WEB 2.0 &
How to tiptoe your way through the Web 2.0 buzzword minefield ...
Social Software, Blogs, Wikis, Elgg, RSS, Aggregators, Podcasting, Social
Bookmarking, Tagging, Del.icio.us, Digg, Tag Clouds, BuzzClouds,
Vodcasts, YouTube, Technorati, Second Life, Social Sharing, Flickr,
Swickis, AJAX, MySpace, FaceBook, iTunes, TeacherTube ...
... without exploding!
This document (with working links) is available online
The notes here support the online resource eLearning: Designing & Creating Your Online Unit
eLearning Passport: Understanding Web 2.0 / eLearning 2.0 Version 1.0 Page 2
Table of Contents
1. What is Web 2.0? 4
2. Web 2.0 looks different. How? 4
2.1 Tag clouds, BuzzClouds ... 4
2.2 Design practices differentiating Web 2.0 sites ... 5
3. Web 2.0 is much more than its design approach 5
4. What is social software? 6
5. Examples of social software 7
5.1 RSS ... 7
5.2 Collaborative spaces ... 7
5.3 Social bookmarking ... 7
5.4 Social sharing services ... 7
5.5 Podcasts ... 8
5.6 Vodcasts ... 8
6. Using social software ... 9
6.1 ... to create, publish & distribute ... 9
6.11 ... using Blogs ... 9
6.12 ... using Wikis ... 10
6.13 ... using social bookmarking ...10
6.14 ... using social sharing ... 10
6.2 ... to subscribe, read, recreate ... 11
6.21 ... using RSS ... 11
6.3 ... to collaborate ... 11
6.31 ... on diagram-based content ... 11
6.32 ... on the content of any webpage ... 11
6.33 ... as a workgroup ... 11
eLearning Passport: Understanding Web 2.0 / eLearning 2.0 Version 1.0 Page 3
7. Creating your own podcast 12
7.1 What is a 'good' podcast like? ... 12
7.2 What is a 'true' podcast? ...12
7.3 Record and edit your audio ... 12
7.4 Convert your finished audio to an mp3 and upload ... 13
7.5 Create your RSS feed ...13
7.51 An example of an xml file (the RSS feed) ... 14
7.52 An annotated example of an xml file ... 15
7.6 Set up your podcatcher ... 16
7.7 Promote your podcast ...17
7.8 Resources on podcasts and podcasting ...17
8. Web 2.0 References 18
eLearning Passport: Understanding Web 2.0 / eLearning 2.0 Version 1.0 Page 4
1. What is Web 2.0 ?
Has Web 2.0 been hyped beyond belief? Absolutely!
But is it useful for educators? Definitely!
As Kim Roach of SiteProNews (where you can read the full article) points out,
"… underneath all of the chatter is a concept that is even more powerful than the
hype that surrounds it" ...
... and that concept is collective knowledge, an idea that underpins all Web 2.0 structures and
processes. By providing opportunities for people to participate, collaborate and share information,
Web 2.0 technologies supply the 'social glue' that connects and binds users into communities of
practice. They create and encourage the development of active stakeholders rather than passive
recipients of information. Both eLearners and their facilitators are web users - stakeholders - in
the learning process. Web 2.0 provides opportunities for their voices to be heard.
Wikipedia defines Web 2.0 as:
"… a second generation of services available on the World Wide Web that lets
people collaborate and share information online. In contrast to the first
generation, Web 2.0 gives users an experience closer to desktop applications
than the traditional static Web pages. Web 2.0 applications often use a
combination of techniques devised in the late 1990s, including public web
service APIs (dating from 1998), Ajax (1998), and web syndication (1997).
They often allow for mass publishing (web-based social software). The
concept may include blogs and wikis."
2. Web 2.0 looks different. How ?
2.1 Tag Clouds, BuzzClouds
A Web 2.0 site might display a tag cloud (in a Swicki , it is known as a BuzzCloud) a group of
dynamically-generated links which highlight those keywords - tags - that are being used by the
community for searches or other activity. Their size reflects popularity - the more popular a tag
is, the larger it will appear. If reading this page online, use the tag cloud links below to explore
some of these Web 2.0 buzzwords ... otherwise check the eLearning website.
