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Week 1


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  • 1. Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Linux
  • 2. Operating Systems
    • Computers have two fundamental components:
      • Hardware: Physical components inside a computer
      • Software: Set of instructions or programs that understand how to use the hardware of the computer in a meaningful way
  • 3. Operating Systems (continued)
    • Hardware components include:
      • Processor (CPU)
      • Physical memory (RAM)
      • Hard disk, floppy disk, and CD-ROM drives
      • Sound and video cards
      • Circuit boards
  • 4. Operating Systems (continued)
    • Two different types of programs are executed on a computer:
      • Applications
      • Operating system (OS) software
    • Device Driver: Software containing instructions that the OS uses to control and interact with a specific type of computer hardware
    • User Interface: An application program that allows the user to interact with the OS and other application programs
  • 5. Operating Systems (continued) Figure 1-1: The role of operating system software
  • 6. Operating Systems (continued)
    • Graphical user interface (GUI): Component of an OS that provides a user-friendly interface
    • System services: Applications that handle system-related tasks
      • Printing
      • Scheduling programs
      • Network access
  • 7. Operating Systems (continued) Figure 1-2: A Linux graphical user interface
  • 8. The Linux Operating System
    • OS used to run a variety of applications on a variety of different hardware
    • Has the ability to manage thousands of tasks at the same time
    • Allows multiple users to access the system simultaneously
      • Multiuser and multitasking OS
  • 9. Versions of the Linux Operating System
    • Core component is called the Linux kernel
      • Written almost entirely in the C programming language
    • Software can be used to modify appearance of Linux, but the kernel is common to all Linux
  • 10. Identifying Kernel Versions
    • Linux kernel versions are composed of:
      • Major number
      • Minor number
        • If odd, referred to as a developmental kernel
        • If even, referred to as a production kernel
      • Revision number
  • 11. Identifying Kernel Versions (continued) Table 1-1: Latest revisions of common Linux kernels
  • 12. Licensing Linux
    • Open Source Software (OSS): Programs distributed and licensed so that the source code is available to anyone who wants to examine, utilize, or improve upon it
      • Format and structure of source code follows rules defined by the programming language in which it was written
  • 13. Licensing Linux (continued)
    • Implications of OSS:
      • Developed very rapidly through widespread collaboration
      • Bugs (errors) are noted and promptly fixed
      • Features evolve quickly based on users’ needs
      • Perceived value of the software increases because it is based on usefulness, not on price
  • 14. Licensing Linux (continued) Table 1-2: Software types
  • 15. Types of Closed Source Licenses
    • Most closed source software is sold commercially
      • e.g., Microsoft or Electronic Arts software
    • Freeware: Distributed free of charge; source code is not available
    • Shareware: Initially free, but requires payment after a period of time or usage
  • 16. Linux Advantages: Meeting Business Needs
    • Common software available for Linux includes:
      • Scientific and engineering software
      • Software emulators
      • Web servers, Web browsers, and e-commerce suites
      • Desktop productivity software
      • Graphics manipulation software
      • Database software
      • Security software
  • 17. Linux Advantages: Ease of Customization
    • Ability to control the inner workings of an OS
      • To use Linux as an Internet Web server, compile the kernel to include only the support needed to be an Internet Web server
        • Results in a much smaller and faster kernel
  • 18. Linux Advantages: Ease of Obtaining Support
    • Linux documentation can be found on the Internet
      • Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
      • HOWTO documents
    • Linux Newsgroups
    • Linux User Group (LUG): Open forum of Linux users who discuss and assist each other in using and modifying the Linux OS
  • 19. Linux Advantages: Cost Reduction Table 1-3: Calculating the total cost of ownership
  • 20. The History of Linux Figure 1-4: Timeline of UNIX and Linux development
  • 21. UNIX
    • Evolved from Multiplexed Information and Computing Service (MULTICS)
    • The first true multitasking, multiuser OS
    • Written in the C programming language
      • Portable OS
    • OS from which Linux originated
  • 22. UNIX (continued)
    • Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
      • Version of the original UNIX source code
    • Common flavors of UNIX today include:
      • Sun Microsystems’s Solaris
      • Hewlett-Packard’s HP-UX
      • IBM’s AIX UNIX
  • 23. Linux
