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  • 1


  • 1. Project Time Management
    • Project time management includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project.
    • This includes:
        • Activity Definition
        • Activity Sequencing
        • Activity Duration Estimating
        • Schedule Development
        • Schedule Control
    Strategic Project Management 1 SPM Project Time Management
  • 2. Activities versus Tasks
    • There is some inconsistency within the Project Management community regarding the use of the terms “activity” and “task”
      • some say activities are composed of tasks
      • some say tasks are composed of activities
    • We will use the terms “activity” and “task” interchangeably
      • know how your company defines these terms
    Strategic Project Management 2 SPM Project Time Management
  • 3. Project Time Management (continued)
    • We will focus on three processes:
      • Activity Sequencing,
      • Activity Duration Estimating,
      • Schedule Development
    • The PMI BOK presents a useful framework throughout the Processes Chapters
      • Inputs-Techniques-Outputs
      • Let’s look at Figure 6-1 (page 66, BOK 2000)
        • 2000 version has some updates over the 1996
    Strategic Project Management 3 SPM Project Time Management
  • 4. Activity Definition
    • Activity definition involves identifying and documenting the specific activities that must be performed in order to produce the deliverables.
    • Useful techniques include:
        • Work Breakdown Structures
        • Decomposition of Project Elements
        • Historical Information from Prior Projects
    Strategic Project Management 4 SPM Project Time Management
  • 5. Work Breakdown Structure
    • A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a deliverables oriented grouping of project elements
      • organizes and defines scope
      • develops and confirms common understanding
      • hierarchical structure with descending levels showing increasing detail
      • normally presented in chart form
    Strategic Project Management 5 SPM Project Time Management
  • 6. Work Breakdown Structure (continued)
      • Items in the WBS can be given unique identification codes
        • Code of Accounts
      • Items at the lowest level are often referred to as Work Packages
    • Many organizations have standard WBSs which are used as templates.
    • PMI BOK contains several good examples
      • Figures 5-2, 5-3, 5-4 (p. 58-60, BOK 2000)
        • same content p. 54-55 BOK 1996
    Strategic Project Management 6 SPM Project Time Management
  • 7. Activity Sequencing
    • Activity sequencing involves identifying and documenting interactivity dependencies.
    • These can be broken into three types:
      • Mandatory dependencies
        • inherent in the nature of the work
        • physical limitations
    Strategic Project Management 7 SPM Project Time Management
  • 8. Activity Sequencing (continued)
      • Discretionary dependencies
        • desired but not mandatory
        • inserted by project planners
        • frequently based on “best practices”
      • External dependencies
        • imposed from outside the project
        • multi-project issues
        • regulatory issues
    Strategic Project Management 8 SPM Project Time Management
  • 9. Activity Sequencing (continued)
    • Useful techniques include:
      • Gantt Charts
      • Precedence diagramming
        • Activity on the Node
        • Activity on the Arrow
        • Conditional Diagramming
    • We’ll talk more about these later in the course.
    Strategic Project Management 9 SPM Project Time Management
  • 10. Activity Duration Estimating
    • Duration estimating involves assessing the number of work periods that will be required to complete each activity.
      • May also include an estimate of elapsed time
    • Activity duration estimating typically requires two measures:
      • a measure of expected activity duration
      • a measure of variation of expected duration
    Strategic Project Management 10 SPM Project Time Management
  • 11. Activity Duration Estimating (continued)
    • Useful techniques include:
      • Historical Information
      • Commercial Databases
      • Expert Judgement
      • Estimating using Analogies
      • Simulation
      • Reserve (Contingency, Buffer) Time
    • More on this later in the course.
    Strategic Project Management 11 SPM Project Time Management
  • 12. Schedule Development
    • Schedule development means determining the start and finish dates (times) for project activities.
    • Useful techniques include:
      • CPM (Critical Path Method)
      • PERT (Project Evaluation & Review Technique)
      • GERT (Graphical Evaluation & Review Technique)
    • More on these in the next few topics.
    Strategic Project Management 12 SPM Project Time Management
  • 13. Schedule Development (continued)
    • More advanced techniques related to Schedule Development include:
      • Resource Constraints and Leveling
      • Duration Compression (“Crashing”)
      • Simulation
    • More on these later in the course
    Strategic Project Management 13 SPM Project Time Management
  • 14. Displaying the Schedule
    • After the preceding steps have been completed, the project schedule must be documented and, usually, displayed.
    • Useful approaches include:
      • Network Diagram with Dates (Figure 6-5)
      • Gantt Charts (Figure 6-6)
      • Milestone Charts (Figure 6-7)
      • Time-scaled Network Diagrams (1996, Fig 6-8)
    Strategic Project Management 14 SPM Project Time Management
  • 15. Schedule Control
    • Schedule control is concerned with
      • managing the factors which lead to changes,
      • determining the need for a schedule change,
      • managing the actual changes.
    • Useful techniques include:
      • Change Control System
      • Milestone Progress Reporting
    Strategic Project Management 15 SPM Project Time Management