Micros - p. 1

                                    Chronology of Events
                                             in th...
Micros - p. 2
      ??? IBM introduces the IBM 608, the first all-transistor commercial calculator.
Micros - p. 3
      ???(spring) Work begins at Intel on the layout of the circuit for what would be the
Micros - p. 4
      ???David Ahl protests Digital Equipment cutbacks of educational products, and is
Micros - p. 5
      ??? Lauren Solomon, 12 year old daughter of Les Solomon, publisher of Popular
Micros - p. 6
      ???   Cromemco is founded. [266.xv]
1976 JAN    David Jackson founds Altos Computer Systems. [163.58]
Micros - p. 7
                  readout, cassette and serial interfaces, for US$245. [193.14] [261.304]
Micros - p. 8
                  lists the floppy disk drive as the company's top goal. [218] [266.225]
     ???    Vector ...
Micros - p. 9
    ???    Xerox donates 50 Alto computers to Stanford, Carnegie-Mellon, and MIT.
Micros - p. 10
     ???  Michael Shane founds Leading Edge Products. [203.24]
     ???  Vector Graphic Inc. introduces the...
Micros - p. 11
           display, with 1.9KB of programmable memory. Price is US$230.
           [253.172] [266.198] (AUG...
Micros - p. 12
     ???  Apollo introduces a line of workstations using the Motorola 68000. [203.90]
     ???  Sony Electr...
Micros - p. 13
          Microsoft buys all rights to DOS from Seattle Computer Products, and th...
Micros - p. 14
          with Microsoft BASIC, custom sound, color graphics, for US$600) for
          US$595. During 1983...
Micros - p. 15
                It has 16-color 40x25 screen capability, for US$180. [289.162]
          Commodore Business...
Micros - p. 16
            [203.63] (1982 JAN [120])
      Apple Computer introduces the Apple IIe for US$1400. [46] [75] ...
Micros - p. 17
          Microsoft again shows Windows to IBM, and again IBM is not interested. [45]
      DEC Apple Compu...
Micros - p. 18
    Apple Computer releases the AppleMouse II with MousePaint and a peripheral
          card for the Apple...
Micros - p. 19
                  resolution, for US$3,600. [16] [117] [218]
     ???    Microsoft licenses Mac OS technolo...
Micros - p. 20
      ??? Mips Technologies introduces the first commercially available RISC chip, the
Micros - p. 21
                [35] [109] [116] [117] [120]
          Quarterdeck Office Systems ships DESQview 1.3. [130]...
Micros - p. 22
                 Memory Expansion Kit, 640x480 and 1024x768 resolutions can be had in
                 256 ...
Micros - p. 23
    SEP    Apple Computer introduces the Apple IIc Plus for US$1100. [46] (APR [75])
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  1. 1. Micros - p. 1 Chronology of Events in the History of Microcomputers Copyright (C) 1995 Ken Polsson internet e-mail: ken.polsson@bbc.org The following is an ongoing history of microcomputers. It can always be considered a work-in-progress. I am slowly going through magazines, newspapers, and Internet web sites to expand it. [This file was sent to me in 1996 by Mario Velucchi. I emailed Polsson and he said I could use or distribute it [email of 8 Mar 1996]. I have intended to incorporate the information into my Chronology of Computing, but have never had time to do so. I have now reformatted it a bit, and made a Word version. David Singmaster, 2 Dec 2003.] The numbers in the square brackets give the reference number (listed at the end of this document), and the page number. If you would like to volunteer information, please feel free to, and also give me the published source that it came from, where possible. Trademarks of companies appear for identification purposes only and are the property of their respective holders. A list of trademarks used in this document appears at the end, following the "Sources" section. Last updated: 1996 JAN 31. 1926 OCT Dr. Julius Edgar Lilienfield of New York, files for a patent on a "Method and Apparatus for Controlling Electric Currents". The application completely describes an NPN junction transistor and its use as an amplifier. [202.135] 1930 JAN Dr. Lilienfield is issued a patent for the first solid-state amplifying transistor. [202.135] 1932 SEP Dr. Lilienfield is issued a patent describing a multijunction NPPN or PNNP transistor. [202.135] 1933 MAR Dr. Lilienfield is issued a patent showing an NPN transistor using copper-sulfide and aluminum oxide. [202.135] 1939 ??? William R. Hewlett and David Packard form Hewlett-Packard. [202.175] 1947 DEC Three scientists at Bell Telephone Laboratories, William Shockley, Walter Brattain, and John Bardeen demonstrate their new invention of the point-contact transistor amplifier. [185.84] [202.131] [266.9] ??? American computer engineer Howard Aiken predicts that only six computers would be needed to satisfy the computing needs of the United States. [185.8] 1948 ??? John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Schockley of Bell Labs file for a patent on the first transistor. [9] 1951 ??? Coronado Corporation changes its name to Texas Instruments Incorporated. [110] 1952 ??? G. W. Dummer, a radar expert from Britain's Royal Radar Establishment presents a paper proposing that a solid block of materials be used to connect electronic components, with no connecting wires. [185.86] 1953 APR IBM unveils the Defense Calculator, its first computer. [185.74] 1954 MAY Texas Instruments announces the start of commercial production on silicon transistors. [110] ??? Jack Tramiel founds Commodore as a typewriter repair service. [190.81] 1955 ??? William Shockley founds Shockley Semiconductor in Palo Alto, California. [266.xiv] 1956 ??? The Nobel Prize in physics is awarded to John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley for their work on the transistor. [266.xiv] 1957 AUG Digital Equipment Corporation is founded. [112]
  2. 2. Micros - p. 2 ??? IBM introduces the IBM 608, the first all-transistor commercial calculator. [202.137] ??? A group of eight engineers leave William Shockley's company to form Fairchild Semiconductors. [202.160] [266.xiv] (1958 [185.88]) 1958 ??? Texas Instruments demonstrates the first integrated circuit. [110] (1959 [9]) 1959 JUL Fairchild Semiconductor files a patent application for the planar process for manufacturing transistors. The process makes commercial production of transistors possible and leads to Fairchild's introduction, in two years, of the first integrated circuit. ??? Texas Instruments and Fairchild Semiconductor both announce the integrated circuit. [185.91] 1960 ??? IBM develops the first automatic mass-production facility for transistors, in New York. [202.136] ??? Digital Equipment introduces the minicomputer, the PDP-1, for US$120,000. [203.96] (minicomputer introduced in 1972 [205.4]) 1962 APR Spacewar! is completed on the PDP-1. [274.66] JUN Teletype ships its Model 33 keyboard and punched-tape terminal, used for input and output on many early microcomputers. ??? Ivan Sutherland creates a graphics system called Sketchpad. [30] 1963 APR Charles Tandy buys the Radio Shack Corporation, for free. [202.196] (1962 [266.196]) 1964 ??? John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz develop the BASIC programming language at Dartmouth College. [9] [132] [266.140] ??? Texas Instruments receives a patent on the integrated circuit. [110] ??? IBM coins the term "word processing". [203.29] 1966 MAY Steven Gray founds the Amateur Computer Society, and begins publishing the ACS Newsletter. Some consider this to be the birthdate of personal computing. [208.64] 1967 JUN The first Consumer Electronics Show is held in New York City. 1968 ??? Douglas C. Engelbart, of the Stanford Research Institute, demonstrates his system of keyboard, keypad, mouse, and windows at the Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco's Civic Center. He demonstrates use of a word processor, a hypertext system, and remote collaborative work with colleagues. [180.42] [185.98] ??? Hewlett-Packard introduces the first programmable scientific desktop calculator. [213.5] ??? Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore leave Fairchild Semiconductors to form Intel Corporation. [202.160] [266.xiv] ??? Ed Roberts and Forest Mims founds Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems (MITS). [266.28] 1969 OCT Engineers from Japan's ETI company meet with Intel to inspect work on their calculator IC project. They accept the Intel design for a chip set, and sign an exclusive contract for the chips. [266.13] (Busicom company [208.67]) ??? (early) Intel receives a request from Japan's ETI company to develop integrated circuits for a line of calculators. [266.11] (Busicom company [106.103]) ??? Intel's Marcian Hoff designs an integrated circuit chip that could receive instructions, and perform simple functions on data. The design becomes the 4004 microprocessor. [266.12] ??? Intel announces a 1 KB RAM chip, which has a significantly larger capacity than any previously produced memory chip. [9] ??? Kenneth Thompson and Dennis Ritchie develop the UNIX operating system at Bell Labs. [248.116] [258.10] ??? Golden United Life Insurance Company begins an internal computer processing center called "Compu-Serv". It later becomes CompuServe Incorporated. [218] ??? Advanced Micro Devices Incorporated is founded. [141] ??? Xerox opens the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). [203.59] (1970 [266.267]) ??? Digital Equipment hires David Ahl as a marketing consultant. [266.18] 1970 DEC Gilbert Hyatt files a patent application entitled "Single Chip Integrated Circuit Computer Architecture", the first basic patent on the microprocessor. [162] [185.193]