    • First developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991
      • Published under the GNU license
    • Linux kernel developed collaboratively and centrally managed
      • Linux is simply a by-product of OSS development
  • 24. Linux Distributions
    • Red Hat and SuSE
    • Distributions may appear different on the surface, but run the same kernel
    • Most distributions ship with a GUI that can be further customized to suit needs of the user
      • Core component of this GUI is X Windows
  • 25. Linux Distributions (continued)
    • GUI environment: X Windows in combination with a window manager and desktop environment
    • Two competing GUI environments in Linux:
      • GNU Object Model Environment (GNOME)
      • Kommon Desktop Environment (KDE)
  • 26. Linux Distributions (continued) Figure 1-5: The GNOME Desktop
  • 27. Common Uses of Linux
    • May be customized to provide services for a variety of companies in a variety of situations
    • Workstation services: Services used on a local computer
    • Server services: Services made available for other computers across a network
  • 28. Internet Servers: Mail Services
    • Mail transfer agent (MTA): An e-mail server
    • Mail delivery agent (MDA): Service that downloads e-mail from an MTA
    • Mail user agent (MUA): Program that allows e-mail to be read by a user
  • 29. Internet Servers: Routing and FTP Services
    • Routing: Provides interconnection between separate networks
      • Core service necessary for Internet to function
      • Linux provides support for routing and is easily customizable
    • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Services: Most common and efficient method for transferring files over the Internet
  • 30. Internet Servers: Firewalls and Proxy Services
    • Firewall: Protects companies from outside intruders on the Internet
      • Linux has firewall support built into the kernel
    • Proxy server: requests Internet resources such as Web sites and FTP sites on behalf of the computer inside the company
  • 31. Internet Servers: Web Services and News Services
    • Web services: Web servers host information (text, pictures, music, binary data, and video)
      • Can also process programs known as Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts and provide secure connections
    • News services: News servers allow users to post messages in forums called newsgroups
      • Most Web servers do not provide means for users to communicate
  • 32. Internet Servers: DNS Services
    • Computers communicating on a network need to be uniquely identified
      • Each computer is assigned an Internet Protocol (IP) address
        • Long string of numbers
        • Allows computers to identify and reference each other
    • Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN): Masks IP addresses with user-friendly names
  • 33. File and Print Servers
    • Linux is well-suited for centrally sharing resources
      • More economical to share files and printers over a network
      • Inherently fast and light
      • A distribution specific to a certain task can be installed on the central server
  • 34. Application Servers
    • Application server: Intermediary between a client computer and a database
    • Database: Organized collection of data that is arranged into tables of related information
    • Database Management Systems (DBMS): Set of programs designed for creation, modification, manipulation, maintenance, and access of information from databases
  • 35. Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 2 Preparing for Linux Installation
  • 36. Objectives
    • Describe common types of hardware and their features
    • Obtain the hardware and software information necessary to install Linux
  • 37. Understanding Hardware: Central Processing Units (CPUs)
    • Core component of any computer
      • Also known as microprocessor or processor
    • Two main components:
      • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU): Mathematical calculations and logic-based operations executed here
      • Control unit (CU): Instruction code or commands loaded and carried out here
  • 38. Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
    • Processor architecture: Arrangement of a processor’s integral electronics
    • Two main processor architectures:
      • Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC)
      • Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)
  • 39. Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
    • Clock speed: Internal time cycle of a processor
      • Determines speed that processor executes commands
      • Measured in Megahertz (MHz)
    • A processor may require one cycle to complete a command or may be superscalar
    • Amount of information a processor can process at one time is a major factor in clock speed
      • Measured in binary digits (bits)
      • The more information that can be worked on at once, the faster data can be manipulated
  • 40. Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
    • Cache: Temporary store of information
