Information Operations Sampo Collander 13.6.2012
Information OPs Psychological and Public Information Operations support the Operation Information mgmt should always be part of the OP plan Campaign model: ◦ Defining the target ◦ Defining the starting point ◦ Defining the methods and channels used PsyOps and PIops often use same channels – what is the difference?
Public InformationOperations PIOps provide information targeted to broad audience Media briefings, press releases and articles, interviews etc Newspapers, Magazines, TV, radio, Int ernet Continuous media follow up Strives for proactivity If there is a vacuum of Information, someone will fill it!
Public InformationOperations Led by the Commander, committed by PIO Never ever lie! – still you can have your own agenda Pro-active- the one who takes initiative defines the direction of public discussion Equality and openess – provide information to all media/parties
PIOps in the mission Build and keep up a good picture of the Actor to local audience Support Actors operations by promoting success and other targets lined Correcting/pre-empting rumours by reactive or proactive information sharing Disinformation caused violence e.g. in Rwanda 1993, Kosovo 2006, Finland 1918…
PIOps for domestic audience Promoting success Securing support of decision makers Keep up the good picture of the Actor in domestic publicity Supporting the ”home front” Correcting/pre-empting rumours
Psychological Operations PsyOps aims to change in behaviour Appeals to reason and emotion – Heads and Hearts Tactical and strategical level Black and White PsyOps
What is PsyOps? Marketing or advertising office of the military force PIOps and PsyOps often use same channels ◦ Press articles, posters, TV, Internet, radio… Methods can also be called propaganda and indoctrination
What is PsyOps? All military actions have a psychological dimension ◦ Parades, use of force, showing of force... White PsyOps focuses on positive effects of the chance, persuases and encourages It is based on facts, providing improvements Black PsyOps intimidates, misleads, forces It is based on use of fear, lies; it describes the change as a fearful and bad option
Tactical PsyOps Strives for immediate influence Loudspeakers, dropping flyers, use of massive fire or other demonstration of force Target is e.g. to get the opponent to surrender Heads and Hearts in practice: ◦ Wanted emotion for the target: Fear of death ◦ Provided solution: Surrender
Strategic PsyOps Strives to permanent change Educational, persuasive Pointing out the problem and providing a solution Emotions appealed e.g. family, patriotism, religion, poverty, ins ecurity Solutions provided: education, anti- corruption, support to officials and security forces etc
Strategic PsyOps First find the issues/needs/problems, then provide them answers Cultural awareness and careful research totally crucial! Use of test audiences, local hired consultants etc Still, great challenge in a multicultural country
Strategic PsyOps Message is spread by media, posters, flyers Also providing toys, blankets, t-shirts etc with a logo Humanitarian aid is also a form of PsyOps! Idea is to attach positive ideas in ”our” agenda/actions and negative to ”their”
PsyOps - Challenges Long term planning, impatience of Commanders Local traditions Cultural differences Counter PsyOps by the opponent Contradictions between the message and reality Personal experiences can leave deep wounds – e.g. death of a close person