With the expansion of the IEEE 802
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    With the expansion of the IEEE 802 With the expansion of the IEEE 802 Presentation Transcript

    • Computer Society Standards Considered to Have the Most Impact No. Standard Rationale/Background 1. IEEE 802 refers to a family of More specifically, the IEEE 802 standards are restricted to networks carrying IEEE standards about local variable-size packets. (By contrast, in cell-based networks data is transmitted area networks and in short, uniformly sized units called cells. Isochronous networks, where data metropolitan area networks is transmitted as a steady stream of octets, or groups of octets, at regular time intervals, are also out of the scope of this standard.). The IEEE 802 family of standards is maintained by the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee (LMSC). The most widely used standards are for the Ethernet family, Token Ring, Wireless LAN, Bridging and Virtual Bridged LANs. An individual Working Group provides the focus for each area. The increasing need for mobility has spawned the greatest growth in the use of wireless technology, expanding from enterprise verticals, such as healthcare and retail, to general use in corporations, schools, hotels, airports, coffee shops and more 2. The IEEE Standard for The IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is Binary Floating-Point the most widely-used standard for floating-point computation, and is followed Arithmetic (IEEE 754) by many CPU and FPU implementations. The standard defines formats for representing floating-point numbers (including ±zero and denormals) and special values (infinities and NaNs) together with a set of floating-point operations that operate on these values. It also specifies four rounding modes and five exceptions (including when the exceptions occur, and what happens when they do occur). IEEE 754 specifies four formats for representing floating-point values: single- precision (32-bit), double-precision (64-bit), single-extended precision (≥ 43- bit, not commonly used) and double-extended precision (≥ 79-bit, usually implemented with 80 bits). Only 32-bit values are required by the standard, the others are optional. Many languages specify that IEEE formats and arithmetic be implemented, although sometimes it is optional. For example, with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 1 of 16 5/20/2010
    • No. Standard Rationale/Background the C programming language, which pre-dated IEEE 754, now allows but does not require IEEE arithmetic (the C float typically is used for IEEE single-precision and double uses IEEE double-precision). The full title of the standard is IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (ANSI/IEEE Std 754-1985), and it is also known as IEC 60559:1989, Binary floating-point arithmetic for microprocessor systems (originally the reference number was IEC 559:1989). 3. IEEE 1284 Standards for IEEE 1284 is a standard that defines bi-directional parallel communications Parallel Interfaces between computers and other devices. In the 1970's, Centronics developed the now familiar printer parallel interface that soon became a de facto standard. The standard became non-standard as enhanced versions of the interface were developed, such as the HP Bitronics implementation released in 1992. In 1991 the Network Printing Alliance was formed to develop a new standard. In March of 1994, IEEE 1284 was released. The IEEE 1284 standard allows for faster throughput and bidirectional data flow with a theoretical maximum throughput of 4 megabits per second, with actual around 2 depending on hardware. In the printer venue, this allows for faster printing and back channel status and management. Since the new standard allowed the peripheral to send large amounts of data back to the host, devices that had previously used SCSI interfaces could be produced at a much lower cost. This included scanners, tape drives, hard disks, computer networks connected directly via parallel interface, network adapters and other devices. No longer was the consumer required to purchase an expensive SCSI card- they could simply use their built in parallel interface. These low cost devices provided a platform to leapfrog the faster USB interface into its present popularity, displacing the parallel devices. However, the parallel interface remains highly popular in the printer industry with displacement by with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 2 of 16 5/20/2010
