BOK Chapter 6


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  • BOK Chapter 6

    1. 1. Project Time Management <ul><li>Project time management includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>This includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity Definition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity Sequencing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity Duration Estimating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule Development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule Control </li></ul></ul></ul>Strategic Project Management 1 SPM Project Time Management
    2. 2. Activities versus Tasks <ul><li>There is some inconsistency within the Project Management community regarding the use of the terms “activity” and “task” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some say activities are composed of tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some say tasks are composed of activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We will use the terms “activity” and “task” interchangeably </li></ul><ul><ul><li>know how your company defines these terms </li></ul></ul>Strategic Project Management 2 SPM Project Time Management
    3. 3. Project Time Management (continued) <ul><li>We will focus on three processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity Sequencing, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity Duration Estimating, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule Development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The PMI BOK presents a useful framework throughout the Processes Chapters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs-Techniques-Outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let’s look at Figure 6-1 (page 66, BOK 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2000 version has some updates over the 1996 </li></ul></ul></ul>Strategic Project Management 3 SPM Project Time Management
    4. 4. Activity Definition <ul><li>Activity definition involves identifying and documenting the specific activities that must be performed in order to produce the deliverables. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful techniques include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work Breakdown Structures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposition of Project Elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Information from Prior Projects </li></ul></ul></ul>Strategic Project Management 4 SPM Project Time Management
    5. 5. Work Breakdown Structure <ul><li>A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a deliverables oriented grouping of project elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organizes and defines scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develops and confirms common understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hierarchical structure with descending levels showing increasing detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>normally presented in chart form </li></ul></ul>Strategic Project Management 5 SPM Project Time Management
    6. 6. Work Breakdown Structure (continued) <ul><ul><li>Items in the WBS can be given unique identification codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Code of Accounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Items at the lowest level are often referred to as Work Packages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many organizations have standard WBSs which are used as templates. </li></ul><ul><li>PMI BOK contains several good examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Figures 5-2, 5-3, 5-4 (p. 58-60, BOK 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>same content p. 54-55 BOK 1996 </li></ul></ul></ul>Strategic Project Management 6 SPM Project Time Management
    7. 7. Activity Sequencing <ul><li>Activity sequencing involves identifying and documenting interactivity dependencies. </li></ul><ul><li>These can be broken into three types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory dependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inherent in the nature of the work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physical limitations </li></ul></ul></ul>Strategic Project Management 7 SPM Project Time Management
    8. 8. Activity Sequencing (continued) <ul><ul><li>Discretionary dependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>desired but not mandatory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inserted by project planners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>frequently based on “best practices” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External dependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>imposed from outside the project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>multi-project issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>regulatory issues </li></ul></ul></ul>Strategic Project Management 8 SPM Project Time Management
    9. 9. Activity Sequencing (continued) <ul><li>Useful techniques include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gantt Charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precedence diagramming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity on the Node </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity on the Arrow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conditional Diagramming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We’ll talk more about these later in the course. </li></ul>Strategic Project Management 9 SPM Project Time Management
    10. 10. Activity Duration Estimating <ul><li>Duration estimating involves assessing the number of work periods that will be required to complete each activity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May also include an estimate of elapsed time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity duration estimating typically requires two measures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a measure of expected activity duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a measure of variation of expected duration </li></ul></ul>Strategic Project Management 10 SPM Project Time Management
    11. 11. Activity Duration Estimating (continued) <ul><li>Useful techniques include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert Judgement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimating using Analogies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reserve (Contingency, Buffer) Time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More on this later in the course. </li></ul>Strategic Project Management 11 SPM Project Time Management
    12. 12. Schedule Development <ul><li>Schedule development means determining the start and finish dates (times) for project activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful techniques include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPM (Critical Path Method) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PERT (Project Evaluation & Review Technique) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GERT (Graphical Evaluation & Review Technique) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More on these in the next few topics. </li></ul>Strategic Project Management 12 SPM Project Time Management
    13. 13. Schedule Development (continued) <ul><li>More advanced techniques related to Schedule Development include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Constraints and Leveling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration Compression (“Crashing”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More on these later in the course </li></ul>Strategic Project Management 13 SPM Project Time Management
    14. 14. Displaying the Schedule <ul><li>After the preceding steps have been completed, the project schedule must be documented and, usually, displayed. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful approaches include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Diagram with Dates (Figure 6-5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gantt Charts (Figure 6-6) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milestone Charts (Figure 6-7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-scaled Network Diagrams (1996, Fig 6-8) </li></ul></ul>Strategic Project Management 14 SPM Project Time Management
    15. 15. Schedule Control <ul><li>Schedule control is concerned with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>managing the factors which lead to changes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determining the need for a schedule change, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>managing the actual changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Useful techniques include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Control System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milestone Progress Reporting </li></ul></ul>Strategic Project Management 15 SPM Project Time Management