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Days of Future Past



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  • The "world churns out new digital information equivalent to the entire collection of the U.S. Library of Congress every 15 minutes. Such a proliferation of information in digital format, occurring almost 100 times a day, adds up to approximately five exabytes (five quintillion bytes or five billion gigabytes) a year []
  • Web 2.0: Source: For more information & interesting graphic: What Is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software / Tim O’Reilly Mashup defined: “a website or web application that seamlessly combines content from more than one source into an integrated experience. Content used in mashups is typically sourced from a third party via a public interface or API . Other methods of sourcing content for mashups include Web feeds (e.g. RSS or Atom ) and JavaScript includes.” []
  • Cascading commodization Open standardization of content/software + exposure “ Any services that can abstracted to generic network services will be” -- Robin Murray
  • This is a recently-developed schematic OCLC is using to think about its own services across its products & services
  • Žumer, Maja. "Implementation of FRBR: European Research Initiative" Co-published simultaneously in Cataloging & Classification Quarterly . Vol. 39, No. 3/4 2005, pp. 229-237; and Functional Requirements of Bibliographic Records (FRBR): Hype or Cure-All? Haworth, 2005 pp. 229-237. Now, this is originally from a proposal for funding … so, maybe there’s a bit of hyperbole … but, if, at an over-simplified level, you characterize this quote as “ It’s the relationships, stupid !” you’ll have another essential point that I think we should take away from today
  • The FRBR model is made up of three sets of entities. Group 1 is a 4-level bibliographic model that’s described as you see here. [Read the slide] OK … what does this really mean? A work: Shakespeare’s Hamlet is a work … not any particular edition or version or translation … but Hamlet as an intellectual concept. An expression: this is a work realized in a particular version or translation. The original text of Hamlet is an expression; so is a French translation or a German one. A manifestation: this is an expression that is issued or published … So the edition of the Andre Gide French translation published in Paris in 1946 is a manifestation. An item: a copy of a manifestation on the shelves in a library … so the copy of Andre Gide’s translation of Hamlet in the stacks at the Library of Congress with the call number PR2779.H3G5 1946 *** These four entities in Group 1 are the product of intellectual or artistic endeavor. The entities form a hierarchy with work at the top of the model so it may help to see them in a diagram as here. This diagram begins to show how the Group 1 entities are related to each other. A single work can be realized in various expressions … for example, a work may be translated into many different languages (a one-to-many relationship). One or more expressions can be embodied in one or more manifestations (a many-to-many relationship)
  • *Similar to Family of works see: Tillett, Barbara. 2004. What is FRBR?: A Conceptual Model for the Bibliographic Universe. Available at: Incorporating the concepts of the FRBR model in systems: Superior presentation of search results Esp. in large files – more intuitive clustering May help streamline library cataloging Reduces repeated keying of work-related info Bibliographic & management intelligence New insights into works (e.g., OCLC’s 1000 list) Libraries can operate at workset level (e.g., ILL)
  • As of mid 2005?
  • Interface: Project page: What’s in* Fiction Drama Novels Short stories Text Including eBooks Sound Audiobooks & cassettes, etc. What’s out* Works about fiction, drama, etc. Movies, films, video Music
  • Web services are modular, web-based, machine-to-machine applications that can be combined in various ways.
  • The implementation of Web services support in several widely-adopted platforms and applications presents an opportunity to offer terminology Web services in a variety of modular arrangements. OCLC Research is making a set of services for genre vocabularies available on an experimental basis. Services are provided through the MS Office Research pane, a built-in feature of Internet Explorer when users have loaded MS Office 2003. Vocabularies can be stored as full text databases, SQL databases or XML files, and can be accessed with SRW/U, REST or SOAP based interfaces. Using MARC XML as input, OCLC’s experimental implementation uses the OCLC Pears full text database software along with an SRW Web service interface to access the vocabularies. The terminology Web service acts as a proxy to the vocabularies providing query and markup translation along with authentication and authorization, when necessary. The Microsoft Research pane, item one (lower right), provides a service oriented architecture (SOA) framework for accessing terminology services. SOA is an approach to distributed computing where services are loosely coupled and discoverable on the network. Microsoft has defined a public schema, known as Research Services, for interaction with the Research pane client. The Research Services Web service (Query translation) is used as a proxy to any backend storage technology containing controlled vocabularies. The diagram depicts access to various backend storage technologies through distributed Web service protocol technologies such as SRW/U, REST and SOAP. Our architecture insulates access to the various backend storage technologies because the controlled vocabularies may not reside at OCLC. However, the Web service (Query translation) could have accessed those backend storage technologies directly and/or use the distributed Web service protocol technologies.
