Universal Design CSE 491 Michigan State  Fall 2007 E. Kraemer
Outline <ul><li>Why universal design? </li></ul><ul><li>Assistive technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Non-speech audio </li></ul>
Universal Design <ul><li>Design for inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone, anywhere, anyhow </li></ul><ul><li>If you design f...
Examples <ul><li>I’m having trouble reading smaller print </li></ul><ul><li>Lefties have trouble with scissors </li></ul><...
Different Environments <ul><li>“ Non-average” can mean different environments, context, locations, modalities </li></ul><u...
Different Users <ul><li>Not just about “special” populations like those with particular physical or perceptual challenges ...
Users with Disabilities <ul><li>Visual impairment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not just about blindness, from age, color issues, ...
…  plus … <ul><li>Age groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older people e.g. disability aids, memory aids, communication tools to ...
Principles of Universal Design <ul><li>Equitable use </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility in use </li></ul><ul><li>Simple and int...
Equitable Use <ul><li>The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities   </li></ul><ul><li>GUIDELINES ...
Flexibility in Use <ul><li>The design   accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities.  </li></ul><ul>...
Simple and intuitive <ul><li>Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, lang...
Perceptible  Information  <ul><li>The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of amb...
Tolerance for Error  <ul><li>The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions...
Low Physical Effort  <ul><li>The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue.  </li></ul>...
Size and Space for Approach and Use  <ul><li>Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and...
In design … <ul><li>Look at things in new ways … </li></ul>
“ Designing for Diversity” <ul><li>Requires really understanding the way diverse types of users interact with a system </l...
Terminology <ul><li>Ability </li></ul><ul><li>Impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Handicap </li></ul...
Multi-Sensory Systems <ul><li>More than one sensory channel in interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. sounds, text, hypert...
Usable Senses <ul><li>The 5 senses (sight, sound, touch, taste and smell) are used by us every day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e...
Multi-modal vs. Multi-media <ul><li>Multi-modal systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use more than one sense (or mode ) of intera...
Visual Impairments <ul><li>How to deal with GUIs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard vs. mouse use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How ...
Visual Impairments, cont’d <ul><li>What about these?… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equitable use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexi...
Hearing Impairment <ul><li>Does access for the blind mean no access for the deaf? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider how truly...
Physical Impairments <ul><li>A wide variety of “handicaps” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tremor, dexterity, grip, mobility, balanc...
Aging <ul><li>All of the possible difficulties arise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual, cognitive, motor </li></ul></ul><u...
Audio <ul><li>Non-speech audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often useful for visually impaired users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V...
Non-Speech Sounds <ul><li>boings, bangs, squeaks, clicks etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly used for warnings and alarms </li...
Non-Speech Sounds: Useful? <ul><li>Dual mode displays: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information presented along two different sen...
Uses of Non-Speech Audio <ul><li>Beeps ‘n’ Bops </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Sonification </li...
Beeps ‘n’ Bops <ul><li>Warnings, alerts, status messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Peripheral Awareness <ul><li>Using sound to communicate information about the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Compare to inf...
Audio Aura <ul><li>Audio Aura </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mynatt, Back, & Want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xerox PARC, 1997 </li>...
StockScape <ul><ul><li>Walker & B. Mauney </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Georgia Tech, 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continu...
Sonification <ul><li>“ Auditory display of quantitative information” </li></ul><ul><li>Compare to visualization </li></ul>...
Sonification Design Issues <ul><li>Mapping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data dimension --> Display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dol...
Audio Interfaces & Menus <ul><li>Audio-only or audio-enhanced interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>IVRs (phone-based, like airline...
Auditory Icons <ul><li>Use natural sounds to represent different types of object or action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural s...
SonicFinder for the Macintosh <ul><li>Items and actions on the desktop have associated sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Folders ha...
Earcons <ul><li>Synthetic sounds used to convey information </li></ul><ul><li>Structured combinations of notes (motives ) ...
Earcons (cont’d) <ul><li>Family earcons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>similar types of earcons represent similar classes of action...
Navigation <ul><li>Getting around, for those who cannot look or cannot see </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persons with visual impai...
Resources <ul><li>http://sonify.psych.gatech.edu/~walkerb/classes/assisttech/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>www.webaim.org <...