  3. 3. Micros - p. 3 ???(spring) Work begins at Intel on the layout of the circuit for what would be the 4004 microprocessor. Federico Faggin directs the work. [266.13] ??? Intel creates the first 4004 microprocessor. [106.104] ??? Intel creates the 1103 chip, the first generally available DRAM memory chip. [176.74] [202.163] 1971 NOV Intel introduces its 4-bit, 108-kHz 4004 chip – the first microprocessor. Initial price is US$200. Speed is 60,000 operations per second. It uses 2300 transistors. Documentation manuals were written by Adam Osborne. [9] [176.74] [202.165] ??? (summer) Steve Wozniak and Bill Fernandez build a computer with lights and switches, from parts rejected by local companies. They call it the Cream Soda Computer. [266.205] ??? (fall) Electronic News publishes an ad from Intel promoting the 4004 chip. [266.14] ??? Intel renegotiates its contract with ETI, gaining Intel the right to market the 4004 microprocessor openly. [266.14] ??? The National Radio Institute introduces the first computer kit, for US$503. [208.66] ??? The Kenback Corporation introduces the Kenback-1 computer, for US$750. It uses a 1KB MOS memory made by Intel. [208.66] ??? Niklaus Wirth invents the Pascal programming language. [132] ??? IBM introduces the "memory disk", or "floppy disk", an 8-inch floppy plastic disk coated with iron oxide. [202.170] ??? Wang Laboratories introduces the Wang 1200 word processor system. [202.185] ??? Intel introduces the 1101 chip, a 256-bit programmable memory, and the 1701 chip, a 256-byte erasable read-only memory (EROM). [208.70] 1972 AUG Scelbi Computer Consulting Company begins design work on what would be the Scelbi-8H processor. [208.71] SEP Texas Instruments unveils its first line of electronic calculators, the TI-2500, TI-3000, and TI-3500. [110] NOV Intel releases its 8008 chip, the first 8-bit microprocessor. Speed of operation is 300,000 instructions per second. It accesses 16KB of memory. The processor was originally developed for Computer Terminal Corporation (later called DataPoint). [9] [106.104] [208.66] [266.13] (1971 [208.70] [266.xiv]) Atari is founded by Nolan Bushnell, and ships Pong, the first commercial video game. [9] [30] ??? National Semiconductor introduces the IMP-16 microprocessor. [208.70] ??? Gary Kildall implements PL/I on the Intel 4004 processor. [266.xiv] ??? The People's Computer Company is founded. [266.xiv] ??? Bill Gates and Paul Allen form the Traf-O-Data company. They had developed a computer hardware/software system for recording automobile traffic flow on a highway. [266.xiv] ??? Wang Laboratories introduces its first small business computers, the 2200 series. [202.185] ??? Xerox decides to build a personal computer to be used for research. The result is the Alto computer. [263.58] [266.267] ??? Hewlett-Packard introduces the HP-35, the first scientific hand-held calcuator. [202.178] 1973 MAY Design work is completed on the Micral, the first non-kit computer based on a microprocessor (the Intel 8008). Built in France, the Micral is advertised in the U.S., but is not successful there. JUN The term "microcomputer" first appears in print, in reference to the Micral. ??? (late) Gary Kildall writes a simple operating system in his PL/M language. He calls it CP/M (Control Program/Monitor). [266.138] ??? Stephen Wozniak joins Hewlett-Packard. [266.xiv] ??? Gary Kildall creates PL/M for the Intel 8008, based on PL/I. [266.137] ??? IBM introduces the IBM 3340 hard disk unit, known as the Winchester, IBM's internal development code name. The recording head rides on a layer of air 18 millionths of an inch thick. [202.170]
  4. 4. Micros - p. 4 ???David Ahl protests Digital Equipment cutbacks of educational products, and is fired. He is soon rehired. [266.19] ??? Texas Instruments enters the pocket calculator field with the introduction of the Texas Instruments SR-50 Slide Rule Calculator. It sells for about US$75. [202.179] ??? Gary Kildall begins consulting work at Intel. [266.137] ??? Scelbi Computer Consulting Company offers the first computer kit in the U.S. using a microprocessor, the Intel 8008-based Scelbi-8H, for US$565, with 1KB programmable memory. An additional 15KB is available for US$2760. [9] [208.66] ??? Digital Equipment introduces the PDP-8A with 1KB memory for US$875. [208.67] ??? Bob Metcalfe invents the Ethernet connectivity system. [156] ??? The Alto workstation computer is built at Xerox' Palo Alto Research Center. It uses the advanced Smalltalk language, a mouse input device, and the Ethernet technique of linking Alto computers to each other. Less than 2000 are built in total. [203.59] (completed in 1974 [266.267]) 1974 APR Intel releases its 8080 chip, an 8-bit microprocessor. Its 75 instructions achieve an average throughput of 3 MIPS, accessing 64KB of memory. [9] [41] [108] [176.74] [266.30] (1973 [208.70]) JUN Texas Instruments receives a patent for miniature electronic calculators. [110] JUL Radio Electronics magazine publishes an article on building a Mark-8 microcomputer, designed by Jonathan Titus, using the Intel 8008. [208.67] AUG Motorola introduces its 6800 chip, an early 8-bit microprocessor used in microcomputers and industrial and automotive control devices. SEP Creative Computing, the first magazine for home computerists, is founded. [9] Hal Singer starts the Micro-8 Newsletter for enthusiasts of the Mark-8. [208.67] Despite being US$300,000 in debt, Ed Roberts is able to borrow an additional US$65,000 from the bank to complete work on what would be the Altair. [266.33] NOV Hal Chamberlin and others begin publishing The Computer Hobbyist magazine. [208.67] DEC Scelbi sells its last Scelbi-8H, discontinuing hardware to concentrate on software. [208.71] Popular Electronics publishes an ad by MITS announcing the Altair 8800 computer for US$439 in kit form. It uses the Intel 8080 processor. The Altair pictured on the cover of the magazine is actually a mock-up, as an actual computer was not available. [9] [106.104] [123] [185.109] [192.3] [208.67] [218] [205.18] (US$397 [266.35]) Les Solomon, publisher of Popular Electronics, receives Altair number 0001. [266.35] ??? (spring) In a desperate act to save his failing calculator company, MITS company owner Ed Roberts begins building a small computer based on Intel's new 8080 chip, with plans to sell it for the unheardof price of US$500. [185.109] [266.31] ??? Southwest Technical Products Company introduces the TVT-11 kit for US$180, and ASCII keyboard kit for US$40. [208.67] ??? Texas Instruments introduces the TMS1000 one-chip microcomputer. [110] ??? Gary Kildall, of Microcomputer Applications Associates, develops the CP/M operating system for Intel 8080-based systems. [9] [176.64] [258.224] ??? Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie develop the C programming language. [9] (1972 [176.121]) ??? The RCA 1802, running at a blazing 6.4 MHz appears, considered one of the first RISC chips. [32] ??? Engineer David Ahl suggests Digital Equipment produce an inexpensive version of its PDP-8 minicomputer, for US$5000. Top management call the idea foolish. [203.10] ??? Xerox releases the Alto computer. [266.xv] ??? Gary Kildall and John Torode begin selling a disk operating system for microcomputers. [266.xv] ??? The first copy of CP/M is sold. [266.xv]
  5. 5. Micros - p. 5 ??? Lauren Solomon, 12 year old daughter of Les Solomon, publisher of Popular Electronics, suggests the name "Altair" for Ed Robert's new microcomputer. Altair was the name of where Star Trek's Enterprise was going that night. [266.34] ??? Railway Express loses Ed Robert's only prototype Altair computer, en route to New York for review and photography for publishing by Popular Electronics. [266.34] 1975 JAN Harry Garland and Roger Melen receive Altair number 0002. They had proposed in December to attach their Cyclops camera to the Altair, for use as a security camera. [266.38] FEB Bill Gates and Paul Allen license their newly written BASIC to MITS, their first customer. This is the first computer language program written for a personal computer. [123] [176.122] MAR Rob Reiling and Gordon French found The Homebrew Computer Club, and hold the first meeting in French's garage, in Menlo Park, California. [185.110] [266.104] (APR [208.67]) Ed Roberts hires Paul Allen as director of software at MITS. [266.40] APR Bill Gates and Paul Allen found Microsoft. [41] MITS delivers the first generally-available Altair 8800, sold for US$375 with 1KB memory. [208.67] (256 bytes [266.38]) Steve Dompier reports on MITS at a meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club. The most significant point was that MITS had received 4000 orders for the Altair. [266.39] Bob Marsh founds Processor Technology. [266.45] MAY The Amateur Computer Group of New Jersey is formed. [208.67] [266.xv] JUN MOS Technology announces the MC6501 at US$20 and the MC6502 at US$25. At this point, the Intel 8080 costs about US$150. [9] [261.304] Processor Technology ships its first product, a 4K memory board for the Altair. [266.110] The Southern California Computer Society is formed. [266.184] The National Computer Conference is held in Anaheim, California. [266.188] Paul Terrell signs a deal with MITS in which Terrell would receive a 5% commission on every Altair sold in Northern California, for promoting and selling the Altair. [266.188] JUL Bill Gates and Paul Allen ship 4K and 8K version of BASIC v2.0. [123] MITS announces availability of BASIC 2.0 for its Altair 8800, in 4K and 8K editions. [9] [123] (fall [208.67]) Dick Heiser opens Arrow Head Computer Company, subtitled "The Computer Store", in Los Angeles, selling assembled Altairs, boards, peripherals, and magazines. [266.185] SEP IBM's Entry Level Systems unit unveils "Project Mercury", the IBM 5100 Portable Computer. It is a briefcase-size minicomputer with BASIC, 16KB RAM, tape storage, and built-in 5-inch screen. Price: US$9000. Weight: 55 pounds. [9] [197.xi] (Over US$10,000 [203.10]) The first issue of Byte magazine is published. [9] [266.159] DEC Paul Terrell opens the Byte Shop, in Mountain View, California, one of the first computer stores in the US. [34] [266.189] IMSAI hires Ed Faber as Director of Sales. [266.193] (1976 JAN [266.64]) ??? Wavemate releases the Jupiter II computer kit. [218] ??? Southwest Technical Products releases the M6800 computer kit. [218] [208.67] ??? Microcomputer Associates releases the JOLT computer kit. [218] ??? Gates' and Allen's Traf-O-Data company is renamed Micro-Soft. [266.40] ??? IBM's John Cocke begins work on project "801", to develop a scalable chip design that could be used in small computers as well as large. [205.103] ??? IMSAI begins working on the IMSAI 8080. [266.63] ??? Dennis Ritchie creates the C programming language. [132] ??? Zilog is founded. [233.194] ??? MITS begins work on a Motorola 6800-based Altair. [266.47] ??? Sphere Corporation introduces its Sphere I computer kit, featuring a 6800 CPU, 4KB RAM, ROM monitor, keyboard, and video interface, for US$650. [9.200] [16.371]
