes establishment of the Project’s Second practice includes selection of suppliers; like defined process; only those standard processes from the the only supplier involved in this project is a computer organization's set of standard processes are taken which hardware shop for buying machines for the clients and to best fulfill the need of the project. No major tailoring is help them in finding vendors for implementing LAN required in our project so there was no need to seek Network for the client to deploy this system. Finally we approval to deviate from what is required by the refer the selected vendor to our clients. organization. We were already using data from our asset Third practice includes establishment of supplier library. Projects standard processes could be taken as agreements; vendor prepared related delivery and service project's defined process. Peer review is conducted for the documents to our clients for satisfactory service. The project's defined process. supplier agreement contained a statement of work, Second practice includes use of organizational specification, terms and conditions, list of deliverables, process assets for planning project activities; new schedule, budget, and a defined acceptance process. All estimates and plans are required at this stage if major parties are made to understand the agreement and consent dissimilarities are found in the work product and task to all requirements before implementing the agreement. 8
    • attributes, application domain, design approach, the life of the product or project to mitigate adverse operational environment and in experience of the people. impacts on achieving objectives. Third practice includes integration of plans; all plans are integrated that affect the project with the project plan, 3.5.1 Specific Goal 1 (Prepare for Risk Management): that includes SQA plans, CM plans, RM strategy, It requires performing three specific practices. Documentation plans. As here only Project Management First practice includes determination of risk sources related process areas are highlighted so I’m leaving and categories; risk source list is maintained here process, support and engineering process areas. Peer Second practice includes defining risk parameters; reviews on the work products of the project’s defined here thresholds and boundaries are defined for risk process are taken for verification. No additional training category. plans are required that typically involved negotiating with Third practice includes establishing a risk the organizational training group the support they will management strategy. provide. Objective entry and exit criteria is established during the analysis phase to authorize the initiation and 3.5.2 Specific Goal 2 (Identify and Analyze Risks): It completion of the tasks described in the work breakdown requires performing two specific practices. structure (WBS). First practice includes identification of risks; like Fourth practice includes management of the project cost, schedule, and performance risks are examined using the integrated plans; now Integrated Plan is on during all phases of the product life cycle to the extent focus for actual implementation of project with no that they impacted project objectives. All identified risks changes in standard process of Business. Monitoring and are documented with context, conditions, and potential Control activities are now transferred to it with well- consequences of the risk using standard formats. defined control mechanisms (e.g., peer reviews) to Second practice includes evaluation, categorization, achieve better visibility into the project’s performance and prioritization of risks; each risk is evaluated and and control. values are assigned in accordance with the defined risk Fifth practice includes contribution to the parameters. The assigned risk parameter values are organizational process assets; here remarkable integrated to produce additional measures such as risk improvements are proposed to organizational process exposure, which can be used to prioritise risks for assets. handling. Risks are categorized and grouped according to the defined risk categories. A relative priority is 3.4.2 Specific Goal 2 (Coordinate and Collaborate with determined for each risk, based on the assigned risk Relevant Stakeholders): It requires performing three parameters. A clear criterion is used to determine the risk specific practices. priority. Condition transition consequences CTC is used First practice includes management of stakeholder to refine risk in set of more detailed risk, No refinement involvement: Coordination is maintained with the relevant done. stakeholders who are supposed to participate in the project’s activities. Coordination is made for actions to 3.5.3 Specific Goal 3 (Mitigate Risks): It requires resolve misunderstandings and problems with the product performing two specific practices. and product-component requirements, product and First practice includes development of risk mitigation product-component architecture, and product and product- plans; Necessary risk mitigation activities are examined component design. and documented for the benefits they provide versus the Second practice includes Manage Dependencies: resources they will expend. No major contingency plan is Separate reviews are conducted with relevant stakeholders made for selected critical risks in the event their impacts to identify each critical dependency with the people are realized. responsible for providing the work product and the people Second practice includes Implementation of risk receiving the work product. mitigation plans; risk handling is performed for those Third practice includes Resolve Coordination Issues: risks judged by observing cut-off line, risk management, Issues always are notified and discussed with relevant if risks fail than we are supposed to do backup activity. stakeholders to resolve them. If not, resolved tracks are made and discussed further for remedy. 3.6. Quantitative Project Management 3.5. Risk Management Quantitative Project Management process area is to quantitatively manage the project’s defined process to Risk Management is the identification of potential achieve the project’s established quality and process- problems before they occur, so that risk-handling performance objectives. activities may be planned and invoked as needed across 9