  • From “Ajax: A New Approach to Web Applications” / Jesse James Garrett
  • From “Ajax: A New Approach to Web Applications” / Jesse James Garrett
  • old Phoenix for fallback:


  • 1. Days of Future Past TechConnections 7 13 June 2006 Dublin, OH Eric Childress OCLC Research
  • 2. Outline
    • Big Picture
    • Libraryscape
    • Selected Work
      • FRBR
      • Loosely-coupled applications
      • Ajax
  • 3. Big Picture “ You look around you. Things they astound you.” Dawn: Dawn Is A feeling – The Moody Blues
  • 4. Pattern Recognition
    • Portable
      • Info devices, Net everywhere
    • Personalized
      • My way, Right now
    • Public
      • Sharing & Surfacing
    • Property
      • Permission-needed vs. Permission-granted
    • Pluggable
      • Think small, Play nice
  • 5. Data Rules
    • Deep indexing:
      • Amazon’s “Search Inside” and “Statistically Improbable Phrases”
      • Google, Yahoo, Microsoft underwriting library digitization work
      • Library space: NetLibrary & many others indexing content
      • Custom search feeds: Google Alerts , News topic RSS, etc.
    • Recommendation systems:
      • Amazon, Apple iTunes, other retailers – “people like you chose…”
      • Novel concepts: Pandora – suggests music based on intrinsic patterns of music you like (the “music genome”)
  • 6. Techscape
    • Web 2.0:
      • The Network spans all attached devices (e.g., iPods, phones, etc.)
      • Software resides on the Net, not the workstation
      • “ Participative Net” – social environment, shared content reused
    • System refactoring
      • Modularity (micro-services, remixing, multiple sources)
      • Layering (loosely-coupled systems)
      • Interoperability (low-friction, high reuse)
        • Lightweight protocols gaining favor (e.g., SRW/SRU , microformats )
      • Machine-oriented services (web services)
  • 7. Libraryscape “ Yesterday's dreams, Are tomorrow's sighs.” The Morning: Another Morning – The Moody Blues
  • 8. Libraries - next phase
    • Surfacing seamlessly
      • Point-of-need delivery (e.g., library content in non-library apps such as the Web, course management systems, etc.)
        • Open WorldCat , RedLightGreen , OAIster , etc.
      • Open standards, easy integration of data from many sources
    • Re-thinking, re-engineering
      • Library 2.0 changes systems & services
        • Moving towards “Lego”-like modularity in systems & data
        • User-tasks-oriented designs (e.g., NCSU catalog )
        • Adding means for users to contribute, shape their own experiences
      • Supporting Library 2.0 will mean changing organizations & operations
        • More building space for people-to-people interaction, less for books
        • Process & operational changes
          • Example: Choose-acquire-catalog vs. Acquire-choose-catalog
  • 9. Robin Murray [ ppt ] Synthesize - to combine often diverse conceptions into a coherent whole. Synthesize Mobilize Specialize - involve specific knowledge in order to serve a particular purpose; to apply or direct to specific end or use. Specialize Mobilize - to put into action Workplace applications - points of need
    • Local service
    • Local added value
    • Local context
    • Local knowledge
    Library Systems Atomic Library Services Atomic ‘non-Library’ Services
  • 10. Visioning activities anew
  • 11. Selected Work “ Dawn is a feeling.” Dawn: Dawn Is A feeling – The Moody Blues
  • 12. Technology to watch
    • Model:
      • FRBR (Functional Requirements of Bibliographic Records)
    • Approach:
      • Loosely-coupled applications
      • AJAX
  • 13.
    • “ The FRBR model is revolutionary. The (computer) catalogue is not seen as a sequence of bibliographic records and a replica of the traditional card catalogue, but rather as a network of connected data , enabling the user to perform seamlessly all the necessary functions.”
    • -Dr. Maja Žumer. National and University Library, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 14. FRBR basics
    • FRBR = Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
      • Developed by cataloging experts working under the auspices of IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions)
    • FRBR is from a document issued by IFLA:
      • Functional Requirements For Bibliographic Records: Final Report (1998)
    • FRBR is a conceptual model ( not a standard!)