  6. 6. Micros - p. 6 ??? Cromemco is founded. [266.xv] 1976 JAN David Jackson founds Altos Computer Systems. [163.58] Paul Terrell begins signing dealership agreements, allowing Byte Shop franchises to open elsewhere in the US. [266.189] MAR Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs finish work on a computer circuit board, that they call the Apple I computer. [46] First World Altair Computer Convention is held in Albuquerque, New Mexico. [123] [266.46] Paul Terrell incorporates Byte, Inc. [266.189] APR Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak form the Apple Computer Company, on April Fool's Day. [9] [46] [140] [218] The National Semiconductor SC/MP 8-bit microprocessor appears, providing early advanced multiprocessing. [32] MAY Digital Research copyrights CP/M, its industry-standard microcomputer operating system, created by company founder Gary Kildall. [41] The Trenton Computer Festival is held, in New Jersey. [266.180] JUN The Western Digital MCP-1600 3-chip CPU appears. [32] The Texas Instruments TMS 9900, one of the first true 16-bit microprocessors, appears. [32] The Midwest Area Computer Club conference is held. [266.181] Processor Technology unveils the Sol-20. It is sold in kit form, using the Intel 8080 CPU. [205.20] [266.116] JUL The Apple I computer board is sold in kit form, and delivered to stores by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. Price: US$666.66. [46] [218] Paul Terrell orders 50 Apple computers from Steve Jobs, for his Byte Shop. [266.213] Zilog releases the Z-80, an 8-bit microprocessor whose instruction set is a superset of the Intel 8080. [32] [202.168] (early 1975 [9]) AUG Paul Terrell receives his order for 50 Apple computers. [266.213] iCOM advertises their "Frugal Floppy" in BYTE magazine, an 8" floppy drive, selling for US$1200. [9] Several computer hobbyist clubs hold their first convention at the Personal Computing Festival, in Atlantic City, New Jersey. [185.111] [266.181] Steve Wozniak begins work on the Apple II. [266.218] SEP Computer Shack is incorporated. The name is later changed to ComputerLand, due to objections from Radio Shack. [266.xv] OCT Commodore International buys MOS Technology. [261.304] [266.49] Mike Markkula, ex-marketing wizard at Intel, visits Steve Jobs' garage, to see the Apple computers. [266.215] Steve Wozniak decides to remain at Hewlett-Packard, but is soon convinced that he should leave and join Apple Computer permanently. [266.218] NOV The tradename "Microsoft" is registered. [123] ComputerLand opens a pilot store in Heyward, California, as a retail outlet and a training facility for franchise owners. [266.194] DEC Michael Shrayer completes writing Electric Pencil, the first popular word-processing program for microcomputers. [9] [266.148] Shugart announces its 5.25" "minifloppy" disk drive for US$390. [9] Dick Wilcox demonstrates his Alpha Micro, a multi-user CPU board, at a meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club. [266.116] Don French and Steve Leininger are given official blessings to develop a microcomputer for Radio Shack. [266.197] ??? (early) Hewlett-Packard begins Project Capricorn, to build a computer-like calculator. [266.264] ??? Processor Technology releases VDM, a video display module. It works on the Altair, IMSAI, Sol, Polymorphic computers, and any other with an S-100 bus. [266.133] ??? Gary Kildall founds Intergalactic Digital Research. [266.xv] ??? Kentucky Fried Computers is founded. [266.xv] ??? U.S. Robotics is founded, in Skokie, Illinois. [235] ??? MOS Technology Inc. announces the KIM-1 Microcomputer System, with 1-MHz 6502 CPU, 1KB RAM, 2KB ROM monitor, 23-key keypad, LED
  7. 7. Micros - p. 7 readout, cassette and serial interfaces, for US$245. [193.14] [261.304] (1975 [9]) ??? MITS unveils the Altair 680, based on the Motorola 6800 microprocessor. [192.42] ??? Steve Wozniak proposes that Hewlett-Packard create a personal computer. Steve Jobs proposes the same to Atari. Both are rejected. [9] ??? Atari is sold to Warner Communications for US$26 million. [30] ??? The Wang WPS word processor is updated, adding a CRT display, large disk storage, and fast letter-quality printer. [33] b[202.185] ??? Lore Harp and Carole Ely form Vector Graphic Incorporated, selling memory boards for S-100 bus systems. [202.201] ??? George Morrow founds MicroStuf. [266.xv] ??? The first issue of Dr. Dobbs is published. [266.xv] ??? IMSAI begins shipping the IMSAI 8080. [266.48] ??? Polymorphic Systems introduces the Poly-88. [266.48] ??? Stephen Wozniak demonstrates the Apple I at the Homebrew Computer Club. [266.xv] ??? The bus of the Altair is named (or renamed) the S-100 bus. [266.48] ??? Paul Allen quits MITS. [266.50] 1977 JAN The Apple Computer Company is incorporated. [46] A working model of the first Radio Shack computer is demonstrated to company president, Charles Tandy. [266.197] Xerox puts David Liddle in charge of developing the Alto computer into a marketable product FEB The first ComputerLand franchise is opened in Morristown, New Jersey, under the name Computer Shack. [9] [266.194] Apple Computer moves from Jobs' garage to an office in Cupertino. [266.219] Bill Gates and Paul Allen sign a partnership agreement to officially create the Microsoft company. [123] APR The First West Coast Computer Faire is held, in San Francisco's Brooks Civic Auditorium. Nearly 13,000 attended the weekend event. [203.7] [266.145] Commodore Business Machines Inc. unveils its PET computer at the West Coast Computer Faire. The PET includes a 6502 CPU, 4KB RAM, 14KB ROM, keyboard, display, and tape drive, for US$600. [9] [266.182] (US$800 [176.54] [190.81]) (MAR [41]) Apple Computer introduces the Apple II at the West Coast Computer Faire. The computer features a 6502 CPU, 4KB RAM, 16KB ROM, keyboard, 8-slot motherboard, game paddles, graphics/text interface to color display, and built-in BASIC, for US$1300. It is the first personal computer with color graphics. [9] [41] [46] [120] [140] [176.54] [203.7] [266.182] (MAR [185.114]) Apple Computer delivers its first Apple II system. [196.20] MAY 10 months after its introduction, 175 Apple I kits have sold. [218] Pertec buys MITS and the Altair line for US$6 million in stock. [233.194] [266.51] JUN Camp Retupmoc, the first week-long computer camp, is held in Terre Haute, Indiana. [9] Apple II computers are shipped to Europe by independent distributor Eurapple. [46] JUL Microsoft ships "Microsoft FORTRAN". [123] AUG Radio Shack (a division of Tandy Corp.) announces the TRS-80 microcomputer, with Z80 CPU, 4KB RAM, 4KB ROM, keyboard, black-and-white video display, and tape cassette for US$600. [9] [195.49] [202.198] (US$300 [266.198]) (JUN [41]) (1978 [205.24]) SEP One month after launching the TRS-80, 10,000 are sold, despite sales projections of only 3,000 per year. [266.198] OCT Radio Shack opens its first all-computer store, in Fort Worth, Texas. [266.198] NOV Apple Computer releases Applesoft, a version of BASIC with floating-point capabilities. It is licenced from Microsoft. [218] Paul Terrell sells his chain of 74 Byte Shops, valued at US$4 million. [266.190] DEC At an executive board meeting at Apple Computer, president Mike Markkula
  8. 8. Micros - p. 8 lists the floppy disk drive as the company's top goal. [218] [266.225] ??? Vector Graphic Inc. introduces the Vector Graphic I system. [202.203] ??? The first issue of Personal Computing is published, by David Bunnell. [266.xv] ??? Compu-Serv changes its name to CompuServe Incorporated. [218] ??? Bally completes designs of a home computer. [267.48] ??? Heath Company introduces the H-8 personal computer kit, based on the Intel 8080. [246.81] ??? IMSAI licences use of CP/M for its microcomputers for US$25,000. [266.139] 1978 JAN Apple Computer demonstrates its first working prototype Apple II disk drive at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas. [218] Ward Christianson and Randy Suess begin building the Computerized Bulletin Board System, in Chicago, Illinois. [229.150] FEB The first major microcomputer bulletin board, run by Ward Christensen and Randy Seuss, goes online, in Chicago, Illinois, USA. [9] [165.37] [229.150] MAR The Second West Coast Computer Faire is held, in San Jose, California. [208.16] [266.183] MAY Intel begins production of the 8086 microprocessor. [231.8] JUN Intel releases its 8086 microprocessor. It uses 16-bit registers, a 16-bit data bus, and 29,000 transistors. Price is US$360. [108] [176.74] [177.102] [216.22] (1979 [120]) Apple Computer introduces the Disk II, a 5.25 inch floppy disk drive linked to the Apple II by cable. Price: US$495, including controller card. [46] [203.46] [231.218] [266.227] (JUL [218]) The National Computer Conference is held in Anaheim, California. Attendance is 57,240. [224.10] Pertec ceases production of the Altair. [233.194] AUG Digital Equipment opens a retail store in a shopping mall, for selling small computer systems priced below US$10,000. [233.194] Paul Terrell demonstrates the Z80-based Exidy Sorcerer at the Personal Computing Show in Philadelphia. [268.112] OCT The first Personal Computer Expo is held, in New York City. [194.178] The first issue of SoftSide is published, for TRS-80 enthusiasts. [269.216] DEC Epson announces the MX-80 dot matrix printer, which established a new standard in high performance with low price for printers. [9] Atari announces the Atari 400 and 800 personal computers, using the 6502 microprocessor. The Atari 800 was code-named "Colleen". [9] [231.83] [252.50] Microsoft's sales for the year reach US$1 million. [123] ??? (summer) Apple Computer hires Chuck Peddle, designer of the 6502 microprocessor and Commodore's PET. [266.231] ??? (late) Apple Computer begins work on an enhanced Apple II with custom chips, code-named Annie. [266.231] ??? (late) Apple Computer begins work on a supercomputer with a bit-sliced architecture, code-named Lisa. [266.231] ??? (end) Chuck Peddle quits Apple Computer and returns to Commodore. [266.231] ??? Taito Inc. develops Space Invaders in Japan. [267.46] ??? Exidy Systems introduces the Sorcerer Microcomputer. [280.53] ??? Bally begins shipping its Bally Arcade game. [267.50] ??? Texas Instruments introduces the TMS-4164, a single 5V 64KB programmable memory chip. Initial price is US$125. [230.209] ??? Tandy opens its first dedicated computer center. [34] ??? Intel unveils its 8085 CPU chip. [120] ??? Apple Computer begins research and development on what would become the Lisa. [266.xv] ??? APF Electronics introduces the MP-1000 video game unit. [275.38] ??? Seymour Rubenstein forms MicroPro International. [266.152] ??? Scott Adams founds Adventure International. [266.135] ??? Christopher Curry founds Acorn Computer Ltd. in England. [277.24] ??? Bob Frankston and Dan Bricklin found Software Arts. [266.230]