    • 3.6.1 Specific Goal 1 (Quantitatively Manage the Table 7: Quality and Process-Performance Objectives Project): It requires performing four specific practices. QPO’s (sample) First practice includes establishment of the Project’s objectives; the Quality function deployment QFD method is used during analysis phase to identify and translate the needs of customers into technical requirements. As this project is based on quality estimations and historical data, inspite of that maintenance and testing process group of this project with some specific sub processes, are required to be statistically managed. Earned Value Analysis is used for measuring process performance and measurable quality and process-performance objectives QPO’s for the project are defined, see table 6. For Project Performance Second practice includes composing the defined achieve values are defined for Cost Performance Index, process; the sub-processes that are the main contributors estimate to complete ECP performance monthly EPVPm to achieving the identified QPO and for which predictable and Schedule Performance Index. For Product Quality performance is important. Product and process attributes achieve value is defined for defect density Peer review of the selected sub-processes are identified i.e. defect and defect density for test, see table 7. density, Cycle time and Test coverage, which are supposed to get measured and controlled. Table 6: Papameters used in Earned Value Analysis for performing Quantitaive project management Third practice includes selection of the Subprocesses that will be statistically managed. Earned Value Analysis (Procedure used for assessing progress Fourth practice is management of Project Quantitatively) Performance. 1. EV= measure of progress 2. BCWS=Budgeted cost of work scheduled each task 3.6.2 Specific Goal 2 (Statistically Manage Sub process 3. BAC= sum (BCWS k), Budgeted cost of all k no of work Performance): It requires performing four specific tasks 4. BCWP=sum (BCWS k) up till time t, Budgeted cost of work practices. performed First practice includes selection of measures and 5. SPI = BCWP/BCWS, schedule performance index, value analytic techniques; XmR Statistical Process Control close to 0.1 indicate effective execution of project schedule. (SPC) charts are used here to derive limits and analyze 6. SV= BCWP – BCWS, schedule variance 7. Percent complete = BCWP/BCWS, provide quantitative data, in which data plotted chronologically and limits are indication of % of work should have been completed by time t based on variability within data set; reset when process 8. ACWP= Sum (effort actually expanded on work tasks that changes which will identify common and special causes have been completed by a point in time on project schedule-- of variation in the process performance, and maintain h), Actual cost of work performed process performance within limits, see figure 5. 9. CPI = BCWP/ACWP, cost performance index, value close to 0.1 indicate project is within its defined budget. Figure 5: Analysis technique, Statistical Process Control (Xmr, to drive limit and analyse data), Monitoring Performance of selected Sub process, Measures Selection, Defect Density a measure of product quality (Sample Graph) Second practice includes application of statistical methods to understand variation 10
    • Third practice includes monitoring performances of industry personals to adopt best-fitted framework in order the selected subprocesses; project process performance to achieve high success rate of delivery of an ERP. baseline charts are used to monitor natural bounds of process performance for each selected sub process that are 6. Future Studies and requirements compared to its established objectives. Fourth practice includes maintaining of statistical Further discussions are required, to explore CMMI’s management data record: Statistical and quality Process Management, Engineering and Support process management data is recorded in the organization’s areas because their interaction is involved in Project measurement repository. Management framework. Developing a beter understanding is only possible by discussing more using 4. End Results achieved different case studies consist of more complex and advance ERP Systems. For its proper implementation in Projects meet delivery dead line strictly. Due to past Pakistan we first need to take membership and participate experience and customizable modules the cost savings are in its official training programmes abroad that are being unexpectedly high. All internal operations are initiated by Software Engineering Institue (SEI) etc., then standardized now and after reasonable training our clients we use these trained peoplz to further counduct-training are enjoying efficient solution for their business. programmes for project managers of our local software houses. It is also required to buy advance project 5. Commentary management license software that may help the project managers to perform risk management and quantitative There are some major activites that are being initiated management related activates efficiently. from humans which include decisions by upper management because in most of the cases: They just try to 7. Reference Research papers and Materials make there budget possible at any cost on given timeline without keeping in mind the realties and possibilities what [1] CMMI V1.1 Tutorial; E-SEPG; April 9, 2002; Mike there working team is facing or going through. So, it’s a Phillips, CMMI Program Manager; Sponsored by the U.S. best practice to always initiate from realistic estimations Department of Defence; © 2002 by Carnegie Mellon and its only possible if our Management staff has enough University Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 working experience regarding software development and specially problems that arise during communicating with [2] Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), the clients and finalizing processes that are actually Version 1.1; CMMISM for Software Engineering (CMMI- required by the Client organizations. It has been observed SW, V1.1) Continuous Representation CMU/SEI-2002- that a good motivated team leader takes his team toward TR-028; ESC-TR-2002-028; Improving processes for successes. better products by CMMI Product Team August 2002. Another big mistake that software companies usually made is that they give final bid to the client before [3] Portrait of CMMI Level 4 Effort: Dough Smith and collecting their complete specification. Unclear picture or Craig Hollenbach Litton/PRC. scenarios cause high budget and timeline than the expected ones. [4] Cmmi Process Improvement Themes By Mike From client side management: We must have some Phillips. term of regulations document that will be used for negations while converting client requirements in to [5] A Research Framework for Studying the technical requirements. So that Development Company Implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) may charge if blur pictures from Client side gives big list systems; Pernille Kræmmergaard and Charles Moller of unexpected process. This is necessary to minimize Center for Industrial Production, Aalborg University negative effects of easily busted processes. Fibigerstræde 16, DK-9220 Aalborg, DENMARK. 6. Conclusion 8. Reference Web Links This paper has presented Analysis of CMMI’s Project www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/ Management framework, by discussing and highlighting www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/adoption/expert-group.html of sub process that will drive our Software organizations www.software.org/pub/externalpapers toward improving Enterprise Business process www.rspa.com/spi/ continuously. This paper is written to aware our software 11