Flickr Blogs RSS Vodcasts Wikis
iTunes Elgg TeacherTube Aggregators YouTube
Digg Tagging BuzzClouds Swickis
Social Networking FaceBook Technorati MySpace
del.icio.us Bookmarking AJAX Second Life PageFlakes
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2.2 Design practices which differentiate Web 2.0 sites
In general Web 2.0 design practices have moved away from hard-edged boxes and
square tables to flexible curves.
They are characterised by rounded designs, big text, gradients, glassy effects, bright
colours, tabs, reflections, large buttons, and big text boxes for user interaction.
Create your own rounded corners with these tutorials:
Create the gradients often seen in Web 2.0 sites, especially as backgrounds. A typical
background might use a gradient fill that fades from one colour at the top of the page to
another colour further down.
See the tutorial at http://www.photoshoplab.com
3. Web 2.0 is much more than a differentiated design approach
The characteristic design elements mentioned above have emerged as style markers
for Web 2.0 sites, but these superficial aesthetic differences alone do not make a Web 2.0 site.
Web fashion is as ephemeral as any other fad, and Web 2.0 is no exception. Within a few
months, 'ordinary' websites will no doubt adopt the gaudy plumage of Web 2.0, and the
differentiation cycle will begin afresh. When you really get down to it, it's all eye-candy anyway.
The real heart of Web 2.0 is that it is designed to change the way we experience
online interactions. The new AJAX (Asynchronous Java and XML) development approaches,
together with changing paradigms of information ownership, allow developers to build
collaborative architectures which encourage participation and information-sharing amongst users.
An eLearning environment can be (should be?) so much more than an information
repository. A web presence is a place which can be made to feel nearly as tangible as reality
space. With good design, production and programming skills it is possible to create virtual
learning spaces which are every bit as engaging as other life experiences. And where there is
engaged experience, there is learning.
Kim Roach's article in SiteProNews exhorts educational designers to:
"Create an experience, not just a site."
An online article: Meaningful, Engaged Learning, which appeared originally on the North
Central Regional Educational Laboratory site, highlighted a number of indicators of engaged
learning. Many of these appear to relate strongly to the collaborative approaches espoused by
Web 2.0 practitioners. The article in turn owes much to:
Jones, B., Valdez, G., Nowakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing Learning
and Technology for Educational Reform. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional
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4. What is social software?
[This section is based on the workshop materials presented by Anne Bartlett-Bragg at the
Learning Technologies conference 2006 and which appear on the LT2006 Wiki.]
Social software refers to the range of applications that
• augments group interactions and shared spaces for collaboration,
• augments social connections, and
• aggregates information exchanges in a web-based environment.
Social software can also be considered as the major component of the current Web 2.0
definitions and at the focal point of e-Learning 2.0, a term attributed to Stephen Downes in
2005 where he characterises the use of social software applications as "… placing of the control
of learning itself into the hands of the learner…" (Downes, 2005, paragraph 12).
See also Anne Bartlett-Bragg's "Social Software: The Age of Connection and the
Social software can generate powerful learning networks - from simple individual actions that
help create an 'architecture of participation', to links that connect people for a common purpose.
Weblogs (blogs), wikis, social bookmarking and tagging (so-called Web 2.0 tools) have all
emerged as powerful collaborative tools, but their greatest transformational potential exists within
organisations that embed them into their learning strategies.
The underpinning assumptions of social software are intricately bound up with social
learning theories that recognise that learning occurs in a social context.
More about social learning theories
A different view of Social Software and its implications for teaching and learning can be found on
Christopher D. Sessums' Weblog: Thoughts on learning, teaching, and computing. His article:
eLearning Passport: Understanding Web 2.0 / eLearning 2.0 Version 1.0 Page 7
Cultural Implications of Social Software, Teaching, and Learning: Ready or Not is both
thoughtful and thought-provoking.
5. Examples of Social Software
[Sections 5 & 6 are based on the workshop materials presented by Anne Bartlett-Bragg at the
Learning Technologies conference 2006, and which appear on the LT2006 Wiki.]
5.1 RSS - provides syndication & aggregation. It stands for Really Simple Syndication –
a method of XML-based programming that allows content to be imported into other web pages.
RSS enables readers to subscribe to information (webfeeds) from sites of their choice, monitor
updates, and view them in a single page from a web-based service called an aggregator - eg.
Bloglines - a free subscriber service.