      • Cache size and location affect a processor’s ability to calculate larger volumes of data
    • Level 1 (L1) cache: Cache stored in the processor itself
    • Level 2 (L2) cache: Cache stored in a separate computer chip
      • Connected to processor via high speed link
    • Level 3 (L3) cache: Cache stored on a separate computer chip
      • Connected directly to processor
  • 41. Understanding Hardware: CPUs (continued)
    • Multiple processors can work together
      • Perform the same tasks faster
      • Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP): Allows OS and memory to use both processors simultaneously for any task
      • ASymmetric Multi-Processing (ASMP): Each processor given a set of tasks to complete independently
  • 42. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory
    • Storage area for information that is directly wired through circuit boards to the processor
    • Two main categories:
      • Random Access Memory (RAM)
        • Volatile memory
      • Read Only Memory (ROM)
  • 43. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― RAM
    • Requires constant supply of electricity to maintain stored information
    • Directly related to computer performance
    • Two major categories:
      • Dynamic RAM (DRAM)
      • Static RAM (SRAM)
  • 44. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― RAM (continued)
    • Three main types of DRAM sticks:
      • Single In-line Memory Modules (SIMM)
        • No longer produced
      • Dual In-line Memory Modules (DIMM)
      • Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Modules (SODIMM)
        • Used in portable notebook computers and Macintosh systems
  • 45. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― RAM (continued)
    • Three recent DIMM technologies:
      • Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM)
      • Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (DDR SDRAM)
      • Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory (RDRAM)
  • 46. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― ROM
    • Read-only Memory: Physical memory that can be read but not written to
      • Nonvolatile
    • Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) ROM: Stores programs used to initialize hardware components when starting computer
  • 47. Understanding Hardware: Physical Memory ― ROM Variants
    • Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM): Can only be written to once
    • Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM): Contents can be repeatedly erased and rewritten as a whole
    • Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM): Whole or partial contents can be repeatedly erased/rewritten
  • 48. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives
    • Most information in a computer maintained using nonvolatile media, not consisting of integrated circuits
      • Hard disk
      • Floppy disk
      • CD-ROM, DVD
      • CD-RW, DVD-RW disk
      • Zip disk
      • Flash Memory
  • 49. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― Hard Disk Drives
    • Not directly wired to the processor
      • Pass through a hard disk controller card
        • Controls flow of information to and from the hard disk drive (HDD)
    • Two types of controller cards:
      • Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE)
        • Also known as Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) controllers
      • Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
  • 50. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― HDDs (continued) Table 2-1: IDE HDD configurations
  • 51. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― HDDs (continued)
    • Partitions: Small, manageable sections of a hard drive
    • Filesystems: Specify how data should reside on the hard disk itself
      • A partition must be formatted with a filesystem
  • 52. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― HDDs (continued)
    • Primary partitions: Major unique and separate HDD divisions
    • Extended partitions: Partitions that can be further subdivided into logical drives
    • Master Boot Record (MBR): Table of all partition information for a hard disk
      • Stored outside of all partitions
  • 53. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― HDDs (continued) Table 2-2: Example partitioning scheme for a primary master IDE HDD
  • 54. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― Other Information Storage Devices
    • Removable media: Information storage media that can be removed from the computer
      • Transferable between computers
    • Floppy disks: Store information electro-magnetically
      • Used in floppy disk drives
    • Zip disks: Similar to floppy disks
      • Can store much more information
      • Used in zip drives
  • 55. Understanding Hardware: Disk Drives ― Other Information Storage Devices (continued)
    • DVDs and CD-ROMs: Use lasers to read reflected light pulses
      • Greater data transfer speed
      • Larger storage capacity
      • More resistance to data loss than floppy disks or ZIP disks
