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  • 1. FET8601 2005-S1 Assignment 2 D1010925 Allan Carrington Key Concepts in Online Teaching and Learn- ing “ N othing has brought pedagogical theory into greater disrepute than the belief that is identified with handing out to teachers recipes and models to be followed in teaching ” Dewey 1916 Concept Map: Applying a Community of Inquiry Framework 1 of 14
  • 2. FET8601 2005-S1 Assignment 2 D1010925 Allan Carrington Introduction When considering the key concepts or strategies involved in online teaching and learning, the quote by Dewey is a warning and a wake up call. There is need to start with a theoretical founda- tion for teaching and learning as it will reflect the fundamental values and beliefs about an educa- tional experience The author found the Community of Inquiry Framework developed by Garrison and Anderson in their book “E-Learning in the 21st Century invaluable in providing a theoretical foundation for the key concepts and processes in online learning and teaching Before considering Critical Elements, Definitions, Principles and Activities in the Online Learning Environment Grid, the concept map introduces the Community of Inquiry Framework and shows how this framework anchors the principles introduced in the Gunawardena and Zittle (1996) article into an academic framework of inquiry which reflects a “collaborative constructivist’ view of teach- ing and learning. It helps acknowledge the inseparable relationship between personal meaning making and the social influence in shaping the educational transaction. Reflection about the Com- munity of Inquiry model helps recognize the interplay between individual meaning and socially re- deeming knowledge (Garrison and Anderson 2003:12) Teaching Principles Garrison and Anderson outline teaching principles, which reflect a transactional perspective and deep approach to learning. They are intended to create a supportive critical Community of Inquiry. •Negotiable expectations, clearly expressed, encourage deep approaches to learning •Coherent knowledge structures (schema) facilitate purposeful and integrative learning •Control creates commitment and encourages personal responsibility to monitor and manage meaningful approaches to learning •Choice in content and process is a catalyst for spontaneous and creative learning experi- ences and outcomes while recognizing and valuing intuition and insight •Critical discourse confirms understanding and diagnoses misconceptions •Critical thinking must be modeled and rewarded •Assessment must be congruent with expected learning outcomes •Learning is confirmed through assessment Success in creating an educational Community of Inquiry requires preparation, sustained presence and considerable pedagogic and content expertise. (Garrison and Anderson 2003) The Conceptual Framework In a Community of Inquiry framework there is both rationality and freedom. Garrsion and Anderson 2003:27 cite Lipman stating that a Community of Inquiry is where ←students listen to one another with respect, build on one another’s ideas, challenge one another to supply reasons for otherwise unsupported opinions, assist each other in drawing inferences from what has been said, and seek to identify one another’s assumptions. A Community of Inquiry attempts to follow the inquiry where it leads rather than being penned in by the boundary lines of existing disciplines In other words, a Community of Inquiry provides the environment in which students can take re- sponsibility and control of their learning through negotiating meaning, diagnosing misconceptions and challenging accepted beliefs - essential ingredients for deep and meaningful learning out- comes (Garrison and Anderson 2003:27) Methodology The grid of learning and teaching strategies that follows has been built from the concept map and can be used as a benchmark in evaluating online teaching and learning environments and it is planned to use this as such for specific online courses currently being developed at the University 2 of 14
  • 3. FET8601 2005-S1 Assignment 2 D1010925 Allan Carrington of Adelaide. It is also planned to develop it further into a rubric to see how these courses fit the cri- teria of an Academic Community of Inquiry framework. Online Learning and Teaching Environment Grid Critical Definition/s Principle/s Operational Element underlying its Activities importance Conceptual Framework : Social Presence Defined as the ability of participants in a Community of Inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘ r eal ’ people (i.e. their full personality), through the medium of communication being used. Garrison Anderson and Archer 2000:94) as cited in Garrison, D.R. & Anderson, T. (2003) E- Learning in the 21st Century. London. RoutledgeFalmer Affective This is communication Expressions include e.g Capitalization in- relating to emotions both conventional and terpreted as shouting. Communication which will have a di- unconventional ex- Strange spelling for rect effect on interac- pressions. Such emphasis like tivity. 1 things as repetitious ‘pleeeeease’ and of punctuation, conspic- course :-) as a smiley uous capitalization and emoticons. These things should be modeled and pro- Essential for commu- moted by facilitators. nity building. The more this form of communication is practised the more others will feel they know the communica- tor Use of humour e.g. Used wisely and with Facilitators need tp Teasing, cajoling, respect it builds rela- encourage values irony and understate- tionships .. laugh with based humour - al- ments 1 each other and not at ways honouring. An each other excellent icebreaker and helps intimacy Self Disclosure by Very strong trust and Facilitators need train- presenting details of relationship builder. ing in how to encour- life outside the class age this in introduc- or express vulnerabili- Only needs one to tions and sharing of ty 1 start more follow expectations. 3 of 14