The power of the aggregator for learners comes from the ability to control and manage the flow
of information in a centralised manner.
5.2 Collaborative spaces - web-based collaborative publishing spaces such as
weblogs, or blogs, have been the main reason for the increasing popularity of social software.
They have developed into powerful personal spaces that allow authors to self-publish and
organise their information or knowledge.
In addition, because of the interactivity provided to readers through comments or linking and the
ability to subscribe to updates through syndication, weblog technologies have become the
foundation for further developments in education.
Other web-based shared spaces like wikis provide users with the ability to communicate, co-
edit documents and web pages, share calendars, view multimedia presentations and build
The popularity of these applications has been attributed to ease of use and flexibility. The user
only requires internet access and does not need HTML programming skills. Popular examples of
free wikis used in educational settings are Wikispaces or PBWiki.
5.3 Social bookmarking or tagging with folksonomies: Social bookmarking is a
web-based process that is similar to a favourites list in a browser - except that it allows the user
to bookmark, manage, publicly publish, comment upon, and create their own tags for each URL
they want to share.
The objective is to publish your resources for other people with similar interests. The key to the
shared resource is the development of social tagging systems - called folksonomies. The
name is derived from the term taxonomy - a hierarchical list or categorisation. A folksonomy
focuses on a group of people who co-operatively organise information into agreed categories.
In addition, social bookmarking tags have RSS feeds which can be collected into a learners'
aggregator, making it a powerful research and resource gathering tool. A well-known example is
5.4 Social sharing services - similar to social bookmarking, these are applications
that share other services – for example, Flickr is a web-based photo sharing service that uses
the folksonomy tagging process to collect and share photos publicly or privately across the web.
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In an educational context, photos can be gathered for projects and agreed tagging systems
adopted to allow collective sharing.
e.g. Go to the Flickr site and in the top right hand corner, type "LT2006" into the Search
everyone's photos box and hit search. The results will gather all the photos from any Flickr user
who has tagged photos with LT2006 (Learning Technologies Conference 2006).
5.5 Podcasts - digital audio files that are downloaded from the internet onto learners'
personal audio playing devices such as iPods, where the content can be listened to at the
Podcasting is emerging as one of the most popular current innovations in social software with
major research projects investigating the beneficial effects on learning. See Impala.
Edition 10 of the Knowledge Tree - the Australian e-Journal of Flexible Learning in Vocational
Education is dedicated entirely to podcasting.
5.6 Vodcasts - Here are 2 short video podcasts - i.e. vodcasts of 9 minutes each from Alex
Halavais on blogging in education. Not only is the content engaging but they also demonstrate
how you can use a site like YouTube to deliver a short message to enrich the learning
Part 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LA-OzkEKe4
Part 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=41l9D0i9ZVo
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6. Using Social Software
6.1 To create, publish & distribute …
6.11 ... using Blogs
A. Contribute to our own VU blogs:
Login to the VU Social Networking Blog using your old Netscape (LDAP)
username and password and start participating … [We use an underlying Elgg
system for VU. For eLearning applications, the Elgg platform is now known as
Or try the new, on-brand eLearning Blog from FLU.
B. Or create your very own personalised blog:
Free, hosted weblogs for educators - one is Edublogs, but there are many more.
You could use Technorati (a search engine for all things bloggy) to find them.
C. If you are a looker, not a doer, then at least look at:
The Learning Technologies Blog which has some good material, including posts
on The end of "e" Learning, Virtual Worlds & 3D Learning, and the
forthcoming Learning Technologies 2007 Conference.
D. Some technical features of blogs
• A blog is a type of website with entries displayed in reverse chronological order
(most recent first)
• Archives of previous posts are stored (often by month, year)
• Categories assigned to posts allow effective content management for author
and reader - i.e. personalised micro-content management
• Permalink: Each post in a weblog is assigned a unique URL that facilitates the
viewing and/or retrieval of any individual post
• Comments: Allows readers to provide feedback. The weblog author can
• Link Lists are displayed in the side bars - can be used as URLs, or lists of other
weblogs that the author reads and could be regarded as a source of personal
• Trackbacks and Pings: The trackback feature was designed to provide a
notification system for weblog authors. They notify another weblog author that
you have written something about a particular post on their blog. It is a method
of person A saying to person B, "This is something that may interest you." In
practice, person A sends an alert - a trackback ping - to person B through the
weblog software. The alert is often received in email format and is the process
which develops a dialogue across distributed conversations within a network.