    • Flash memory drives: Use EEPROM chips to store information
  • 56. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components
    • Bus: Pathway information takes from one hardware device to another via a mainboard
    • Mainboard (also called a motherboard): Circuit board that connects all other hardware components together via slots or ports on the circuit board
    • Peripheral components: Attach to the mainboard of a computer
      • e.g., video cards, sound cards, and network interface cards (NICs)
      • Connected via an Input/Output bus represented by different slots or ports on the mainboard
  • 57. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
    • Three common slots for peripheral devices:
      • Industry Standard Architecture (ISA): Information transfer at 8 MHz
      • Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI): Information transfer at 33 MHz
        • Can use Direct Memory Access (DMA)
      • Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP): Information transfer over 66 MHz
        • Designed for video card peripherals
  • 58. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued) Figure 2-1: Mainboard components
  • 59. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
    • Other peripherals may have external connections to mainboard
      • PS/2
      • COM (Serial)
      • LPT
      • USB
      • IEEE1394 (Firewire)
      • PCMCIA
  • 60. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
    • Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) ports: Allow a small card to be inserted into the computer with electronics necessary to provide certain functionality
    • Advanced Power Management (APM): BIOS feature that shuts off power to unused peripheral devices
  • 61. Understanding Hardware: Mainboards and Peripheral Components (continued)
    • Interrupt Request Line (IRQ): Specifies a unique channel from a device to the CPU
    • Input/Output (IO) address: Small working area of RAM where CPU can pass information to and receive information from a device
    • Plug-and-Play (PnP): OS and peripheral devices that automatically assign the correct IRQ, I/O address, and DMA settings
  • 62. Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors
    • Video adapter cards: Provide graphical display when connected to a monitor
      • Commonly referred to as video cards
    • Resolution: Total number of pixels that can be displayed on a computer video screen
    • Color depth: Total set of colors that can be displayed on a computer video screen
  • 63. Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors (continued) Table 2-3: Memory requirements for screen resolution and color depths
  • 64. Understanding Hardware: Video Adapter Cards and Monitors (continued)
    • Refresh rate: Rate at which information displayed on a video screen is refreshed
      • Measured in Hertz (Hz)
      • Two types of refresh rates:
        • HSync (horizontal refresh)
        • VSync (vertical refresh)
  • 65. Understanding Hardware: Keyboards and Mice
    • Facilitates user input and direction
    • Variety of ways to connect to motherboard
      • Serial port
      • Large circular AT 5-pin connector
      • Small circular PS/2 6-pin connector
      • USB connection
      • Wireless or radio connection
    • Check hardware components against a Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)
  • 66. Gathering Preinstallation Information Table 2-4: Red Hat 7.2 hardware requirements
  • 67. Gathering Preinstallation Information (continued) Table 2-5: Sample pre-installation checklist
  • 68. Gathering Preinstallation Information (continued) Table 2-5 (continued): Sample pre-installation checklist
  • 69. Gathering Hardware Information
    • Tools and resources to check hardware against a preinstallation checklist:
      • Computer manuals
      • Windows System Information tool (if Windows already installed)
      • Windows Device Manager (if Windows already installed)
  • 70. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-2: The Windows System Information tool
  • 71. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-3: The Windows Device Manager
  • 72. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-4: The Windows Display applet
  • 73. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-5: System Power-On Self Test (POST)
  • 74. Gathering Hardware Information (continued) Figure 2-6: BIOS Setup Utility
  • 75. Gathering Software Information
    • Identifying system network configuration:
      • Hostname
      • IP address
      • Netmask
      • Gateway
      • DNS servers
        • Resolve FQDNs
  • 76. Gathering Software Information (continued)
    • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server: Server on network providing IP configuration to requesting computers
      • If selected during installation, Linux will attempt to get IP settings from a DHCP server on the network
  • 77. Gathering Software Information (continued) Table 2-6: Common Linux packages
  • 78. Gathering Software Information (continued) Table 2-6 (continued): Common Linux packages