  9. 9. Micros - p. 9 ??? Xerox donates 50 Alto computers to Stanford, Carnegie-Mellon, and MIT. [263.58] 1979 JAN Microsoft moves its offices from Albuquerque, New Mexico to Bellevue, Washington. [123] FEB Intel introduces the 8088 microprocessor. It was created as a stepping stone to the 8086, as it operates on 16 bits internally, but on 8 bits externally, to use existing 8-bit device-controlling chips. [203.12] [108] [177.102] (1981 [120]) Apple Computer releases DOS 3.2. [218] MAR Zilog ships samples of the 16-bit Z-8000 processor. [234.118] APR Microsoft 8080 BASIC wins the ICP Million Dollar Award, the first microprocessor product to do so. [123] Taito first shows the Space Invaders game, in Japan. [276.258] MAY Software Arts Incorporated demonstrates VisiCalc at the 4th West Coast Computer Faire. Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston wrote it during 1978-79, under the company name Software Arts, under contract to Personal Software. [9.202] [80.126] [176.64] [203.9] [218] [266.xv] (JUN [41]) Seattle Computer Products makes the first prototype of its 8086 microprocessor card for the S-100 bus. [2] Processor Technology closes. [266.124] Tandy/Radio Shack announces the TRS-80 Model II. [266.198] JUN The Source telecommunications service goes online. [9] Apple Computer introduces the Apple II Plus, with 48KB memory, for US$1195. [46] [200.1] [218] Apple Computer introduces its first printer, the Apple Silentype, for US$600. It is a Trendcom Model 200, released under the Apple name. [46] [218] Texas Instruments introduces the TI-99/4 personal computer, for an initial price of US$1500. It uses the TI 9940 16-bit microprocessor. [9] [202.209] (US$1150 [246.81]) Microsoft announces Microsoft BASIC for the Intel 8086. [123] JUL Apple Computer releases DOS 3.2.1. [218] CompuServe begins a service to computer hobbyists called MicroNET, offering bulletin boards, databases, and games. [218] SEP Motorola's 68000 16-bit microprocessor appears. [176.75] (1980 [120]) IMSAI closes. [266.77] Apple Computer sells 35,000 Apple II computers for the fiscal year. [266.231] OCT 2.5 years after the introduction of the Apple II, 50,000 units have been sold. [218] Personal Software releases VisiCalc for the Apple II. Personal Software later changes its company name to VisiCalc. [46] [140] [218] [266.230] (NOV [120]) Atari begins shipping the Atari 400 and Atari 800 personal computers. The 400 comes with 8KB, selling for US$550. The 800 sells for US$1000. [249.110] Radio Shack begins shipping the TRS-80 Model II to users. [250.116] Mattel announces a keyboard unit for the Intellivision. Estimated retail price: US$700. [289.132] NOV Texas Instruments begins shipping the TI 99/4. [249.110] ComputerLand grows to include 100 franchises. [266.195] DEC The first Comdex show is held in Las Vegas. A group of Apple Computer engineers is given a demo of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center's Alto computer system, in exchange for Xerox buying 100,000 Apple Computer shares for US$1 million. [180.77] [266.xv] Sears begins selling Atari home computers. [269.14] ??? (spring) Atari develops the Asteroids computer game. [281.78] ??? (fall) Atari produces the first coin-operated Asteroids game machine. [281.78] ??? Seagate Technologies (hard disk maker) is founded, in Scotts Valley, California. [227] ??? Apple Computer begins work on "Sara", the code name for what will be the Apple III. [203.49] (1978 [266.232]) ??? Apple Computer releases the word processing program AppleWriter 1.0. [218]
  10. 10. Micros - p. 10 ??? Michael Shane founds Leading Edge Products. [203.24] ??? Vector Graphic Inc. introduces the Vector Graphic System B system. [202.203] ??? Schlumberger Ltd. sells Heath Company to Zenith Radio Corp. for US$64.5 million. [246.81] ??? Niklaus Wirth invents the Modula-1 programming language. [132] ??? MicroPro releases the WordStar word processor, written by Rob Barnaby. [266.153] (written by Seymour Rubenstein [176.64]) ??? Wayne Ratliff develops the Vulcan database program (Ashton-Tate later markets it as dBASE II). [9] ??? IMSAI declares bankruptcy. Its assets are purchased by Fischer-Freitas. [251.174] [266.xv] ??? Bob Metcalfe founds 3Com Corporation. [156] ??? IBM introduces the IBM 3800 laser printer, capable of printing 20,000 lines per minute. [202.171] ??? D.C. Hayes introduces the 110/300 baud Micromodem II for the Apple II, for US$380. [218] 1980 JAN Mike Harvey begins the Nibble magazine for Apple Computer products. [218] Universal Data Systems announces the 103LP 300 bps modem, connecting directly into the phone line, requiring no additional power. Price: US$195. [252.44] Morrow Designs advertises the 26 MB DISCUS M26 hard drive system for US$5000. [248.69] The first issue of S-Eighty is published, for TRS-80 enthusiasts. [269.216] The first issue of Computer Shopper is published. [269.216] Hewlett-Packard completes work on the Capricorn project, producing the HP-85. With a 32-character wide CRT display, small built-in printer, cassette tape recorder, and keyboard, it sold for US$3250. [266.265] FEB Sinclair Research announces the ZX80 computer in the North American market. It uses a 3.25-MHz NEC Technologies 780-1 8-bit microprocessor, and comes with 1KB RAM and 4KB ROM. [9] [185.117] [198.vii] [201.vi] [255.94] Mattel begins shipping the game component of the Intellivision. [268.48] MAR Atari ad: "Atari promises to be the most popular Personal Computer System of the 1980's!". [249.124] Microsoft Corp. announces its first hardware product, the Z-80 SoftCard for the Apple II. This card gives the Apple II CP/M capability, contributing greatly to Apple Computer's success. The card includes CP/M and Microsoft's Disk BASIC, all for US$349. The announcement is made at the West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco. Tim Patterson of Seattle Computer Products had built several prototypes before Microsoft's Don Burdis took over the project. [9] [252.47] [266.269] (APR [123]) At the West Coast Computer Faire, Adam Osborne approaches Les Felsenstein with the idea of starting a computer company. [266.261] APR Seattle Computer Products decides to make their own disk operating system (DOS), due to delays by Digital Research in releasing a CP/M-86 operating system. [2] MAY Apple Computer introduces the Apple III at the National Computer Conference, in Anaheim, California. The Apple III uses a 2-MHz 6502A microprocessor, and includes a 5.25" floppy drive. Price ranges from US$4500 to US$8000. [9] [176.145] [252.50] [258.208] [266.234] (1980 SEP [120] [203.58]) Universal Data Systems announces the 202LP 1200 bps modem, connecting directly into the phone line, requiring no additional power. [252.44] JUN Shugart begins selling Winchester hard-disk drives. [9] JUL Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Model III. It uses the Zilog Z80 CPU, and is priced from US$700 to US$2500. [9] [253.172] [266.199] (AUG [256.30]) Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Color Computer. It uses the Motorola 6809E CPU, comes with 4KB RAM, and sells for US$400. [9] [253.172] [266.199] (AUG [256.30]) Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Pocket Computer. It features a 24 character
  11. 11. Micros - p. 11 display, with 1.9KB of programmable memory. Price is US$230. [253.172] [266.198] (AUG [256.30]) Radio Shack introduces the Daisy Wheel Printer II for US$1960. [256.30] The last issue of S-Eighty is published. [269.216] IBM representatives meet with Microsoft's Bill Gates and Steve Ballmer to talk about Microsoft and home computers. [266.271] IBM asks Bill Gates to write the operating system for their upcoming PC. [185.125] (AUG [266.272]) AUG IBM meets with Microsoft again, and shows plans for Project Chess, a personal computer. [266.271] QDOS v0.10 (Quick and Dirty Operating System) is shipped by Seattle Computer Products. Even though it had been created in only two man-months, the DOS worked surprisingly well. A week later, the EDLIN line editor was created. EDLIN was supposed to last only six months, before being replaced. [2] (SCP-DOS [266.272]) Microsoft announces the Microsoft XENIX OS, a portable and commercial version of the UNIX operating system for the Intel 8086, Zilog Z8000, Motorola M68000, and Digital Equipment PDP-11. [123] [258.252] [259.6] Apple Computer releases DOS 3.3. [218] SEP The "Dirty Dozen" is formed, the 12 engineers assembled to design and build the IBM PC, in Boca Raton, Florida. The PC's code name is Acorn. [41] Apple Computer sells over 78,000 Apple II computers during the fiscal year. [266.234] The first issue of Softtalk magazine for Apple Computer products appears. [218] Bill Gates and Steve Ballmer fly to Miami to deliver a report to IBM, proposing to convert Seattle Computer Products' SCP-DOS to run on IBM's new personal computer. [266.272] OCT Sol Libes quote in Byte magazine's ByteLines: "The 32-bit machine would be 'overkill' for a personal computer.". [253.188] NOV Microsoft agrees to develop MS-DOS for IBM's upcoming PC. [41] [266.273] Atari sponsers the First National (US) Space Invaders Competition, in New York. Bill Heineman of Whittier, California scores 165,200 to win an Asteroids Table Top Video Game. [267.44] DEC The archetypical fantasy adventure game, Zork, is brought from a mainframe at M.I.T. into the world of microcomputers by Infocom, which was founded for the purpose. IBM delivers the first PC prototype to Microsoft, so they can begin developing BASIC and the machine's operating system. [41] Apple Computer becomes a publicly held company, selling 4.6 million shares at US$22 per share. More than 40 Apple employees and investors become instant millionaires. [46] [185.116] [202.191] [256.212] [266.240] Seattle Computer Products renames QDOS to 86-DOS, releasing it as version 0.3. Microsoft then bought non-exclusive rights to market 86-DOS. [2] ??? (fall) Apple Computer ships the first Apple III units in limited quantity. [266.234] (1981 JAN [258.208]) ??? xidy Systems introduces the Computer System 80. [280.53] ??? Hewlett-Packard releases the HP-85. [266.xv] ??? Sinclair Research ships the ZX80 in North America, for US$200. [255.94] ??? Apple Computer begins project "Diana", which would become the Apple IIe. [218] ??? Digital Research releases CP/M-86 for Intel 8086- and 8088-based systems. [255.200] ??? Intel announces the iAPX-432 32-bit microprocessor. Intel later builds the 80286 as a step between the 8086 and the 432. [32] [256.212] ??? The term RISC (reduced instruction set computer) is coined by Professor David Patterson of the University of California in Berkeley. [154] ??? Bally sells its Consumer Products Division to Astrovision. [267.50] ??? CompuServe merges with H&R Block, and renames MicroNET to CompuServe Information Service. [218]