• RSS & Syndication: Most weblogs have the ability to publish content in a XML
format known as RSS
• Personalisation of layout: Weblogs hosted by a web-based service can offer a
number of page design templates called blogskins. These can be easily modified
without programming or web layout skills. The individualisation of the look and
feel permits the blogger to express their personality and convey their site's
purpose to their readers.
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6.12 ... using Wikis
A. Create your very own Wiki:
• Using Wikispaces
• Using PBWiki
• Using Wetpaint
B. If that's all too scary, then at least look at:
The Learning Technologies Wiki which has some great material, including the
stuff you are reading now.
C. Some technical features of Wikis
• Easily editable web pages - with levels of access
• Based on wiki-text - but each software application varies slightly, so spend a
little time familiarising yourself
• History of edits - each page can display an 'audit trail' of edits
• Tagging - most software now includes tagging features
• Rich media - some products now support the inclusion of rich media (video,
• Comments - most products include comments or a discussion area for each
• PDF pages - some products can save pages from the Wiki as PDF files
• File repository - some products have file storage areas to hold additional
• RSS - some products have RSS capabilities to distribute information. Additionally,
some products have the capability to subscribe to information and display results
on the wiki.
6.13 ... using social bookmarking
Social Bookmarking with Del.icio.us
Use the web-based program Del.icio.us to develop shared resources for a
common interest group based on folksonomy tagging systems.. You can also
use it to search for others with similar interest.
You can capture a Del.icio.us feed and publish it on your blog or wiki.
6.14 ... using social sharing
Social Sharing with Flickr
Use Flickr - a web-based photo-sharing site - to publish photos publicly, for
friends and family only, or just keep them private. Create slide shows and much
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You can search for photos on any topic by using tags e.g. enter bad spelling in
the search box and click the tags button for some great shots!
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6. Using Social Software (continued)
6.2 To subscribe, read, re-create …
6.21 ... using RSS
Managing information is one of the biggest challenges we currently face - that's where
RSS can help.
To subscribe to sites with RSS feeds, you need an aggregator - like Bloglines.
Once you have an account, you can subscribe and manage your information.
You can also pull some of those feeds into another site - eg. you can add a Flickr badge
to your blog, or your Del.icio.us bookmarks.
Or - you can use a program like PageFlakes to gather everything into one place.
6.3 To collaborate …
6.31 ... on diagram-based content
Gliffy is a free web-based diagram editor. You can create and share flowcharts, network
diagrams, floor plans, user interface designs and other drawings online.
• Diagramming in your web browser without downloading additional software
• Adding collaborators to your work
• Linking to published Gliffy drawings from your blog or wiki
• Creation of many types of diagrams such as Flowcharts, UI wireframes, floor
plans, network diagrams, UML diagrams, or any other simple drawings or
6.32 ... on the content of any webpage
Gabbly is a unique chat application that can be activated on (or embedded in) any web
page by adding 'gabbly.com/' in front of any URL.
Learn more by reading the Gabbly Blog
6.33 ... as a workgroup
See a comprehensive list of collaborative software applications on Wikipedia
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7. Creating Your Own Podcast
7.1 What is a 'good' podcast like?
The most engaging are like short radio programs. They can be an interview, a newscast, a
discussion, a Q&A session, a set of step-by-step directions, an editorial - or just about any format
as long as it is interesting. An unedited recording of a lecture or workshop - or any long
monologue - generally does not make for an entertaining podcast.
Educational podcasts are available on almost every subject, and many are updated on a regular
basis. Some podcasts come from reputable organizations like National Geographic, The New York
Times, and Scientific American ; some others are less credible. Use your understanding about the
veracity of sources online and choose accordingly.
7.2 What is a 'true' podcast?
• the mere placement of audio on a website or Learning Management System
(LMS) for learners to:
o listen to as a streaming audio file
o download to their computer for later use
o download to an mp3 player such as an iPod
• true podcasting - a 'publish & subscribe' model which requires the learner to have
an mp3 player and 'podcatcher' software such as iTunes.
