Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003

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Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003
  2. 2. History of Microsoft NOS’s  Windows for Workgroups 3.11  2000/2003 line started with Windows NT 3.0  Evolved to first widespread use in NT 3.51  NT 4.0 included Windows 95-like interface  Windows 2000 followed introducing Active Directory  Windows 2003 builds on 2000’s strengths
  3. 3. Introduction to Windows 2000/2003 Server  Based on Windows NT technology  Advanced directory service  Built-in internet and LAN services  Several flavors based on needs:  Standard  Enterprise (adds clustering, higher RAM, greater SMP)  Datacenter (higher RAM, greater SMP over Enterprise)  Web (low-end for web serving only)
  4. 4. Some Benefits of Windows 2000/2003 Server NOS  Advanced system of organizing and managing network objects, called Active Directory  Multiple, integrated services manageable from a graphical interface  Support for multiple, modern protocols and security standards (Kerberos, LDAP)  Integration with other NOSs  Simple, centralized management of multiple clients  Flexible, customizable network management interface  Single management tool called MMC  Installation Services  Enterprise-wide management capabilities
  5. 5. Active Directory  Standards-based directory service  Stores basic user info and provides authentication  Extensible to fit needs of organization  Database-like
  6. 6. Active Directory  Schema  Set of definitions of kinds of objects and information associated with those objects that the Active Directory database can contain Figure 8-10: Active Directory and a simple user schema
  7. 7. AD Attributes Key Attribute CN Common Name L Locality ST State or Province O Organization OU Organizational Unit C Country STREET Street Address DC Domain Component UID Userid Example: ldap://cn=Mickel, Jason T (mickelj),ou=Administration,dc=juniata,dc=edu
  8. 8. Domains  Group of users, servers, and other resources that share a database of account and security information Figure 8-12: Multiple domains in one organization
  9. 9. Domains  Domain controller  Windows 2000/2003 server that contains a replica of the Active Directory  Member server  Does not hold directory information and, therefore, cannot authenticate users  Replication  Process of copying Active Directory data to multiple domain controllers
  10. 10. Domains Figure 8-13: A Windows 2000/2003 domain model network
  11. 11. Organizational Units  Container within an NOS directory used to group objects with similar characteristics or privileges Figure 8-14: A tree with multiple domains and OUs
  12. 12. Domain Layout at Juniata juniata.edu (Domain) Administration Faculty Students Computers Graduates Groups Guests (Users) (Users) (Users) Student Faculty Administration Shares Mailboxes
  13. 13. Active Directory Beyond Usernames & Passwords  AD stores limitless information about users, computers, printers, etc.  Built-in fields include:  Address/telephone  Department  Supervisor  Extended by applications to store other info  Exchange mailboxes  Can be extended manually to include organization specific data  uPortal groups and grad year  Most configuration data has a home in AD
  14. 14. User Types  The Guest account is a predefined user account with limited privileges that allows a user to log onto the computer  The Administrator account is a predefined user account that has the most extensive privileges for resources both on the computer and on the domain it controls  A local account only has rights on the server they are logged onto  A domain account has rights throughout the domain
  15. 15. Group Types  A domain local group is one that allows its members access to resources within a single domain  A global group allows its members access to resources within a single domain  A universal group is one that allows its members to access resources across multiple domains and forests
  16. 16. Services on Windows 2000/2003 Server  File/Print Server (Windows, UNIX, Macintosh)  Networking (DNS, DHCP, WINS, RAS, VPN)  Mail (SMTP, POP3, IMAP)  Web (HTTP, HTTPS, ASP)  File System (DFS)  Security (Certificate Authority)  Streaming Media
  17. 17. Windows 2000/2003 @ JC  AD Domain controllers (3)  DNS, DHCP, WINS  Exchange e-mail/groupware (Webmail)  VPN  Outside access  Wireless authentication  File/Print Server  Shares and user directories  Public and shared office printers  Tape Backup  SQL Database Server  Systems Management Server  Miscellaneous…
  18. 18. Techniques and Tools to Manage It All  Microsoft Management Console (MMC)  Event Logs  Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)  Command Prompt (cmd)  Batch/Command Files  Scripting  Group Policy  Remote Installation Services  Systems Management Server (SMS)
  19. 19. MMC  GUI Framework to add in all management tools  Tools are called “snap-ins”  Can add any MMC-aware snap-in from Microsoft or third party  MMC Demo…
  20. 20. Event Logs  Information about your server and processes  All servers have:  Application – applications and processes  Security – user and computer login information  System – services and boot processes  Domain Controllers have DNS, File Replication Service, and Directory Service logs  Best place to check first when problems arise
  21. 21. WMI  Service that contains all computer-specific info  CPU, Memory, Drives, Services, etc.  Can be queried from batch files and scripts  Instrumental to SMS and any other inventory process  Built-in to all Windows 2000, XP, 2003 installations
  22. 22. Command Prompt  This is where it all started!  Most Windows commands can be run from cmd  Some are cmd only  Quick way to get info and run commands vs. stepping through the GUI  Despite GUI, Windows has a powerful command language
  23. 23. Batch/Command Files  Series of commands that the server should execute  Quick to write, but…  Not very sophisticated  Simple programming language
  24. 24. Scripting  Windows Scripting Host  Sophisticated programming language  Based on Visual Basic/VBScript  Interfaces with WMI and other Windows internals  Automate Tasks  User/Group creation, modification, or deletion  Computer inventory  Manage shares
  25. 25. Group Policy  Centralized management tool for all or part of the enterprise  Collection of user and computer configuration settings  Ability to make configuration changes from a central location to all machines and users  Enforce common security standards and configurations  Simplify PC deployment process  Handles:  Registry, software deployment, disk quotas, folder redirection, software settings (IE, Office, etc.), software restrictions
  26. 26. RIS  Centralized method of deploying Windows  Can be as manual or automatic as desired  Simplifies process of installing and configuring PCs  Third party methods available such as Symantec Ghost
  27. 27. SMS  The ultimate Microsoft management tool!  Allows centralized:  Hardware/Software inventory  Remote software installation  Patch management  Help desk PC takeover
  28. 28. Planning for Installation: Preinstallation Decisions  How many, how large, and what kind of partitions will the server requires?  What type of file system will the server use?  What will the server’s name be?  Which protocols and network services should the server use?  What will the Administrator password be?
  29. 29. Planning for Installation: Preinstallation Decisions  Should the network use domains or workgroups, and, if so, what will they be called?  Will the server support additional services?  Which licensing mode should I choose?  Per server  Per seat  How can I remember all of this information?
  30. 30. Credits  Allen, Robbie, Active Directory, 2nd Edition, O’Reilly, 2003.

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