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Universal Design

  1. 1. Universal Design CSE 491 Michigan State Fall 2007 E. Kraemer
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Why universal design? </li></ul><ul><li>Assistive technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Non-speech audio </li></ul>
  3. 3. Universal Design <ul><li>Design for inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone, anywhere, anyhow </li></ul><ul><li>If you design for everyone, then: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More usable by “average” users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usable (or manageable) by “non-average”users </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Examples <ul><li>I’m having trouble reading smaller print </li></ul><ul><li>Lefties have trouble with scissors </li></ul><ul><li>Someone with arthritis can’t open a bottle </li></ul><ul><li>Chair that a child can’t sit in properly </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  5. 5. Different Environments <ul><li>“ Non-average” can mean different environments, context, locations, modalities </li></ul><ul><li>May require different interaction methods, rules, models </li></ul>
  6. 6. Different Users <ul><li>Not just about “special” populations like those with particular physical or perceptual challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Also about users not part of the original specification, new users, late adopters </li></ul>
  7. 7. Users with Disabilities <ul><li>Visual impairment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not just about blindness, from age, color issues, limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hearing impairment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From birth, environment, noise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical impairment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide range, unavailable vs. limited, injury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speech impairment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent, temporary, noise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dyslexia </li></ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul>
  8. 8. … plus … <ul><li>Age groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older people e.g. disability aids, memory aids, communication tools to prevent social isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children e.g. appropriate input/output devices, involvement in design process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of nationality, generation, gender, race, sexuality, class, religion, political persuasion etc. on interpretation of interface features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. interpretation and acceptability of language, cultural symbols, gesture and colour </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Principles of Universal Design <ul><li>Equitable use </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility in use </li></ul><ul><li>Simple and intuitive to use </li></ul><ul><li>Provide perceptible information </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance for error </li></ul><ul><li>Low physical effort </li></ul><ul><li>Size and space for approach and use </li></ul>
  10. 10. Equitable Use <ul><li>The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities </li></ul><ul><li>GUIDELINES : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the same means of use for all users: identical whenever possible; equivalent when not. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provisions for privacy, security, and safety should be equally available to all users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the design appealing to all users. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Flexibility in Use <ul><li>The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>GUIDELINES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide choice in methods of use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodate right- or left-handed access and use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate the user's accuracy and precision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adaptability to the user's pace </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Simple and intuitive <ul><li>Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level </li></ul><ul><li>GUIDELINES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate unnecessary complexity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be consistent with user expectations and intuition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange information consistent with its importance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide effective prompting and feedback during and after task completion. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Perceptible Information <ul><li>The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilities </li></ul><ul><li>GUIDELINES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use different modes (pictorial, verbal, tactile) for redundant presentation of essential information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adequate contrast between essential information and its surroundings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximize &quot;legibility&quot; of essential information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiate elements in ways that can be described (i.e., make it easy to give instructions or directions). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide compatibility with a variety of techniques or devices used by people with sensory limitations. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Tolerance for Error <ul><li>The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions. </li></ul><ul><li>GUIDELINES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange elements to minimize hazards and errors: most used elements, most accessible; hazardous elements eliminated, isolated, or shielded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide warnings of hazards and errors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide fail safe features. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discourage unconscious action in tasks that require vigilance </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Low Physical Effort <ul><li>The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue. </li></ul><ul><li>GUIDELINES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow user to maintain a neutral body position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use reasonable operating forces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize repetitive actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize sustained physical effo </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Size and Space for Approach and Use <ul><li>Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user's body size, posture, or mobility. </li></ul><ul><li> GUIDELINES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a clear line of sight to important elements for any seated or standing user. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make reach to all components comfortable for any seated or standing user. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodate variations in hand and grip size. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adequate space for the use of assistive devices or personal assistance </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. In design … <ul><li>Look at things in new ways … </li></ul>
  18. 18. “ Designing for Diversity” <ul><li>Requires really understanding the way diverse types of users interact with a system </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine how your interface is “translated” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modality (screen reader, touch, Braille) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Terminology <ul><li>Ability </li></ul><ul><li>Impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Handicap </li></ul><ul><li>Policies, Laws, Regulations, Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>People, persons with… </li></ul><ul><li>Populations vs categories of abilities </li></ul>
  20. 20. Multi-Sensory Systems <ul><li>More than one sensory channel in interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. sounds, text, hypertext, animation, video, gestures, vision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• Used in a range of applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particularly good for users with special needs, and virtual reality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Will cover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>general terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non-speech sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handwriting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Considering applications as well as principles </li></ul>
  21. 21. Usable Senses <ul><li>The 5 senses (sight, sound, touch, taste and smell) are used by us every day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>each is important on its own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>together, they provide a fuller interaction with the natural world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers rarely offer such a rich interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can we use all the available senses? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>yes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>practically – no </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We can use: sight • sound • touch (sometimes) </li></ul><ul><li>We cannot (yet) use: • taste • smell </li></ul>