What sets podcasting apart from the simple hosting of mp3 files is that subscribers automatically
get updates as soon as you post new audio material to your server. For that to happen, you will
have to create an 'RSS feed' for your podcast. (More on how to do this later.) This alerts
subscribers' podcatchers to your updates and allows them to be downloaded immediately.
7.3 Record & edit your audio
Before you can podcast, you have to record (or at least edit) audio files.
While there is much software available to record and edit audio files, a free program such as
Audacity is quite adequate for this task. Because there are many flavours of audio files, you
might need to use a file conversion utility as well. If you record and edit material in ".wav" or
".wmp" format, to podcast you will need to convert it to ".mp3" format.
Here are a few short files on which you can practise:
Matrix 1 Matrix 2 Matrix 3
Try joining two files together, editing out some words to change the meaning, recording and
adding your own narration - whatever you like.
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7.4 Convert your finished audio to an mp3 and upload it to a website
Your audio editing program may result in the final output being in WAV format. This will certainly
be the case if you are using Audacity. For podcasting, you need to save and upload the new file
as an mp3 - i.e. save it with a .mp3 file extension.
To do this, you may need to download and run the LAME MP3 Encoder.
You may have to set the "bit rate" - use the minimum bit rate that gives good results. Some
48 - 56k Mono - speech, lecture, instructions, audio books, talk radio
64k+ Stereo - for music, combination of music & speech
128k Stereo - good quality music
Upload the audio file to your website or blog in the same way that you would upload html files or
a Word document.
Once you have done this, create the webpage which will contain links to your audio files. Here's
an example of such a page.
At this stage, you do not yet have a podcast - you have merely hosted some audio files on a
server. Learners can listen to the audio files and can even download them to an iPod or similar -
but it is not yet a podcast until you create an RSS feed.
7.5 Create your RSS feed
To make your file ready to podcast, you need to create an RSS feed - i.e. an XML file in a
text editor such as Notepad (don't use Word!), and then upload the file to your server, just as
you did for your mp3 file.
The XML file contains the links and descriptive information for each of the audio tracks on your
channel. XML files are just text files which are saved with the extension .xml instead of ".txt".
The XML file is actually code that is used to ensure that your learners are notified promptly
when you update your track, and that their software gets the right file from the right place. It
therefore has to have exactly the right syntax and format.
This is not as difficult as it might seem. You do not need programming skills to create an xml file
- just an eye for detail and a little patience. A template for an xml file is supplied for you on the
next few pages - just insert your own details and upload the file.
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7.51 An example of an xml file (the “RSS feed”) used for two mp3 files
(See the annotated example on the next page for instructions on how to edit the coloured
sections ... Also, if you wish to be pedantic, remove the spaces between ‘paragraphs’ below –
they are only there for clarity)
When you have finished editing the file below, get rid of all this stuff you are reading now and
the horizontal line below this paragraph. Just copy and paste the edited file to Notepad as a text
file but using the suffix .xml and upload it to your server, preferably in the same folder that
contains your mp3 audio files.
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<title>Corp Law Exam Prep Workshop Part 1</title>
<description>Helen Murphy's workshop on preparing for your Corporate Law
exam - Part 1</description>
_Pt1.mp3" length="5199445" type="audio/mpeg"/>
<title>Corp Law Exam Prep Workshop Part 2</title>
<description>Helen Murphy's workshop on preparing for your Corporate Law
exam - Part 2</description>
_Pt2.mp3" length="5392124" type="audio/mpeg"/>
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7.52 An annotated example of an xml file (the “RSS feed”) for two mp3 files
[One such RSS feed can hold details of up to 15 audio files.]
The code to be used is in this column Notes
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<rss version="2.0"> Do not edit this section.
<item> This is the code for audio file #1
<title>Corp Law Exam Prep Workshop Part 1</title>
<link>http://tls.vu.edu.au/SLS/podcasts/default.html< Replace the blue highlighted sections with titles
/link> and descriptions appropriate to this audio file.
<description>Helen Murphy's workshop on preparing
for your Corporate Law exam - Part 1</description> Replace the red urls with:
<link>http://tls.vu.edu.au/SLS/podcasts/WkshopCL_ First url – the full url of the page containing audio
Murphy/CorpLawWkShopHM__Pt1.mp3 </link> file links;
<enclosure Second url – the full url for the link to this audio
urphy/CorpLawWkShopHM__Pt1.mp3" Third url (section between " and ") – same as the
length="5199445" type="audio/mpeg"/> second url
Replace the yellow highlighted number with the
size (in Bytes) of this audio file. Right click on the
file name & select Properties, copy the size, e.g.