  12. 12. Micros - p. 12 ??? Apollo introduces a line of workstations using the Motorola 68000. [203.90] ??? Sony Electronics introduces the 3.5 inch floppy disk and drive, double-sided, double-density, holding up to 875KB unformatted. [257.8] ??? Panasonic and Quasar unveil hand-held computers, made by Matsushita. The unit uses a 1-MHz 6502 CPU, and weighs just 14 ounces (397 grams). [255.34] 1981 JAN Radio Shack ceases production of the TRS-80 Model I, and recalls units from the US market, due to failure to meet new FCC radio-frequency interference regulations. [255.202] [258.208] (1980 NOV [268.188]) Osborne Computer Corporation is incorporated. [266.263] The International Winter Consumer Electronics Show is held in Las Vegas, Nevada. [267.52] ??? APF introduces the Imagination Machine II at the 1981 Winter Consumer Electronics Show. It features a 6800 CPU, 27KB RAM, two 5.25 inch disk drives, built-in cassette drive, 53-key keyboard, and 32x16 character display caability for US$1600. [275.38] JAN Casio demonstrates the FX-9000P, with a 5 inch CRT, keyboard, keypad, removable memory modules, and 256x128 graphics. [267.53] Commodore announces the VIC-20, with full-size 61-key plus four function key keyboard, 5KB RAM expandable to 32KB, 6502A CPU, 22 character by 23 line text display, and color graphics, for US$300. During its life, production peaks at 9,000 units per day. [254.214] [190.81] [267.54] [268] [275.43] (1980 JUN [9]) FEB Steve Wozniak's private plane crashes, leaving him with a temporary loss of short-term memory, lasting for over a month. [218] [266.236] Intel introduces the iAPX432 at the International Solid State Circuits Conference. [270.164] Intel begins shipping evaluation sets of the iAPX432 microprocessor. Performance is claimed as 2 MIPS. [258.210] Curt and Kathy Preston open the Byte Shop in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. [267.138] Mattel test-markets the keyboard component of the Intellivision in Fresno, California. [268.48] MAR Sinclair unveils the ZX81, based on the Z80A microprocessor, for under US$200. [198.vii] Mike Markkula takes over as president and chief executive officer at Apple Computer. Steve Jobs remains as chairman of the board. [202.211] [203.63] APR The sixth West Coast Computer Faire is held, in San Francisco, California. [267.6] [273.104] Adam Osborne, of Osborne Computer Corporation, introduces the Osborne 1 Personal Business Computer at the West Coast Computer Faire. It features a Z80A CPU, 5-inch display, 64KB RAM, keyboard, keypad, modem, and two 5.25" 100KB disk drives for US$1795. Weight: 24 pounds. It also includes US$1500 worth of software, including CP/M, BASIC, WordStar, and SuperCalc. Osborne anticipated selling 10,000 in total, but sales quickly reached 10,000 in a single month. [9] [257.8] [203.22] [273.104] (JUL [41]) (nearly US$2000 worth of software [266.263]) MAY The National Computer Conference is held in Chicago, with attendance of 73,000. [263.36] Xerox unveils the Star 8010, at the National Computer Conference. Many features that were developed on the Alto are incorported. At a starting price of US$16-17,000, the computer is not a commercial success. [185.121] [203.60] [263.6] [274.28] [275.11] [275.56] (cost US$50,000 [9]) (JUN [266.268]) Atari announces the 8KB Atari 400 is being discontinued. [273.206] JUN Microsoft reorganizes into Microsoft Incorporated, with Bill Gates as President and Chairman, and Paul Allen as Executive Vice President. [123] JUL Xerox announces the Xerox 820. During its development, it was code-named The Worm. It uses the Z80 CPU, CP/M, and BASIC. The price with a dual disk drive and display is US$3000. [266.268] [274.6] [275.54] (JUN
  13. 13. Micros - p. 13 [275.11]) Microsoft buys all rights to DOS from Seattle Computer Products, and the name MS-DOS is adopted. [2] [31] [146] IBM introduces its first desktop computer, the Datamaster. It uses a 16-bit 8086, and is a dedicated data processing machine. [41] The first IBM PCs roll off the assembly lines. [203.16] Mike Scott resigns from Apple Computer. [266.237] AUG IBM announces the IBM 5150 PC Personal Computer, featuring a 4.77-MHz Intel 8088 CPU, 64KB RAM, 40KB ROM, one 5.25" floppy drive, and MS-DOS 1.0, for US$3000. The plunge of IBM into the microcomputer market legitimized the industry for the rest of the world. This also established the preeminence of the Intel 8086-family and the Microsoft MS-DOS operating system. [9] [35] [41] [108] [120] [123] [146] [202.205] [205.28] [266.276] [277.14] [288.192] IBM announces the CGA graphics card for the PC, giving 640x200 resolution with 16 colors. [117] [120] Apple Computer runs a full-page ad in the Wall Street Journal with a headline that reads "Welcome IBM. Seriously.". [46] Vector Graphic makes its first public stock offering of US$13 million. [202.212] SEP Osborne Computer Company has its first US$1 million sales month. [266.263] Apple Computer introduces its first hard drive, the 5MB ProFile, for US$3500. [46] (1983 [205.36]) IBM begins shipping the IBM PC, ahead of schedule, something unheard of in the microcomputer industry. [264.296] The Fourth Personal Computer World Show is held, in London England. [278.118] Sinclair Research and W H Smith sign an agreement for W H Smith to sell the ZX-81 in its retail stores in England, for a trial 1-year period. [285.93] Acorn Computer Ltd. introduces the BBC Microcomputer System. It features a 6502A CPU, up to 48 KB RAM, 73-key keyboard, and 16 color graphics. [278.120] OCT The ZX81 is introduced to the American market, for US$150. [201.vi] NOV Ashton-Tate ships Dbase II, the early industry-standard database program. [41] DEC National Semiconductor announces the 32000 chip, the first commercial 32-bit microprocessor. The 32000 family includes CPUs and peripheral chips. ??? (late fall) Apple Computer officially reintroduces the Apple III, with improved software and a hard disk. [266.239] ??? Bally licenses Commodore to manufacture its arcade games into cartridges for the VIC-20. [279.6] ??? Toshiba demonstrates its T200 and T250 systems. [274.30] ??? Rockwell International ceases production of bubble-memory products for the microcomputer market. [261.306] ??? W.H. Sim founds Creative Technology in Singapore. [221] ??? Hayes Microcomputer Products advertises the Smartmodem 300, which becomes the industry standard. [9] [176.75] ??? College professor James Clark found Silicon Graphics, Incorporated. [159] ??? Hayes Microcomputers Products' employee, Dale Heatherington, develops the + ++ escape sequence for modems. [164.14] ??? Vector Graphic Inc. unveils the first personal computer with a built-in hard disk drive, for US$7950. [258.208] ??? Tandy Corporation sues Personal Microcomputers Inc. for copyright infringement on the design of the TRS-80. [258.208] ??? At COMDEX, Tecmar introduces 20 add-on peripherals for the IBM PC, the first such third-party developer. [203.19] ??? Texas Instruments announces that it is getting out of the magnetic bubble memory market. [263.358] 1982 JAN The 1982 Winter Consumer Electronics Show is held in Las Vegas, Nevada. [285.64] Commodore introduces the Commodore Ultimax, for US$150. [285.64] Commodore announces the Commodore 64 (6510, 64KB RAM, 20KB ROM
  14. 14. Micros - p. 14 with Microsoft BASIC, custom sound, color graphics, for US$600) for US$595. During 1983, the price drops to US$200. It becomes the best selling computer of all time, with estimated sales of 17-22 million units. It is the first personal computer with an integrated sound synthesizer chip. [9] [190.81] [285.64] Commodore introduces the 16K SuperVIC. [285.66] Commodore introduces the VIC Modem, a 300 baud cartridge modem for US$110. [285.66] Texas Instruments introduces a peripheral expansion unit for the TI-99/4, for US$250. [285.66] Astrovision introduces the ZGrass-32 personal computer add-on to the Astro Professional Arcade, for US$600. It uses a Z-80 CPU. [285.66] Toshiba America previews its firest personal computer, the Model T-100. It uses a Z-80A, a flat panel LCD display, and supports up to 32KB RAM and 32KB ROM in cartridges. [285.67] In the first 10 months of sale, 250,000 Sinclair ZX81 microcomputers have been delivered. [281.6] Sharp introduces the Sharp PC-1500 Hand Held Personal Computer. It comes with 16KB ROM, and 3.5KB RAM. Price for computer is US$300. Price for tiny color graphics printer that attaches to the side, US$250. [285.67] Atari begins shipping all Atari 800 units with GTIA graphics chips, allowing three more graphics modes than previously. [286.200] Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Model 16. It uses a 16-bit Motorola MC68000. [286.216] Radio Shack introduces the PC-2 Pocket Computer for US$280. It has a 26-character display, with upper and lower case characters. It is expandable to 16KB. [286.216] Davong Systems Incorporated is formed. [287.11] FEB IBM split its Personal Computer development team into three groups: one to work on the PC XT, one to develop the PCjr, and one to start work on the PC AT. [41] Compaq Computer Corporation is founded by Rod Canion, Jim Harris, and Bill Murto, all former senior managers of Texas Instruments. [47] [113] [203.22] Intel introduces the 80286 microprocessor. It uses a 16-bit data bus, 134,000 transistors, and offers protected mode operation. Initial price is US$360. [177.102] (JUL [9]) Sun Microsystems is founded. [241] APR Xedex Corp. builds the Baby Blue card (a Z80 coprocessor card) to increase software availability for the IBM PC. [9] Eight months after the introduction of the IBM PC, 50,000 units have been sold. [218] MAY Future Computing Inc. quote: "CP/M 2.2 is extremely important, and the Z80 chip will live forever because of it." [9] Vector Graphic hires Frederick Snow as new president and CEO. [202.213] MS-DOS 1.1 is released, supporting double-sided floppy disks. [146] Timex Computer Corp. and Sinclair Research Ltd. announce an agreement for Timex to market a 2KB version of the ZX-81 as the Timex/Sinclair 1000. [201.vi] (APR [288.10]) JUN Sony Electronics demonstrates its 3.5 inch microfloppy disk system. [189.174] The first IBM PC clone, the MPC, is advertised by Columbia Data Products. [9] Epson America, Inc. announces the HX-20, a notebook-sized computer. It weighs only 3 pounds, and is reported to run on internal batteries for up to 50 hours. It includes 16KB RAM, 32KB ROM, a full-size keyboard, built-in printer, and 20x4 character LCD screen. [289.156] (1981 NOV [9]) Cromemco Inc. announces the C-10 personal computer. It uses a 4-MHz Z-80A, 64KB RAM, and 80x25 screen, for US$1000. [289.156] Wang Labratories Ltd. introduces the Wang Professional Computer, for US$2700. [289.157] Commodore Business Machines Inc. introduces the Commodore Max Machine.