  • 4. FET8601 2005-S1 Assignment 2 D1010925 Allan Carrington Critical Definition/s Principle/s Operational Element underlying its Activities importance Open Continuing a thread of Assists greatly in con- Learners also need discussion using reply necting thoughts and some guidance on us- Communication feature of software 1 communication pro- ing threaded discus- cesses. It is reflective sion - especially how of the verbal idea the use the subject bouncing type of com- line for ease of identifi- . munication. It devel- cation in a list ops ideas and builds up each communica- tor Referring to and Quot- Proper acknowledg- Proper use of ‘>’ sym- ing others 1 ment of contributors bol of indenting. Dis- and is honouring to cussion does not have their contributions to be formal but it is an opportunity to mod- el good acknowledg- ment and citing Asking Questions of People like to be help- Teachers/facilitators fellow learners or the ful and asked the right need to be shown how facilitator. 1 way they can build re- to write for discussion lationships. It sends a prompting. Often the message to the per- use of questioning can son being asked that stimulate reflection their opinion is valued and lead to learning without actually an- swering. Complimenting and Giving honour is not a Again facilitator mod- expressing apprecia- strong cultural norm in eling is one of the tion of contribution 1 Australia but everyone most effective ways to is built up by it. Again make expressing ap- builds trust and sense preciation a communi- of worth ty value Expressing Agree- Validation of each oth- The key is “express- ment with others or er and/or each others ing” - people often content of others mes- thinking and conclu- agree but never think sages. 1 sions builds trust. to share that with oth- ers learners need to know sharing is good. 4 of 14
  • 5. FET8601 2005-S1 Assignment 2 D1010925 Allan Carrington Critical Definition/s Principle/s Operational Element underlying its Activities importance Cohesive Use Vocatives - Everyone appreciates Again it needs to be i.e.addressing or re- being addressed by modeled as too often Communication ferring to participants their own name we drop names for by name 1 nicknames and “mate” etc. Addresses or refers to Builds sense of team Needs to be a con- the groups using in- bonding and “family” scious effort and some clusive pronouns such team building exercise as ‘we’ ‘us’ and ‘our’.1 helps Phatics and saluta- It makes social con- Needs to modeled tions to make a purely tact and often sets the also as communica- social function; greet- tone of the communi- tion tends to lean to- ings, closures. 1 cations ward ‘businesslike’ and focused when learners are focused on content and demonstrating profi- ciency Immediacy Quick responses to The culture is such When fellow learners communication by that slow responses and especially teach- Communication both teachers and fel- give the impression of ers need to be consis- low learners. 2 neglect or lack of con- tently aware of the sideration. Quick re- need for quick re- sponses send a mes- sponse - even if only sage of importance acknowledgment of receipt Conceptual Framework : Cognitive Presence When learning is defined by process and outcome cognitive presence speaks to intent and actu- al learning outcomes. It is defined as the extent to which learners are able to construct and con- firm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical Community of Inquiry. Garrison Anderson and Archer 2001:11 as cited in Garrison, D.R. & Anderson, T. (2003) E- Learning in the 21st Century. London. RoutledgeFalmer 5 of 14
  • 6. FET8601 2005-S1 Assignment 2 D1010925 Allan Carrington Critical Definition/s Principle/s Operational Element underlying its Activities importance Reflective or Criti- Creative thinking is Involves intuitive Intuition is not “out of cal Thinking the ability to imagine thinking and insight. the blue” experience or invent something Out of this often later- whereas insight is a new and a divergent al thinking “outside classic “ah aha” phe- process focused on the box” comes nomenon. Courses re- the early stages of progress. quire learning space critical thinking 1 for brainstorming and Subconscious induc- non evaluative dis- tive processes a prod- course and processing uct of practical delib- eration Critical thinking is syn- Involves imagination, Educational experi- oymous with inquiry deliberation and ac- ences need to be less and an inclusive pro- tion. Construct mean- contrived and recog- cess of higher-order ing apply and gener- nise how individuals reflection and dis- ate hypothesis construct meaning course. 