    • No. Standard Rationale/Background USB only in consumer models. IEEE 1284 standards • IEEE 1284-1994: Standard Signaling Method for a Bi-directional Parallel Peripheral Interface for Personal Computers • IEEE 1284.1-1997: Transport Independent Printer/System Interface- a protocol for returning printer configuration and status • IEEE 1284.2: Standard for Test, Measurement and Conformance to IEEE 1284 (not approved) • IEEE 1284.3-2000: Interface and Protocol Extensions to IEEE 1284- Compliant Peripherals and Host Adapters- a protocol to allow sharing of the parallel port by multiple peripherals (daisy chaining) • IEEE 1284.4-2000: Data Delivery and Logical Channels for IEEE 1284 Interfaces- allows a device to carry on multiple, concurrent exchanges of data Parallel Port Background When IBM introduced the PC, in 1981, the parallel printer port was included as an alternative to the slower serial port as a means for driving the latest high performance dot matrix printers. The parallel port had the capability to transfer 8 bits of data at time whereas the serial port transmitted one bit at a time. When the PC was introduced, dot matrix printers were the main peripheral that used the parallel port. As technology progressed and the need for greater external connectivity increased, the parallel port became the means by which you could connect higher performance peripherals. These peripherals now range from printer sharing devices, portable disk drives and with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 3 of 16 5/20/2010
    • No. Standard Rationale/Background tape backup to local area network adapters and CD ROM players. The problems faced by developers and customers of these peripherals fall into three categories. First, although the performance of the PC has increased dramatically, there has been virtually no change in the parallel port performance or architecture. The maximum data transfer rate achievable with this architecture is around 150 kilobytes per second and is extremely software intensive. Second, there is no standard for the electrical interface. This causes many problems when attempting to guarantee operation across various platforms. Finally, the lack of design standards forced a distance limitation of only 6 feet for external cables. In 1991 there was a meeting of printer manufacturers to start discussions on developing a new standard for the intelligent control of printers over a network. These manufacturers, which included Lexmark, IBM, Texas Instruments and others, formed the Network Printing Alliance. The NPA defined a set of parameters that, when implemented in the printer and host, will allow for the complete control of printer applications and jobs. While this work was in progress it became apparent that to fully implement this standard would require a high performance bi-directional connection to the PC. The usual means of connection, the ordinary PC parallel port, did not have the capabilities required to meet the full requirements or abilities of this standard. The NPA submitted a proposal to the IEEE for the creation of a committee to develop a new standard for a high speed bi-directional parallel port for the PC. It was a requirement that this new standard would remain fully compatible with the original parallel port software and peripherals, but would with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 4 of 16 5/20/2010
    • No. Standard Rationale/Background increase the data rate capability to greater than 1M bytes per second, both in and out of the computer. This committee became the IEEE 1284 committee. The IEEE 1284 standard, "Standard Signaling Method for a Bi-directional In 1991 there was a meeting of printer manufacturers to start discussions on developing a new standard for the intelligent control of printers over a network. These manufacturers, which included Lexmark, IBM, Texas Instruments and others, formed the Network Printing Alliance. The NPA defined a set of parameters that, when implemented in the printer and host, will allow for the complete control of printer applications and jobs. While this work was in progress it became apparent that to fully implement this standard would require a high performance bi-directional connection to the PC. The usual means of connection, the ordinary PC parallel port, did not have the capabilities required to meet the full requirements or abilities of this standard. The NPA submitted a proposal to the IEEE for the creation of a committee to develop a new standard for a high speed bi-directional parallel port for the PC. It was a requirement that this new standard would remain fully compatible with the original parallel port software and peripherals, but would increase the data rate capability to greater than 1M bytes per second, both in and out of the computer. This committee became the IEEE 1284 committee. The IEEE 1284 standard, "Standard Signaling Method for a Bi-directional Parallel Peripheral Interface for Personal Computers", was approved for final release in March of 1994. 4. IEEE 1394 or FireWire FireWire (also known as i.Link or IEEE 1394) is a personal computer and digital video serial bus interface standard offering high-speed with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 5 of 16 5/20/2010