  15. 15. Micros - p. 15 It has 16-color 40x25 screen capability, for US$180. [289.162] Commodore Business Machines Inc. introduces the BX256 16-bit multiprocessor professional microcomputer. It includes 256KB RAM, an Intel 8088 for CP/M-86, 80-column screen, and built-in dual disk drives, for US$3000. [289.162] Commodore Business Machines Inc. introduces the B128 microcomputer. It features 128KB RAM, and a 80-column screen, for US$1700. [289.162] Commodore Business Machines Inc. introduces the P128 microcomputer. It features 128KB RAM, TV connector, 40x25 16-color display, and 320x200 graphics, for US$1000. [289.162] Lobo Drives International introduces the MAX-80 personal computer. It features a 5-MHz Z-80, 64KB RAM, serial/parallel ports, and keyboard, for US$800. [289.164] Altos Computer Systems announces the ACS8600. [289.164] Toshiba America introducess its Toshiba T100 personal computer. [289.164] Digital Equipment announces the dual-processor Rainbow 100. It incorporates both Zilog Z-80 and Intel 8088 microprocessors, allowing it to run CP/M as well as CP/M-86 or MS-DOS. [266.279] [290] (8085 and 8088 [289.272]) JUL Boston's Computer Museum, devoted to documenting and displaying the evolution of computer technology, is incorporated. Intel announces the 80186 microprocessor. [9] Timex Computer Corp. begins selling the Timex Sinclair 1000 through over 1000 Timex retail outlets. [288.10] Apple Computer releases the Apple Dot Matrix Printer, for US$700. It is a modified C.Itoh printer. [46] AUG Hercules announces the Hercules Graphics Card (HGC or HGA), with monochrome graphics at 720x348 resolution. [117] [120] OCT Lotus Development announces the Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet program. [9] (NOV [41]) (JAN [120]) NOV Compaq Computer introduces the Compaq Portable PC: 4.77MHz 8088, 128KB RAM, 9-inch monochrome monitor, one 320KB 5.25" disk drive, price US$3000. [1] [108] [117] (JAN 1983 [47] [203.23]) (MAR 1983 [41]) DEC Apple Computer becomes the first personal computer company to reach US$1 billion in annual sales. [46] ??? Lotus Development Corp. is founded. [217] ??? An insurance company contracts with programmer Wilton Jones to create a PC word processing program that mimicks Wang word processing. That program becomes MultiMate. [33] ??? Vector Graphic introduces the Vector 4 system, leaving them with US$3 million in stock of the Vector 3 system. [202.213] ??? Franklin Computer Corp. unveils the Franklin Ace 1000, the first legal (at the time) Apple II clone. It uses a 1.022 MHz 6502 CPU, and comes with 64KB RAM. [9] [291.10] ??? General Videotex Corporation begins the Delphi online service. [218] ??? Robert Lissner begins work on Apple Pie, which would be marketed by Apple Computer as AppleWorks for the Apple II. [218] ??? Businessland opens. [34] ??? At the West Coast Computer Faire, Davong Systems introduces its 5MB Winchester Disk Drive for the IBM PC, for US$2000. [287.11] ??? In the first 8 months since its introduction, 11,000 Osborne 1 computers ship. [203.23] ??? Mouse Systems introduces the first commercial mouse for the IBM PC. [176.112] ??? Apple Computer announces the Lisa computer. [266.xv] 1983 JAN Apple Computer unveils the Lisa computer, with 1MB RAM, 2MB ROM, 5MB hard drive. It is slow, but innovative. Its initial price is US$10,000. The Lisa is based on the Xerox Star System, and cost Apple Computer US$50 million to develop. It is the first personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI). The software for it cost Apple Computer US$100 million to develop. [9] [41] [46] [75] [80] [140] [176.145] [180.16,102] [202.211]
  16. 16. Micros - p. 16 [203.63] (1982 JAN [120]) Apple Computer introduces the Apple IIe for US$1400. [46] [75] [120] [199.1] [200.1] Apple Computer releases the Apple Letter Quality Printer, for US$2200. It is a modified Qume printer. [218] A full-page ad by Media Distributing offers a 44MB hard drive for US$4400; 22MB for US$3600; 11MB for US$2700. Commodore's sales of VIC-20s reaches 1,000,000. [9] Time magazine selects the computer as its "Man" of the Year. [9] (1982 DEC [46]) Lotus Development ships Lotus 1-2-3 Release 1.0. [41] [217] Ziff-Davis begins publishing A+ magazine for Apple Computer products. [218] MAR Radio Shack announces its TRS-80 Model 100 laptop computer. Its light weight and built-in software and modem make it popular with journalists and businessmen. [9] (introduced in 1984 [202.199]) IBM announces the IBM PC XT. It adds a 10 MB hard drive, three more expansion slots, and a serial interface. With 128KB RAM and a 360KB floppy drive, it costs US$5000. [35] [41] [75] [116] [120] [205.31] (FEB [9]) MS-DOS 2.0 for PCs is announced. It was written from scratch, supporting 10 MB hard drives, a tree-structured file system, and 360 KB floppy disks. [117] [130] [146] The Eagle 1600, the first 8086-based PC, ships. [108] APR Tandy/Radio Shack's TRS-80 Model IV appears. Vector Graphic fires Frederick Snow, with Lore Harp taking over again. [202.213] John Sculley is hired at Apple Computer as Chief Operating Officer. [203.63] [266.281] Lotus Development ships Lotus 1-2-3 Release 1.A. [217] MAY Microsoft introduces its first mouse, "The Microsoft Mouse", including card and software, for US$200. [3] [123] Microsoft introduces Microsoft Word for MS-DOS 1.0. [123] JUN Microsoft quote: "We have a long-term relationship with IBM and have solid plans involving PC-DOS." [2] The 1,000,000th Apple II is made. [46] [75] Intel quote: "Accessing memory using a segmented architecture holds many advantages over the earlier linear-addressing method." [2] Coleco announces the Adam, a Z80-based computer with daisy wheel printer, 64KB RAM, and 512KB tape-cartridge device, for US$600. Coleco delivers late, raises the price, and discontinues the product by the end of 1984. [9] (80KB RAM [202.210]) (1984 [176.146]) Shipments of Apple computers reach 1,000,000. [9] JUL The first implementation of C++ appears. [176.122] Steve Wozniak returns to Apple Computer. [200.13] (JUN [218] AUG A US federal appeals court judge rules that Franklin Computers did violate Apple Computer copyrights on computer programs and the Apple Computer operating system in ROM. [80] SEP Osborne Computer Corp. files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. [9] [266.280] Microsoft introduces Microsoft Word v1.0 for DOS. [123] OCT IBM announces the IBM PCjr, using Intel's 8088, for US$700 for the bare configuration. [9] [116] [120] [266.281] (NOV [35] [41]) IBM introduces PC-DOS 2.1 with the IBM PCjr. [146] IBM announces the IBM 3270 PC, an 8088-based system, for US$4290. [116] IBM announces the IBM PC-XT Model 370, with 8088 CPU, 768K RAM, 360K drive, and 10 MB hard drive for US$9000. [116] Compaq Computer introduces the Portable Plus. [108] NOV Microsoft formally announces Microsoft Windows. [9] [45] [123] [137] [228.53] Borland International releases Turbo Pascal for CP/M and 8086-based computers. [176.122] (first advertised in October [9])
  17. 17. Micros - p. 17 Microsoft again shows Windows to IBM, and again IBM is not interested. [45] DEC Apple Computer introduces the redesigned Apple III as the Apple III+, for US$3000. [46] [75] [203.58] Apple Computer releases the Apple ImageWriter for US$695. It is a modified C.Itoh printer. [218] Compaq Computer makes its first public stock offering, raising US$67 million. [113] In an obscure television market somewhere on the Great Plains, Apple Computer runs its "1984" Macintosh ad, solely to make the ad eligible for awards during 1984. [180.171] ??? Hewlett-Packard begins design work on Precision Architecture. [160] ??? Commodore introduces the SX-64, the first color portable. [190.81] ??? IBM and Microsoft begin co-developing OS/2. [38] ??? Borland International is founded by Philippe Kahn. [102] ??? Microsoft shows IBM a raw version of Windows. IBM is not interested as they are already developing what would be called TopView. [45] ??? (fall) Texas Instruments withdraws from the personal computer market. [202.209] [266.281] ??? Bjarn Stroustrup creates the C++ extension to the C programming language. [132] ??? Mattel demonstrates the Aquarius computer at a trade show. [176.145] 1984 JAN Jack Tramiel, founder and president of Commodore, leaves the company. Apple Computer runs its "1984" commercial during the SuperBowl, introducing the Macintosh computer. Apple Computer runs the ad only once, but dozens of news and talk shows replay it, making it one of the most memorable ads in TV history. The ad cost US$1.5 million. [46] [180.169] [185.121] [203.64] Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh, for US$2500. [9] [41] [46] [75] [120] [140] [185.121] [205.38] [266.281] Apple Computer introduces its 300-baud modem for US$300, and 1200-baud modem for US$500. [75] Microsoft ships Microsoft BASIC and Microsoft Multiplan for the Macintosh. [123] Seiko Instruments U.S.A. Inc. displays the first wristwatch computer, with a 10-character, 4-line LCD. [9] Hitachi ad for their 3" compact floppy disk drive: "It's clear that the 3" floppy will become the new standard." [4] FEB IBM announces the IBM Portable PC, for US$2900. [35] [41] (MAR [116] [117] [120]) IBM sues Eagle Computer and Corona Data Systems for copyright violation of the IBM PC's BIOS, and wins. [203.23] MAR IBM ships the IBM PCjr. It uses the 8088 CPU, includes 64KB RAM, a "Freeboard" keyboard, and one 5.25" disk drive, no monitor, for US$1300. [5] [9] (JAN [35]) 74 days after the introduction of the Macintosh, 50,000 units have been sold. [218] Project IIx is cancelled at Apple Computer. [218] APR Compaq Computer introduces its PCs to Europe. [113] Apple Computer unveils the Apple IIc with an intense publicity extravaganza, at the Moscone Center in San Francisco. Priced at US$1300, 2,000 dealers place orders for more than 52,000 units on the day of its introduction. [46] [75] [120] [199.1] [200.14] [218] (MAY [9]) Apple Computer retires the Apple III and Apple III+, with only 65,000 units sold in total. [46] [75] [203.58] Silicon Graphics begins shipping its first 3-D graphics workstations. [159] Apple Computer releases the color Apple Scribe printer, using a special waxed ribbon and thermal print head. [218] AT&T and Olivetti form a strategic relationship to develop and market PCs in the US. [166.58] MAY Apple Computer introduces the DuoDisk dual 5.25" floppy disk drive unit for the Apple II line. [218]