1 Problem Solving is a A question of empasis Problems need to be convergent process and purpose. Over- well designed to focused on the latter laps individual world avoid condemning stages of critical think- of meaning & shared learners to assimilat- ing 1 world of meaning ing inert knowledge Practical Inquiry Triggering the event Involves puzzlement. Somewhat contrived initiates the phase of educational experi- inquiry, It is evocative Preferably a dilemma ence which is well and inductive. 1 or problem learners thought out and will could relate to from prompt full engage- their experience or ment and buy-in from previous studies learners Exploration first re- This process is inquis- Individuals try to make quires understanding itive and divergent sense of what may the problem then seem to be complexity search for relevant in- Here learners will ex- and confusion formation and possi- perience iteration be- ble explanations 1 tween reflective and Done through group shared worlds as activities and brain- ideas are explored storming and/or more collectively private activities such as literature searches 6 of 14
  • 7. FET8601 2005-S1 Assignment 2 D1010925 Allan Carrington Critical Definition/s Principle/s Operational Element underlying its Activities importance Practical Inquiry Integration of ideas is It is a tentative and Synthesizing of solu- cont. a decision process to convergent process tions bring order and focus. and highly reflective. 1 There is support that However learners are asynchronous text- also engaged in criti- based communication cal discourse that will may well facilitate shape understanding deep and meaningful learning outcomes Teachers must probe for understanding and misconceptions and model the critical thinking process Resolution is con- Accomplished by di- The resolution phase structing a meaningful rect or vicarious ac- in good educational framework or discov- tion. environments trigger ering a contextually new cycles of inquiry specific solution to a Seldom fully achieved and thereby encour- problem. 1 and raise further age continuous learn- questions and issues ing. Learning Learning Centred In- Instructional designs The focus must be on struction changes the must address com- learner initiated inquiry Centredness foci of the curricula plex interrelationships and exploration. from content mastery between learning towards "learning how task, media attributes From the sage on the to learn" curricula. 2 and the learner’s cog- stage to the guide on nitive processes the side (see Direct In- struction below) Knowledge transfer is time limited - as the knowledge is out of date so quickly there- for knowing how to learn is the only way Conceptual Framework : Teaching Presence Defined as “the design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the pur- pose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes” (An- derson 2000). It is what a teacher does to create a Community of Inquiry that includes both cog- nitive and social presence. Garrison, D.R. & Anderson, T. (2003) E-Learning in the 21st Century. London. RoutledgeFalmer 7 of 14
  • 8. FET8601 2005-S1 Assignment 2 D1010925 Allan Carrington Critical Definition/s Principle/s Operational Element underlying its Activities importance Instructional De- Instructional design is Building the curricu- Here the crucial task sign and Organisa- to do with the macro- lum for elearning is of selecting both indi- tion level structure and more complex in that vidual and collabora- process before the it provides much more tive tasks needs to be learning process be- content by linking. made gins 1 However also it de- creases content be- The time and effort cause of interactivity spent in the design phase will be reflected If elearning is to be a in the outcomes collaborative, con- structivist process Design should be sep- learners must have arated from delivery some influence on what is studied and how it is approached Organisation on the No matter how much Involves such things other hand is to do design there will al- as use of groups, es- with the macro-level ways be need of in tablishing time param- structure and process process organization- eters, making macro- during the learning- al decisions. level comments about teaching transaction. 1 course content and establishing netiquette Facilitating Facilitating discourse The teacher plays an Postings must be for the purpose of essential role and the closely monitored and Discourse building understand- reflective and rigorous the nature and timing ing is the heart of the nature of text-based of responses must be elearning experience. communication de- considered. Teachers 1 mands serious com- identify areas of mitment agreement and dis- agreement, encourag- ing and reinforcing contributions and drawing in learners 8 of 14