    • No. Standard Rationale/Background communications and isochronous real-time data services. FireWire can be considered a successor technology to the obsolescent SCSI Parallel Interface. Up to 63 devices can be daisy-chained to one FireWire port. The IEEE 1394 multimedia connection enables simple, low-cost, high-bandwidth isochronous (real-time) data interfacing between computers, peripherals, and consumer electronics products such as camcorders, VCRs, printers, PCs, TVs, and digital cameras. With IEEE 1394-compatible products and systems, users can transfer video or still images from a camera or camcorder to a printer, PC, or television, with no image degradation.. Almost all modern digital camcorders have included this connection since 1995. All Macintosh computers currently produced have built-in FireWire ports, as do all Sony PCs and many PCs intended for home or professional audio/video use. FireWire was also used on the Apple iPod music player for a long time, permitting new tracks to be uploaded in a few seconds and also for the battery to be recharged concurrently with one cable, but newer models, like the iPod nano and the new fifth generation iPod, have completely dropped support for it. History of the IEEE 1394 Standard The 1394 digital link standard was conceived in 1986 by technologists at Apple Computer, who chose the trademark 'FireWire', in reference to its speeds of operation. The first specification for this link was completed in 1987. It was adopted in 1995 as the IEEE 1394 standard. A number of IEEE 1394 products are now available including digital camcorders with the IEEE 1394 link, IEEE 1394 digital video editing equipment, digital VCRs, digital cameras, digital audio players, 1394 IC's and a wealth of other infrastructure products such as connectors, cables, test equipment, software toolkits, and emulation models. with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 6 of 16 5/20/2010
    • No. Standard Rationale/Background Future of 1394 The strong multimedia orientation, self-configurability, peer-to-peer connectivity and high performance of 1394 have encouraged new, innovative product concepts soon to be released or in development now. With the advent this year of native IEEE 1394 support in Microsoft Windows operating systems, a number of new applications for 1394 will come forth that link the worlds of consumer and computer electronics. Benefits of 1394 Applications that benefit from IEEE 1394 include nonlinear (digital) video presentation and editing, desktop and commercial publishing, document imaging, home multimedia, and personal computing. The low overhead, high data rates of 1394, the ability to mix real-time and asynchronous data on a single connection, and the ability to mix low speed and high speed devices on the same network provides a truly universal connection for almost any consumer, computer, or peripheral application. 5. IEEE Std 730™, IEEE The Software Engineering Standards Subcommittee of the Technical Standard for Software Quality Committee on Software Engineering (TCSE) published its first standard, Assurance Plans, IEEE Std 730™, IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, on a trial-use basis three years later. The collection has now grown to over 40 documents. IEEE Software Engineering standards are used throughout industry today to maximize software development investments. Covering software engineering terminology, processes, tools, reuse, project management, plans, documentation and measurement IEEE Software Engineering standards are implemented in an array of disciplines, including: Computer science, Quality management, Project management, Systems Engineering, Dependability and with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 7 of 16 5/20/2010
    • No. Standard Rationale/Background Safety. Together, the more than 40 standards that comprise IEEE software engineering standards collection excel in technical integrity on an individual basis and each can take its place within a suite of standards that may be adopted in totality or in part by interested organizations. The standards are as follows: 1. 610.12-1990 Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology 2. 730-2002, Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans 3. 828-1998, Standard for Software Configuration Management Plans 4. 829-1998, Standard for Software Test Documentation 5. 830-1998, Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications 6. 821-1988, Standard Dictionary of Measures to Produce Reliable Software 7. 1008-1987 (R1993), Standard for Software Unit Testing 8. 1012-1998, Standard for Software Verification and Validation 9. 1012a-1998, Supplement to Standard for Software Verification and Validation 10. 1016-1998, Recommended Practice for Software Design Descriptions 11. 1028-1997, Standard for Software Reviews 12. 1044-1993, Standard Classification for Software Anomalies 13. 1045-1992, Standard for Software Productivity Metrics 14. 1058-1998, Standard for Software Project Management Plans 15. 1061-1998, Standard for a Software Quality Metrics Methodology 16. 1062-1998, Recommended Practice for Software Acquisition 17. 1063-2001, Standard for Software User Documentation 18. 1074-1997, Standard for Developing Software Life Cycle Processes with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 8 of 16 5/20/2010