  18. 18. Micros - p. 18 Apple Computer releases the AppleMouse II with MousePaint and a peripheral card for the Apple IIe or Apple II Plus (or directly in the Apple IIc). [218] JUN Tom Jennings creates the FidoNet BBS network. [6] [9] [164.47] Motorola adds the 68020 32-bit processor to its line. [9] (1986 [120]) Apple Computer releases the Apple Color Plotter, a 4-pen plotter. [218] Compaq Computer introduces the Compaq Deskpro. [108] [113] AT&T introduces the PC 6300, manufactured by Olivetti. [166.58] JUL Jack Tramiel, formerly of Commodore, buys Atari from Warner Communications. [9] [30] Six months after its introduction, 100,000 Macintosh computers have been sold. [203.65] Digital Vision releases the Computer Eyes video capture system for the Apple II, selling for US$130 (US$350 with a camera). [218] AUG Commodore purchases Amiga Corporation. [6] [9] IBM announces the PC AT, a 6MHz 80286 computer using PC-DOS 3.0, a 5.25" 1.2MB floppy drive, with 256KB RAM, for US$4000, which doesn't include hard drive or monitor/card. With a 20MB hard drive, color card and monitor: US$6700. [6] [9] [35] [41] [75] [108] [116] [120] [203.25] IBM announces its PC Network local area network. [9] [81] IBM introduces PC/IX, based on UNIX System III from AT&T, for the PC AT. [81] IBM announces TopView, a DOS multitasking program. [35] IBM announces the Enhanced Color Display monitor with 640x350 resolution, priced at US$850. [81] IBM announces the Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA), supporting up to 640x350 resolution in 16 colors. With 64K, the card costs US$524. For 640x350x16 mode, a US$200 64KB RAM expander is required. [81] [120] IBM announces the Professional Graphics Display monitor, for US$1300. The 14-inch monitor will display up to 256 colors (from 4096) simultaneously at 640x480 resolution. [81] IBM announces the Professional Graphics Controller card, for US$3000. The card takes up two adjacent slots of a PC, and includes an 8-MHz 8088 chip and 384KB of memory. [81] MS-DOS 3.0 for PCs is announced. It adds support for 1.2 MB floppy disks, and bigger (than 10 MB) hard disks. [117] [130] [146] SEP The Tandy 1000 debuts. Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh 512K for US$3200. [46] [75] Digital Research announces its GEM icon/desktop user interface for 8086-based computers. [9] OCT Microsoft gives a demonstration of the final version of Windows to IBM. For the third time, IBM is not interested. [45] The number of hosts on the Internet reaches 1000. [56] NOV The Tandy 1200 debuts. Apple Computer launches the "Test Drive a Macintosh" promotion. About 200,000 take a Macintosh home for a free 24-hour trial. [46] The 2,000,000the Apple II computer is sold. [46] [75] Jim Manzi is named president and chief operating officer of Lotus Development. [217] MS-DOS 3.1 ships. It adds support for Microsoft networks. [130] [146] DEC Several companies introduce 2400 baud modems at COMDEX, priced at US$800-900. [7] ??? Motorola unveils its 68010 CPU chip. [120] ??? Apple Computer releases ProDOS. [218] ??? Apple Computer releases AppleWorks, one of the first integrated software packages, with modules for word processing, database management, and spreadsheet calculations. It was written by Rupert Lissner. [218] ??? Satellite Software International introduces WordPerfect, available on several platforms. [16] ??? Hewlett-Packard introduces the LaserJet laser printer, featuring 300dpi
  19. 19. Micros - p. 19 resolution, for US$3,600. [16] [117] [218] ??? Microsoft licenses Mac OS technology for use in Windows 1.0. [38] ??? Intel introduces the 80186, 80188, and 80286 processors. [108] [120] ??? Mindset debuts the Mindset PC. [176.145] ??? MIPS Computer Systems is founded, and begins developing its RISC architecture. [160] ??? Commodore introduces the Plus/4, with integrated software in ROM. [190.81] 1985 JAN Commodore unveils the C128. [8] The Atari XE and 520ST debut. Compaq Computer reports second year revenues of US$329 million, an industry record. [113] Apple Computer officially renames the Lisa the Macintosh XL. [46] [75] Apple Computer releases the Apple LaserWriter laser printer. [140] [218] (AUG [120]) FEB Apple Computer co-founder Steve Wozniak resigns from Apple Computer, to start a company that will develop home video products. [46] [75] TopView is released by IBM, for US$150. [35] [107] [130] MAR Apple Computer introduces the Apple Enhanced IIe. [218] APR IBM abandons production of the IBM PCjr. [13] [35] The Macintosh XL (formerly called Lisa) is dropped from Apple Computer's product line. [46] [120] Compaq Computer introduces the Compaq Deskpro 286 and Portable 286. [108] MAY John Sculley essentially fires Steve Jobs at Apple Computer. [180.206] JUN Apple Computer reports its first quarterly loss. [75] Microsoft announces Windows 1.0. [75] [150] Apple Computer introduces the UniDisk 5.25 single 5.25" floppy disk drive, with the ability to daisy-chain additional drives through it. [218] JUL Commodore unveils the new Amiga 1000 in New York. It features a multitasking, windowing operating system, using a Motorola 68000 CPU, with 256KB RAM, and 880KB 3.5" disk drive, for US$1300. [16] [187] (US$1200 [190.81]) Wang announces a series of products to turn PCs into local and remote Wang terminals. [33] Aldus PageMaker is released for the Apple Macintosh. [120] [180.220] [237.60] Quarterdeck Office Systems ships DESQview 1.0. [130] AUG Microsoft and IBM sign a joint-development agreement to work together on future operating systems and environments. [45] [106] [123] SEP Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs resigns from Apple Computer to start a new computer company. [16] [46] [75] Steve Jobs and five senior managers of Apple Computer Inc. found NeXT Incorporated. [170.66] [222] [206.289] Computer company Gateway 2000 is formed, in Sioux City, Iowa, USA. [183] Lotus Development ships Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2.0. [217] Apple Computer introduces the UniDisk 3.5, a double-sided 3.5" disk drive, capable of storing 800KB per disk. [218] Apple Computer releases the Apple ImageWriter II printer. [218] OCT Intel announces the 16-MHz 80386 microprocessor. It uses 32-bit registers and a 32-bit data bus, and incorporates 275,000 transistors. Initial price is US$299. [41] [75] [176.74] [177.102] Apple Computer discontinues its 128K Mac. [75] Hayes Microcomputer Products is issued a patent for the "Improved Escape Sequence with Guard Time", a technique to put a modem into command mode. [164.14] AT&T Computer Systems introduces the PC 6300 Plus. [166.58] NOV Microsoft ships Microsoft Windows 1.0, for US$100. [16] [107] [117] [120] [123] [130] [134] [146] (v1.01 [136]) ??? U.S. Robotics introduces the Courier 2400 modem. [235] ??? The Acorn Advanced RISC Machine (ARM), a 32-bit processor for home use, appears. [32]
  20. 20. Micros - p. 20 ??? Mips Technologies introduces the first commercially available RISC chip, the R2000. [206.124] ??? Microsoft purchases all rights to DOS from Seattle Computer Products for US$925,000. [41] ??? Motorola unveils its 68008 CPU chip. [120] ??? Sun Microsystems begins work on its SPARC processor. [160] ??? Steve Wozniak returns to Apple Computer. [203.68] ??? Software Arts sells the rights to VisiCalc to Mitch Kapor, of Lotus Development. [218] ??? General Electric begins the GEnie online service. [218] 1986 JAN Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh Plus, with 1 MB RAM, support for hard drives, a new keyboard with cursor keys and numeric keypad, priced at US$2600. [46] [75] [120] [140] [180.222] [203.68] John Sculley becomes chairman of Apple Computer. [75] Compaq Computer reports third year revenues of US$503.9 million, a U.S. business record. [113] IBM announces the IBM RT Personal Computer, using RISC-based technology from IBM's "801" project of the mid-70s. It is one of the first commercially-available 32-bit RISC-based computers. The base configuration has 1MB RAM, a 1.2MB floppy, and 40 MB hard drive, for US$11,700. With performance of only 2 MIPS, it was doomed from the beginning. [31] [116] [205.114] MS-DOS 3.2 ships. It adds support for 3.5" 720 KB floppy disks, and addressing up to 32 MB on hard drives. [130] (1985 DEC [146]) FEB Compaq Computer introduces the Compaq Portable II. [108] Quarterdeck Office Systems ships DESQview 1.1. [130] Quarterdeck Office Systems ships DESQview 1.2. [130] Microsoft moves from Bellevue to Redmond, Washington. [123] MAR The First International Conference on CD-ROM is held in Seattle, Washington, hosted by Microsoft. [58] [123] IBM begins shipping the IBM RT PC. [117] Microsoft first sells shares to the public, for US$21 per share. The initial public offering raises US$61 million. [75] [123] Silicon Graphics decides to switch from the Motorola 68000 line to MIPS Technologies' line of RISC processors. [160] APR IBM announces the IBM PC Convertible, 80C88-based, 256K RAM, and two 720K floppy disks, for US$2000. [35] [41] [109] [116] [120] [146] IBM discontinues the IBM Portable PC. [117] IBM boosts the speed of the IBM PC AT by replacing the CPU with a 8-MHz Intel 80286. [117] [120] Jim Manzi is named chief executive officer of Lotus Development Corp. [217] Compaq Computer joins the Fortune 500 list faster than any company in history. [113] Compaq Computer ships its 500,000th personal computer. [113] Apple Computer replaces the Macintosh 512K with the Macintosh 512K Enhanced, for US$2000. [46] [75] MAY IBM's TopView 1.1 ships. [130] JUL Apple Computer discontinues the Macintosh XL. [75] Jim Manzi is appointed chairman of Lotus Development. [217] AUG Intel ships the 80386. [31] [108] SEP Compaq Computer introduces the first 16-MHz Intel 80386-based PC, the Compaq Deskpro 386. [31] [41] [108] [117] [203.87] Apple Computer introduces the Apple IIGS, with the Apple 3.5 drive, for US$1000. It uses the Western Digital Center W65C816 (65816) microprocessor, operating at 1-MHz or 2.8-MHz. [46] [75] [120] [199.1] [218] Apple Computer releases AppleWorks 2.0. [218] Apple Computer introduces the Apple 3.5 drive for the Mac and the Apple IIGS. [218]. IBM announces the IBM PC-XT Model 286, with 640KB RAM, 1.2MB floppy drive, 20MB hard drive, serial/parallel ports, and keyboard for US$4000.