  • 9. FET8601 2005-S1 Assignment 2 D1010925 Allan Carrington Critical Definition/s Principle/s Operational Element underlying its Activities importance Direct Instruction Direct Instruction goes Recently DI has been Teachers should (DI) beyond that of the fa- ignored and/or down- present content and cilitation role and the graded questions, focus and teacher’s scholarly summarize the discus- leadership manifests Teachers should sys- sion. They should con- itself here. 1 tematically build learn- firm understanding ing experiences. A through assessment more accurate defini- and feedback, diag- tion of the change in nose misconceptions the teacher is “ From and inject knowledge. the sage on the stage to the sage on the side ” Conceptual Framework : Educational Experience Garrison and Anderson’s model shows how when Teaching Presence is applied to an environ- ment where Social Presence and Cognitive Presence are interacting together a Community of Inquiry is formed and it creates an educational experience Garrison, D.R. & Anderson, T. (2003) E-Learning in the 21st Century. London. RoutledgeFalmer Interaction and Interaction functions Interaction focuses on Four types of interac- as an attribute of ef- people’s behaviors tion Interactivity fective instruction. 2 Teachers must ac- (1) Learner-content: knowledge each form can be encouraged by of interaction, their im- hyperlinking and good portance and create web savvy layout and- formatting “space” for all the types of interaction (2) Learner-instructor: Teachers need to be monitoring the Com- munity of Inquiry daily and responding when and where needed in a timely manner. (3) Learner-learner: again teachers can encourage this and lead learners into this form of interaction. 9 of 14
  • 10. FET8601 2005-S1 Assignment 2 D1010925 Allan Carrington Critical Definition/s Principle/s Operational Element underlying its Activities importance Interaction and Interactivity on the Interactivity focuses The distinction be- other hand functions on characteristics of tween the two defini- Interactivity cont. as an attribute of con- the technology sys- tions is not clear. e.g. temporary instruction- The fourth interaction tems. described in Gunawar- al delivery systems. 2 dena and Zittle 2 seems better placed here (4) Learner-interface: Designers and Teach- ers must always be conscious of usability and interface design. Learners often need technical support and forums for technology orientation. Even tech- nology credit courses may be needed Cognitive Peer Collaboration is Learners using peer Can be used to sup- the support of fellow collaboration tend to port curriculum design Apprenticeship learners and can oc- be more open and and implementation cur in various forms: vulnerable to each one-to-one or group other and learning be- Trust is vital and collaboration struc- comes very meaning- learners can bond tured or unstructured. ful strongly and help each 3 other be more suc- cessful learners 10 of 14
  • 11. FET8601 2005-S1 Assignment 2 D1010925 Allan Carrington Critical Definition/s Principle/s Operational Element underlying its Activities importance Cognitive Mentorship is the sup- Epistemological posi- Conceptual and factu- port of a knowledge- tion is important when al knowledge as well Apprenticeship able person or profes- defining knowledge as procedures for cont. sional sharing knowl- transfer. Appentice- problem solving in the edge. 3 ship can mean learner target area is called doesn’t “know” until domain knowledge he/she is a “cognitive this is gained by pro- clone” of the mentor cesses of modeling, (Hebrew concept of observation & succes- knowing) which is far sive approximations superior to the other view that knowledge This is achieved can be shared like through such things as passing a book (the scaffolding which is in- Greek view). tellectual support which fades as the learners progresses. Also sequencing in- struction is important. The learner moves from less to more complex learning tasks and he/she in- creasingly assumes the responsibilities and tasks of a practic- ing researcher. Online Learning and Teaching Environment Grid Key The indexed definitions were constructed from various parts of the texts in the following references. (1) Garrison, D.R. & Anderson, T. (2003) E-Learning in the 21st Century. London. RoutledgeFalmer (2) Gunawardena, C. & Zittle, R. 1996, 'An examination of teaching and learning processes in dis- tance education and implications for designing instruction', in Distance Education Symposium 3: Instruction, ACSDE Research Monograph, ed. M. Beaudoin, no. 12, pp. 51-63. (3) Teles, L. 1993, 'Cognitive apprenticeship on global networks', in Global Networks, ed L. Ha- rasim, MIT Press, Massachusetts. Learners and Teachers are Morphing The University of Adelaide is traditionally considered a “sandstone” university culture. There are very few distance programs yet the emergence of technologies that make it easier for two-way communication such as teleconferencing and web-based computer-mediated communication is im- pacting the face-to-face delivery of courses as well. Doing a SWOT Analysis (Strengths, Weak- 11 of 14