    • No. Standard Rationale/Background 19. 1175.1-2002, Guide for CASE Tool Interconnections - Classification and Description 20. 1219-1998, Standard for Software Maintenance 21. 1220-1998, Standard for the Application and Management of the Systems Engineering 22. 1228-1994, Standard for Software Safety Plans 23. 1233-1998, Guide for Developing System Requirements Specifications 24. 1320.1-1998, Standard for Functional Modeling Language-Syntax and Semantics for IDEF0 25. 1320.2-1998, Standard for Conceptual Modeling Language Syntax and Semantics... 26. 1362-1998, Guide for Information Technology-System Definition- Concept of Operations 27. 1420.1-1995, Standard for Information Technology-Software Reuse- Data Model for Reuse 28. 1420.1a-1996, Supplement to Standard for Information Technology- Software Reuse-Data 29. 1420.1b-1999, IEEE Trial-Use Supplement to Standard for Information 30. 1462-1998, Standard - Adoption of International Standard ISO/IEC 14102: 1995; 31. 1465-1998, Standard - Adoption of International Standard ISO/IEC 12119: 1994(E) 32. 1471-2000, Recommended Practice for Architectural Description of Software Intensive 33. 1490-1998, Guide - Adoption of PMI Standard - A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge 34. 1517-1999, IEEE Standard for Information Technology-Software Life Cycle Processes-Reuse with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 9 of 16 5/20/2010
    • No. Standard Rationale/Background 35. 1540-2001, Standard for Software Life Cycle Processes- Risk Management 36. 2001-2002, Recommended Practice for Internet Practices - Web Page Engineering 37. 14143.1-2000, Adoption of ISO/IEC 14143-1:1998 Information Technology-Software 38. IEEE/EIA 12207.0-1996, Industry Implementation of International Standard ISO/IEC 12207: 1995 39. IEEE/EIA 12207.1-1996, Industry Implementation of International Standard ISO/IEC 12207: 1995 40. IEEE/EIA 12207.2-1997, Industry Implementation of International Standard ISO/IEC 12207: 1995 41. IEEE 15288™, "Systems Engineering: System Life Cycle Processes This collection is the basis for the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK) and the CSDP effort in place to certify software engineering professionals. With the adoption of ISO/IEC 12207 a standard that defines the major software engineering processes and ISO/IEC 15288 a standard that addresses the full life cycle of systems, the IEEE will share the same reference set of systems and software engineering processes as the ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 7 (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7) and make it easier for the two to create compatible standards. As holders of the world's two major collections of software engineering standards and standards for the engineering of systems containing software, these organizations are creating correspondence among their standards to eliminate user confusion and align work done under the standards from either organization. with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 10 of 16 5/20/2010
    • No. Standard Rationale/Background 6. IEEE 1003 (also registered as The SUS emerged from a mid-1980s project to standardize operating system ISO/IEC 9945), or POSIX, interfaces for software designed for variants of the Unix operating system. The need for standardization arose because enterprises using computers wanted to be able to develop programs that could be used on the computer systems of different manufacturers reimplementing the programs. Unix was selected as the basis for a standard system interface partly because it was manufacturer-neutral. These standards became IEEE 1003 (also registered as ISO/IEC 9945), or POSIX, which loosely stands for Portable Operating System Interface. Previously, The Open Group's Single UNIX Specification was separate from the official IEEE POSIX. The near-equivalent SUS became more popular with the involvement of several major vendors in the wake of the Unix wars because it was available for free, whereas the IEEE charged a substantial fee for access to the POSIX specification. Beginning in 1998 a joint working group, the Austin Group, began to develop the combined standard that would be known as the Single UNIX Specification Version 3. 