  21. 21. Micros - p. 21 [35] [109] [116] [117] [120] Quarterdeck Office Systems ships DESQview 1.3. [130] Steve Jobs decides to use the ill-fated erasable optical disk drives for the first NeXT machine. [170.66] DEC PageMaker is released for the PC. [120] ??? Microsoft purchases Dymanical Systems, Inc., makers of a TopView clone called Mondrian. [45] ??? Motorola begins work on the 88000 processor. [160] ??? Digital Research introduces its GEM operating environment for MS-DOS. [205.40] ??? MIPS Technologies unveils the 8-MHz R2000 32-bit CPU. With 110,000 transistors, it achieves a speed rating of 5 MIPS. [176.75] ??? MIPS Technologies begins volume shipments of its first RISC processor, the R2000. [160] ??? Little-known company Advanced Logic Research announces the first 386-based PC, the Access 386. [16] ??? NexGen begins work on the design of a fifth generation x86 processor. [206.96] ??? Motorola announces the 68030 microprocessor. [16] ??? NEC Home Electronics introduces its NEC JC-1401P3A Multisync monitor. [109] (1986 [117]) ??? Software Publishing Corporation introduces Harvard Presentation Graphics for the PC. [109] ??? Satellite Software International changes its name to WordPerfect Corporation. [109] ??? IBM begins work on what would become the IBM RS/6000 series. [157] ??? Gateway 2000 ships its first PC. [183] ??? NexGen is founded. [206.30] 1987 JAN Lotus Development files a lawsuit against Paperback Software (maker of VP-Planner) and Mosaic Software (maker of The Twin), claiming infringement of copyrights over the look and feel of 1-2-3. [116] [217] Apple Computer introduces the Apple Platinum IIe. [218] FEB Commodore announces the Amiga 500 and 2000. [16] MAR Apple Computer introduces the open architecture Macintosh II. The basic system sells for US$3900. A system with 1MB RAM, one 800K floppy drive, and a 40MB hard drive is priced at US$5500. The system features a plug-and-play architecture for expansion cards. [16] [41] [46] [75] [120] [140] [203.68] Apple Computer introduces the expandable Macintosh SE for US$2900 for a dual floppy system. [16] [46] [75] [120] Apple Computer introduces NuBus as the Mac's standard bus. [178] U.S. Robotics unveils its 9600 bps Courier HST modem, for US$995. BBS sysops can purchase the modem for US$495. [111] APR IBM introduces the IBM Personal System/2 (PS/2) line, with IBM's first 386 PC, and 3.5" floppy drives as standard. The PS/2 Model 30 uses a 8-MHz 8086, the Model 50 and 60 use the 10-MHz 80286, and the Model 80 uses a 20-MHz 80386. [35] [75] [116] [120] [203.27] [205.34] IBM unveils its Video Graphics Array (VGA) in its Model 50 and higher of the PS/2 line. VGA offers 256 simultaneous colors at a resolution of 320x200, and 16 colors at 640x480. The colors displayed have six bits of depth for each primary color, giving a palette of 262,144 different colors to select from. [116] [120] IBM unveils its Multicolor Graphics Array (MCGA) on its PS/2 Model 30. The MCGA is limited to 64K of memory, limiting 640x480 resolution to just 2 colors, but still allowing 320x200 in 256 colors. [116] IBM introduces its Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) on its Model 50 and higher of the PS/2 line. [116] IBM and Microsoft announce Operating System/2 (OS/2). [16] [31] [41] [123] [130] [146] [150] IBM announces the 8514/A Display Adapter, a high-resolution graphics card for the MCA PS/2 line. The 8514/A adds 1024x768 in 16 colors to the standard VGA, at a cost of US$1290. With the addition of a US$270
  22. 22. Micros - p. 22 Memory Expansion Kit, 640x480 and 1024x768 resolutions can be had in 256 colors. [117] IBM announces the 8514 16-inch monitor, for US$1550. [117] IBM announces DOS 3.3 for PCs, for US$120. It adds support for 1.44 MB floppy disks, and multiple 32 MB hard drive partitions. [117] [146] Microsoft announces Microsoft Windows 2.0. [123] [137] IBM ships TopView 1.12. [130] MAY PC MOS 1.0 ships. [130] Quarterdeck Office Systems ships DESQview 2.0. [130] JUL Zilog introduces its Z-280 16-bit version of the Z-80 CPU. [32] Sun Microsystems introduces its first SPARC-based system, the Sun-4/260, with 10 MIPS performance. [160] [176.75] Sun Microsystems offers licenses for its SPARC microprocessor architecture. [171.80] (OCT [174.56]) Apple Computer creates the company Claris, to handle some of Apple Computer's software for the Apple II and Macintosh. [218] AUG IBM introduces the PS/2 Model 25, with an 8-MHz Intel 8086, combined system unit with monitor, no hard drive, and reduced-size keyboard, starting at US$1350. [118] [120] Microsoft ships MS-DOS 3.3. [130] Apple Computer introduces HyperCard for the Macintosh, at the Macworld Expo. [140] [180.247] The Association of Shareware Professionals (ASP) is formed. [10] SEP Microsoft ships Microsoft Bookshelf, its first CD-ROM application. [123] OCT Microsoft unveils the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for Windows. [119] [123] Compaq Computer introduces the 20-MHz Compaq Deskpro 386/20. [119] Compaq Computer introduces the 20-MHz Compaq Portable 386. [119] Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows/386, priced at US$195. [120] [130] Microsoft ships Windows 2.0 [75] [130] (v2.03 [136]) (NOV [146]) Ven-Tel unveils its EC18K-34 modem, which it claims can operate at up to 18,000 bps, with data compression achieving a throughput of 19,200 bps on normal voice phone lines. The cost of the modem is US$1400. [120] Ad Lib Incorporated unveils its Ad Lib Personal Computer Music System for US$245. The card provides FM synthesis with 11 simultaneous voices. [120] NOV Compaq Computer makes its 1 millionth personal computer. [47] [113] DEC IBM ships first copies of OS/2 Standard Edition 1.0. [31] [75] [130] [134] [135] (NOV [146]) ??? Commodore launches its first IBM PC-compatible machines, the PC10-1 and PC10-2. Both use a 4.77 MHz Siemens 8088. [115] ??? Motorola unveils the 68030 microprocessor. [120] ??? U.S. Robotics introduces the Courier HST 9600 modem. [235] ??? IBM discontinues the IBM PC line. [203.28] 1988 FEB Apple Computer ships A/UX for the Macintosh II, Apple Computer's combination of the Mac interface with UNIX. [46] [75] Compaq Computer reports sales for the year reach US$1.2 billion, setting the record as the fastest company to reach that mark. [113] MAR Apple Computer sues Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard for copyright infringement regarding Windows and the Mac OS. [38] [46] [75] The Open Software Foundation is founded. [153] (MAY [160]) APR Motorola unveils the 88000 processor. [160] MAY Apple Computer contracts with Quantum Computer Services to create the AppleLink Personal Edition (later renamed America Online). [218] JUN IBM announces the PS/2 Model 70, as 16-, 20-, and 25-MHz 80386 systems. [131] Microsoft ships Windows 2.1 as Windows/286 and Windows/386. [136] [146] (1987 [45]) Intel creates the 80386SX, like the 80386 but with a 16-bit data bus. [177.103] JUL IBM ships OS/2 Extended Edition 1.0. [31] IBM ships DOS 4.0. It adds a shell menu interface and support for hard disk partitions over 32 MB. [31] [146]
  23. 23. Micros - p. 23 SEP Apple Computer introduces the Apple IIc Plus for US$1100. [46] (APR [75]) (US$675 [218]) IBM introduces the IBM PS/2 Model 30 286, using the AT-bus. [133] Claris releases AppleWorks 2.1. [218] 61 companies support the formation of the Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA). [113] [157] Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh IIx computer, using Motorola's 68030 and 68882 processors. It is priced at US$7770. [46] [75] Apple Computer releases GS/OS, a 16-bit operating system for the Apple IIGS. [218] SPEC is formed, with the aim of producing a benchmark based on a standard set of real-life applications programs. [156] Tandy ships the first MCA-bus-based clone PC, the Tandy 5000 MC. [133] Compaq Computer produces the first portable PC with VGA graphics, the Compaq SLT/286. [133] OCT Microsoft and IBM ship OS/2 1.1 Standard Edition with Presentation Manager. [16] [45] [123] [134] [135] NeXT Inc. unveils the first NeXT computer, at the Davis Symphony Hall in San Francisco. For US$6500, it features: 25-MHz Motorola 68030 processor and 68882 math coprocessor, 8MB RAM, 17-inch monochrome monitor, 256MB read/write magneto-optical drive, and true object-oriented NextStep operating system. [139] [170.65] [191.76] [203.7] [206.289] (AUG [11]) NOV Ashton-Tate sues Fox Software and Santa Cruz Operations for infringing copyrights on the Dbase language. [25] [148] DOS 4.01 is released. [146] ??? Solbourne Computer Incorporated is the first vendor to produce a Sun-compatible SPARC-based computer. [173.81] ??? Compaq Computer and other companies form the "Gang of Nine", to improve on the AT-bus, rather than take IBM's approach of abandoning it. [203.29] ??? W.H. Sim founds Creative Labs, Inc., in California, USA, a subsidiary of Creative Technology. [221] ??? U.S. Robotics introduces the Courier Dual Standard modem, supporting both v.32 and HST protocols. [235] 1989 JAN Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh SE/30, with MS-DOS and OS/2 disk compatibility, for US$4370. [46] Digital Equipment introduces its first RISC-based workstation, the DECstation 3100, using the 16.7-MHz R2000 MIPS Technologies processor. [155] [160] MAR Apple Computer introduces its Macintosh IIcx for US$5370. [46] [75] APR The VESA standard emerges, providing a uniform method of accessing SuperVGA chipsets. [18] Intel introduces the 486 CPU. It integrates the 386, 387 math coprocessor, and adds a primary cache. It uses 1.2 million transistors. Initial price us US$900. [75] [176.75] [177.103] MAY Hewlett-Packard buys workstation maker Apollo Computer for US$476 million. [158] Solbourne Computers Incorporated is the first to announce a line of SPARC-based Sun-compatible computers. [171.80] JUN Claris releases AppleWorks 3.0. [218] JUL AT&T and Intel sign an agreement to produce 386-based PCs. [166.58] AUG Britain's Apricot Computers produces the first PC based on the 25-MHz Intel 80486 chip. [12] SEP Apple Computer announces the Macintosh Portable. [46] [75] Apple Computer announces the 25-MHz Macintosh IIci. [46] [75] IBM releases OS/2 1.2. [135] Hewlett-Packard announces a US$3990 UNIX workstation based on the Motorola 68030. [158] NeXT ships the first NeXT Computer systems. [206.289] [222] NeXT releases NextStep v1.0. [206.289] [222] OCT Compaq Computer introduces its first notebook PC, the Compaq LTE. [113]