(5,199,445 bytes) and remove commas.
<title>Corp Law Exam Prep Workshop Part 2</title> This is the code for audio file #2
/link> See above for editing instructions
<description>Helen Murphy's workshop on preparing
for your Corporate Law exam - Part 2</description> For more audio files, just add another block of
<link>http://tls.vu.edu.au/SLS/podcasts/WkshopCL_ code between <item> and </item> tags.
<enclosure Always finish with the code on the bottom row.
</rss> Do not edit this section.
eLearning Passport: Understanding Web 2.0 / eLearning 2.0 Version 1.0 Page 17
Check your RSS Feed!
Whether you use your own server or Blogger, it's not a bad idea to test your feed with
www.feedvalidator.org once you have it set up.
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7.6 Set up your podcatcher
Podcast catcher software (podcatcher software) is used by those who wish to receive
your podcasts. Its purpose is to regularly check your site to see if your channel has been
updated. If there is new material, that audio file will be automatically downloaded and copied
onto the user's iPod (if they have one). Users may still listen to the file on their computer if
they do not own an iPod.
As you will need to test that your podcast is working, you also need to install podcatcher
software on your computer.
One of the most common (and popular) podcatchers is iTunes, but many others will
also do the job:
• iTunes (Windows / Mac OS X) - http://www.apple.com/itunes/download/
• Juice (Windows / Mac OS X / Linux) - http://juicereceiver.sourceforge.net/index.php
• iPodder (Windows) - http://www.jpodder.com
• iPodderX (Mac OS X) - http://ipodderx.com
• Odeo (Windows / Mac OS X / Linux) - http://odeo.com
You might also wish to explore the Podcatcher comparison site for side-by-side
reviews of all podcasting software.
Once you have downloaded and installed the software, choose the podcasts in which you are
interested. The software will automatically check for updates or RSS feeds (if the podcast is
part of a series or subscription) and download the podcast files to your computer.
Subscribe to a new podcast (such as the one you have just created) by dragging the
URL of the xml file into your podcast playlist, or by typing the URL into "Subscribe to Podcast"
under the Advanced menu.
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7.7 Promote your podcast
Give your learners the url for the xml file pointing to your podcast. You can use email, or just
include it on a webpage like this. Once learners subscribe, the podcasting process is complete.
However, if you are trying to reach a wider audience, you need to promote your work by using
services like feedburner.com, podcastalley.com, podcast.net or ipodderx.com to advertise
your site to the world.
If you're not ready for the known universe to start listening to your productions, just tell your
friends where to find your podcast (.xml) file.
7.8 Resources on podcasts and podcasting
Podcasting in Education
Power to Learn - Teaching with Technology Article series
A Podcast Primer on the 'Power to Learn' site
Quick Podcasting (Doc)
Creating Your Own Podcast (Doc)
iTunes Podcasting Info
Where can I find audio materials online?
Look at sites like Audible.com - you will find thousands of books available, plus study guides,
book notes, vocabulary builders, and test prep materials available - some with free sample
eLearning Passport: Understanding Web 2.0 / eLearning 2.0 Version 1.0 Page 20
8. Web 2.0 References
Bandura, A. 1977, Social Learning Theory, Prentice Hall, USA.
Bartlett-Bragg, A. 2006, "Reflections on pedagogy: Reframing practice to foster informal learning
with social software", Informal Learning and Digital Media conference, 21 - 23 September,
University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
Baumgartner, P., 2004,’The Zen Art of Teaching – Communication and Interactions in
eEducation’, Internal Workshop ICL2004, Kassel University Press, Villach, Austria.
Blackall, L., 2005, ‘Digital literacy: how it affects teaching practices and networked learning
futures – a proposal for action research’, The Knowledge Tree, Edition 7, October.
Cook, T., 2006, Social Media,
Downes, S., 2005, ‘E-learning 2.0’, eLearn Magazine, October
Educause Learning Initiative: 7 Things You Should Know About... Series
Mejias, U., 2005, ‘A Nomad’s Guide to Learning and Social Software’, The Knowledge Tree,
Edition 7, October