7. the IEEE Standard Digital The Hewlett-Packard Instrument Bus (HP-IB), is a short-range digital Interface for Programmable communications cable standard developed by Hewlett-Packard (HP) in the Instrumentation, 1970s for connecting electronic test and measurement devices (e.g. digital IEEE-488-1978 (now 488.1). multimeters and logic analyzers) to control devices such as computers. Other manufacturers copied HP-IB, calling their implementation the General Purpose Instrumentation Bus (GPIB). In 1978 the bus was standardized by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers as the IEEE Standard Digital Interface for Programmable Instrumentation, IEEE-488-1978 (now 488.1). IEEE-488 allows up to 15 intelligent devices to share a single bus by daisy- with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 11 of 16 5/20/2010
    • No. Standard Rationale/Background chaining, with the slowest device participating in the control and data transfer handshakes to determine the speed of the transaction. The maximum data rate is about one megabyte per second. Paraphrasing the 1989 HP Test & Measurement Catalog: HP-IB has a party-line structure wherein all devices on the bus are connected in parallel. The 16 signal lines within the passive interconnecting HP-IB cable are grouped into three clusters according to their functions: Data Bus, Data Byte Transfer Control Bus, and General Interface Management Bus. In addition to the IEEE several other standards committees have adopted HP- IB. The American National Standards Institute's corresponding standard is known as ANSI Standard MC 1.1, and the International Electrotechnical Commission has its IEC Publication 625-1. In June 1987 the IEEE approved a revised standard for programmable instruments called IEEE-488-1987 (now 488.2): Codes, Formats, Protocols, and Common Commands. Hewlett- Packard's HP-IB implementation, however, still concurs to the aforementioned IEEE-488.1 version. Not specifically planned for at the outset by HP-IB's designers was the use of IEEE-488 as a standard peripheral interface by general-purpose computers. Such applications of the bus were made by the Commodore PET/CBM range of educational/home/personal computers, whose disk drives, printers, modems, etc, were daisy-chain connected to the (host) computer, 'talking' and 'listening' on the designated bus lines to perform their jobs. All of Commodore's post-PET/CBM 8-bit machines, from the VIC-20 to the C128, utilized a proprietary 'serial IEEE-488' for peripherals, with round DIN connectors instead of the heavy-duty HP-IB plugs. Tektronix's computer family (the 405x series) also used IEEE-488 as a with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 12 of 16 5/20/2010
    • No. Standard Rationale/Background peripheral interface. Hewlett-Packard's business computer group also used the HP-IB bus to control computer peripheral devices such as tape drives, printers etc. HP used standard HP-IB hardware and a protocol called 'CS-80' in their business computers. Additionally, some of HP's advanced pocket calculators/ computers of the 1980s, such as the HP-41 and HP-71 series, could work with various instrumentation via an optional HB-IB interface. The interface would connect to the calculator via an HP-IL module (Hewlett-Packard Instrument Loop, also optional). with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 13 of 16 5/20/2010
    • 08 March 2005 08:00 AM (GMT -05:00) Send Link Printer Friendly with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 14 of 16 5/20/2010
    • (From The Institute print edition) 9 Standards That Keep Your Computer Going BY ERICA VONDERHEID Ever wonder about the role IEEE standards play in your personal computer? They ensure many things go right—for example, that a disk drive from any manufacturer can be cabled to a computer from another, and that data can be readily downloaded from any digital camcorder to a computer. Thanks to nine IEEE standards, data flow in and out of the computer smoothly, software runs properly, and the information in the system can be protected from hackers. “IEEE standards are everywhere in a computer—for example, even buried way inside the microprocessor chip, where you might not even know they’re there,” says Senior Member Bob Grow, chair of the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet working group and principal architect in the Intel Communications Group in San Diego. These days, thanks to standards, “plug and play” is often taken for granted and we’re surprised when things don’t work. with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 15 of 16 5/20/2010
    • with-the-expansion-of-the-ieee-8024758.doc, Prepared by: J. Harauz-SAB Page 16 of 16 5/20/2010