      • FRBR systematically models the bibliographic universe
  • 15. FRBR Group 1 Entities Work Expression Is realized through A distinct intellectual or artistic creation The intellectual or artistic realization of a work The physical embodiment of an expression A single exemplar of a manifestation Is exemplified by Item Manifestation Is embodied in
  • 16. OCLC FRBR work set algorithm-based cluster of related WorldCat records Original English Translation Illustrated edition Abridged edition Adaptation Expressions Work¹ Work² e¹ e² e³ e¹
  • 17. Works with 1 manifestation: 87% Works with between 2 and 5 manifestations: 12% Works with > 5 manifestations: 1% Works with 1 manifestation: 43% of total holdings Works with between 2 and 5 manifestations: 40% of total holdings Works with > 5 manifestations: 17% of total holdings Manifestations By Holdings Works in WorldCat
  • 18. Sample FRBR implementations
  • 19. xISBN
    • OCLC Research prototype
    • Reveals all ISBNs associated with individual works in WorldCat
    • Web service:
      • URL syntax query (submit an ISBN)
      • Simple XML response (all ISBNs in workset)
        • Ex: Dune
    • Users:
      • Various, loosely-coupled look-it-up applications
      • Copyright Clearance Center
    • OCLC Research team:
      • Thom Hickey (lead)
      • Jenny Toves
      • Jeff Young
  • 20. FictionFinder
    • OCLC Research prototype
    • Supports searching & browsing of fiction materials cataloged in WorldCat
      • Fiction records — 2.8 million
      • Unique works — 1.4 million
      • Total holdings — 130 million
    • Employs FRBR to:
      • Build a “work” view & cluster related records
      • Support the creation of special indexes
    • OCLC Research team:
      • Diane Vizine-Goetz (lead)
      • Roger Thompson
      • Carol Hickey
      • J.D. Shipengrover
    • New version:
      • Available later in 2006
      • Improved navigation & work-based displays
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25. Sample loosely-coupled application
  • 26. Terminology Services Project
    • OCLC Research prototype
    • Explores Semantic Web value of vocabularies
      • Enriched versions of controlled vocabularies & classification schemes
      • Multiple formats (MARCXML, SKOS, Zthes)
      • Machine-friendly (e.g., web services)
    • Nascent work on vocabulary identifier issues
    • Product version out mid-2006
    • OCLC Research team:
      • Diane Vizine-Goetz (lead)
      • Carol Hickey
      • Andrew Houghton
      • Tram Nguyen-Pham
      • Roger Thompson
  • 27. Terminology Services Architecture SRW/U REST SOAP Browser Sidebar Metadata Editing Application
    • Registration
    • Query handling
    • Markup translation
    • Authorization/Authentication
    Full Text SQL XML 1 2 3 Storage Technology Layer Application Protocol Layer Web Service Proxy Microsoft Office Research Pane
  • 28.  
  • 29. Sample AJAX implementation
  • 30. Ajax
    • Stands in for “ Asynchronous JavaScript+CSS+DOM+XMLHttpRequest ”
    • Eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server
    • Being used extensively by Google, adopted by others
    • Technolgies used together:
    • standards-based presentation using XHTML and CSS
    • dynamic display and interaction using the Document Object Model
    • data interchange and manipulation using XML and XSLT
    • asynchronous data retrieval using XMLHttpRequest
    • and JavaScript binding everything together.
  • 31. Ajax “Ajax: A New Approach to Web Applications” / Jesse James Garrett
  • 32.  
  • 33. Live Search
    • OCLC Research prototype
    • Features:
      • Quick searches target with each additional keystroke of search term/phrase
      • Retrieves ordered, FRBR-inspired results (combined with holdings-based ranking)
      • Narrow-by Dewey attributes (expressed as captions)
    • OCLC Research Team:
      • Thom Hickey (lead)
      • Jenny Toves
      • Ralph LeVan
    • Files being prototyped:
      • Phoenix Public+DDC
      • LCSH
  • 34. Narrow by natural facets (“categories”) of any given result set
  • 35. item data drawn from Phoenix Public’s OPAC
  • 36. Further reading
    • OCLC Reports
    • OCLC Research
    • OCLC-related blogs:
      • Lorcan Dempsey
      • Thom Hickey
      • Stu Weibel
      • It’s All Good