  • 12. FET8601 2005-S1 Assignment 2 D1010925 Allan Carrington nesses, Opportunities and Threats) of blended learning using ICT in a face-to-face learning and teaching environment is beyond the scope of this paper. However this “revolution” is fueling the changing roles of teachers and learners. Once the role of the teacher involved the transmission of information, being the subject-matter ex- pert and leading learners’ actions. Learners on the other hand acted as passive receptacles for hand-me-down knowledge (Berge 2000). These were the roles of the teaching-centred model and expecting to teach learners all they need to know in their field today is na ï ve thinking at best. The focus has turned from facts transfer to learning how to learn and the learners themselves. To change to a learner-controlled instructional system and to maximize interaction the “sage on the stage” needs to move beyond the “guide on the side” and mature to the “sage on the side”. (See the implications of Direct Instruction in the Cognitive Presence framework of the Online Learning and Teaching Environment Grid). Also interaction means more than human contact, it fosters the development of human content. People not only communicate but they help each other. This cre- ates a deep layer of learning content that no instructional designer could ever hope to create. This move provokes a radical shift in the power and interaction structures in the classroom and learners must accept the responsibility to construct their own knowledge and the teacher must re- linquish a certain amount of control over the process. Not only do some teachers find this hard but often learners do as well. Barajas (2003) classifies both the teacher and learner roles. The following category headings are from the paper “Is the Role of the Teacher as the ‘Knowledge Authority’ in Danger in the ICT- Learning Setting?” (Barajas 2003) •Teacher as learner in the classroom: This is often in the speciality of ICT competences. However good teachers are comfortable with the inductive approach to teaching where they posi- tion themselves as co-travellers with other learners as they journey into discovery. Not as a ruse but a genuine “hey there has always got to be a better way – let’s discover it together?“ Of course this opens the way for the teacher to genuinely ask questions – teachers have to become expert questioners. •Teacher as tutor: They have to go beyond content providers. For instance, in online discus- sions the tutor facilitates communication and it is possible to distinguish these tutor roles o The tutor as modeler: They stimulate the learners by creating materials and situations for active learning. They present multiple perspectives on topics, emphasising notable points. o The tutor as coach, consultant, referee, assessor and ’helpline’: They focus on student learning styles. Teachers provide only the initial structure to student work, encour- aging self-direction. Negotiable expectations, clearly expressed, encourage deep ap- proaches to learning. Assessment must be congruent with expected learning outcomes Learning is confirmed through assessment (Teaching principles Garrison and Anderson) o The tutor as scaffold: Which is more of a guide and monitor, bringing parties together as manager, provider and broker. As discussed in the Grid as part of Cognitive Apprentice- ship, this fades as learners progress. •Teacher as collaborator with students: Many times in ICT based activities project-based learning is the pedagogical strategy. In such activities teachers tend to participate as peers togeth- er with the learners. The teacher’s willingness to serve both the learners and the learning will influ- ence their effectiveness as collaborators. However control creates commitment and encourages personal responsibility to monitor and manage meaningful approaches to learning (Teaching princi- ples Garrison and Anderson) •Teacher as developer: Teachers become designers of learning experiences rather than just providers of content. They develop materials mainly in electronic format or provide input to profes- sional developers. Choice in content and process is a catalyst for spontaneous and creative learn- ing experiences and outcomes while recognizing and valuing intuition and insight (Teaching princi- ples Garrison and Anderson) 12 of 14
  • 13. FET8601 2005-S1 Assignment 2 D1010925 Allan Carrington •Teacher as researcher: A view that promotes the teacher as a researcher of his/her own edu- cational experiences as a way to reflect and internalise the innovations promoted in the classroom. They are able to use research outcomes to help planning and improving learners’ learning experi- ences with ICT and make them appropriate to their needs within the curriculum framework. •Teacher as lifelong ICT trainee: Teachers need to adjust to the reality that they will be work- ing on ICT literacy for the rest of their professional lives. They will be constantly involved in retrain- ing in both technical and pedagogical innovations. •Teacher as a member of a team of teachers: This is due to the complexity involved in col- laborative courses such as international ones or other types of distributed learning arrangements. This reduces the isolation sometimes experienced by teachers. These teaching methods are labour-intensive for both teachers and support staff and even more demanding for the learners. This is seldom recognised by traditional faculty reward systems. Teachers’ and learners’ roles are interdependent. If the roles of the teacher are moderator, tutor, etc., learners need to become self-reliant, active searchers for relevant information. The role of a self-reliant learner is the corollary to a less directed role of the teacher. This raises the level of learners’ responsibility in learning. (Barajas et al. 2003) The roles of students appear to depend on: a) the pedagogical approach used in classroom, b) the roles played by the teacher, and c) the classroom peers. Some of the roles identified include: •Student as teacher: ICT use often encourages social and active learning. Learners become constructors of their own knowledge and they become complex problem solvers. Also new peda- gogical concepts enable learners to understand the role of the teacher as more actively integrated into the teaching/learning process. The Community of Inquiry framework with active social pres- ence creates a learning community that provides a safe place for leadership experimentation and often the learners become teachers to each other. •Student as collaborator: An important concept to break down the isolation of online learners working individually. •Student as cooperator: They cooperate in teamwork where they may undertake various team roles (for example leader, expert, moderator, affective supporter, record keeper etc.) Conclusions In general, students tend to adopt a more active, motivated, deep and self-regulated learning role. Collaborative rather than individual learning tends to occur. Teachers tend to move from a tradition- al role toward one of a “learning facilitator”. Nevertheless, these changes tend to be restricted to learning situations which employ ICT-based “open” applications, as interactive educational pro- grams, use of Internet as information resource, etc. (Barajas 2003) Technology-enhanced learning has served as a catalyst for speeding up the move toward learner- centred approaches, especially in online education. The type of cultural change technology often makes necessary, demands new roles and functions on the part of the learners, teachers, the cur- riculum and in many ways, to the educational institutions themselves. (Berge et al 2000) References Anderson, T., Rourke, L., Garrison, D.R., Archer, W., Assessing Teaching Presence in a Computer Conferencing Context. JALN Volume 5, Issue 2 - September 2001 [Accessed 18 Apr 2005] http://www.aln.org/publications/jaln/v5n2/pdf/v5n2_anderson.pdf. 13 of 14
  • 14. FET8601 2005-S1 Assignment 2 D1010925 Allan Carrington Barajas, M., Scheuermann, F. Kikis, K. (2003) Is the Role of the Teacher as the ‘Knowledge Au- thority’ in Danger in the ICT-Learning Setting?, published in elearningeuropa.info. [Accessed 28 Apr 2005] http://www.elearningeuropa.info/index.php?page=doc&doc_id=580&doclng=6&menu- zone=1 Berge Z., (2000) New Roles for Learners and Teachers in Online Higher Education published in GlobalEducator [Accessed 28 April 2005] http://www.globaled.com/articles/BergeZane2000.pdf Collins, M. & Berge, Z. 1996, 'Facilitating interaction in computer mediated online courses', Paper presented at FSU/AECT Distance Education Conference, Talahasee [Accessed 13 April 2005] http://www.emoderators.com/moderators/flcc.html Garrison, D.R. & Anderson, T. (2003) E-Learning in the 21st Century. London. RoutledgeFalmer Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (in press). Critical Thinking and Computer Conferenc- ing:A Model and Tool to Assess Cognitive Presence. American Journal of Distance Education. [Ac- cessed 25 April 2005] http://communitiesofinquiry.com/documents/CogPres_Final.pdf Gunawardena, C. & Zittle, R. 1996, 'An examination of teaching and learning processes in distance education and implications for designing instruction', in Distance Education Symposium 3: Instruc- tion, ACSDE Research Monograph, ed. M. Beaudoin, no. 12, pp. 51-63. http://studydesk.usq.e- du.au/webct/RelativeResourceManager/Template/FET8601%20folder/unit_resources/objects/Copy right%20Resource/8/default.htm Research into Online Communites of Inquiry Website published by the University of Calgary [Ac- cessed 25 April 2005] http://communitiesofinquiry.com/ Roblyer M.D. and Ekhaml, L. (2000) How Interactive are YOUR Distance Courses? A Rubric for Assessing Interaction in Distance Learning [Accessed 18 Apr 2005] http://www.westga.edu/~distance/roblyer32.html Rourke, L., Anderson, T. Garrison, D. R., & Archer, W. (1999). Assessing social presence in asyn- chronous, text-based computer conferencing. Journal of Distance Education, 14(3), 51-70. [Ac- cessed 25 April 2005] http://communitiesofinquiry.com/documents/SocialPresence_Final.pdf Rourke, L., Anderson, T., Garrison, D. R., & Archer, W. (2001). Methodological Issues in the Con- tent Analysis of Computer Conference Transcripts. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 12(1), 8-22. [Accessed 25 April 2005] http://communitiesofinquiry.com/documents/Meth- PaperFinal.pdf Royai, A. P., Building Sense of Community at a Distance. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning (April - 2002) [Accessed 18 Apr 2005] http://www.irrodl.org/content/v3.1/rovai.html Teles, L. 1993, 'Cognitive apprenticeship on global networks', in Global Networks, ed L. Harasim, MIT Press, Massachusetts. http://studydesk.usq.edu.au/webct/RelativeResourceManager/Tem- plate/FET8601%20folder/unit_resources/objects/Copyright%20Resource/17/default.htm Wilson, G. and Stacey, E., Online interaction impacts on learning: Teaching the teachers to teach online [Accessed 16 Apr 2005] http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet20/wilson.html 14 of 14