  22. 22. Multi-modal vs. Multi-media <ul><li>Multi-modal systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use more than one sense (or mode ) of interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. visual and aural senses: a text processor may speak the words as well as echoing them to the screen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-media systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a number of different media to communicate information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. a computer-based teaching system:may use video, animation, text and still images: different media all using the visual mode of interaction; may also use sounds, both speech and non-speech: two more media, now using a different mode </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Visual Impairments <ul><li>How to deal with GUIs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard vs. mouse use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do they know it is there? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Talking Braille” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATM phone jack </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sound output </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen readers, rates, voices, quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-speech audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Math, graphs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equations, graphs, tables </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Visual Impairments, cont’d <ul><li>What about these?… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equitable use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility in use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple and intuitive to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide perceptible information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance for error </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low physical effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and space for approach and use </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Hearing Impairment <ul><li>Does access for the blind mean no access for the deaf? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider how truly multimodal interfaces can work for everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Sonification Sandbox </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Physical Impairments <ul><li>A wide variety of “handicaps” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tremor, dexterity, grip, mobility, balance, strength </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions need to vary, too </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eyegaze control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text entry like EdgeWrite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain-computer interfaces </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Aging <ul><li>All of the possible difficulties arise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual, cognitive, motor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are fewer and fewer “low tech” alternatives; forcing seniors into tech </li></ul><ul><li>Designers often have little experience in the realities of the older (or handicapped or deaf or…) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Audio <ul><li>Non-speech audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often useful for visually impaired users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very useful for others too! </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Non-Speech Sounds <ul><li>boings, bangs, squeaks, clicks etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly used for warnings and alarms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence shows they are useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer typing mistakes with key clicks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video games harder without soun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Language/culture independent, unlike speech </li></ul>
  30. 30. Non-Speech Sounds: Useful? <ul><li>Dual mode displays: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information presented along two different sensory channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>redundant presentation of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resolution of ambiguity in one mode through information in another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sound good for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transient information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>background status information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Sound can be used as a redundant mode in the Apple Macintosh; almost any user action (file selection, window active, disk insert, search error, copy complete, etc.) can have a different sound associated with it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Uses of Non-Speech Audio <ul><li>Beeps ‘n’ Bops </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Sonification </li></ul><ul><li>Audio Interfaces, Audio Menus </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul>
  32. 32. Beeps ‘n’ Bops <ul><li>Warnings, alerts, status messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Will they be heard, identified, and understood? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Peripheral Awareness <ul><li>Using sound to communicate information about the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Compare to information visualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web server traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather outside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity level of colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status of resources (printers, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Audio Aura <ul><li>Audio Aura </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mynatt, Back, & Want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xerox PARC, 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The goal of Audio Aura is to provide serendipitous information, via background auditory cues, that is tied to people’s physical actions in the workplace.” </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. StockScape <ul><ul><li>Walker & B. Mauney </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Georgia Tech, 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous soundscape that maps stock price change onto sounds. Deviation from baseline means more sounds. Change upmeans adding animals; changes downmeans adding rain, thunder. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Sonification <ul><li>“ Auditory display of quantitative information” </li></ul><ul><li>Compare to visualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock market data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Election results </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Sonification Design Issues <ul><li>Mapping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data dimension --> Display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dollars --> pitch (or distance from x-axis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing pitch = increasing or decreasing $ ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scaling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double the pitch = double the $ ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equivalent to tick marks, axes, trend lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interaction techniques </li></ul>
  38. 38. Audio Interfaces & Menus <ul><li>Audio-only or audio-enhanced interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>IVRs (phone-based, like airlines) </li></ul><ul><li>Complete operating systems (Curo) </li></ul><ul><li>Menus </li></ul><ul><li>Earcons, auditory icons, spearcons </li></ul>
  39. 39. Auditory Icons <ul><li>Use natural sounds to represent different types of object or action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural sounds have associated semantics which can be mapped onto similar meanings in the interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. throwing something away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~the sound of smashing glass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem: not all things have associated meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Additional information can also be presented: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muffled sounds if object is obscured or action is in the background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of stereo allows positional information to be added </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. SonicFinder for the Macintosh <ul><li>Items and actions on the desktop have associated sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Folders have a papery noise </li></ul><ul><li>Moving files – dragging sound </li></ul><ul><li>Copying – a problem … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sound of a liquid being poured into a receptacle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rising pitch indicates the progress of the copy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Big files have louder sound than smaller ones </li></ul>
  41. 41. Earcons <ul><li>Synthetic sounds used to convey information </li></ul><ul><li>Structured combinations of notes (motives ) represent actions and objects </li></ul><ul><li>Motives combined to provide rich information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compound earcons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple motives combined to make one morecomplicated earcon </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Earcons (cont’d) <ul><li>Family earcons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>similar types of earcons represent similar classes of action or similar objects: the family of “errors” would contain syntax and operating system errors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pro: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earcons easily grouped and refined due to compositional and hierarchical nature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Con: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harder to associate with the interface task since there is no natural mapping </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Navigation <ul><li>Getting around, for those who cannot look or cannot see </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persons with visual impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military applications </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Resources <ul><li>http://sonify.psych.gatech.edu/~walkerb/classes/assisttech/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>www.webaim.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.webaim.org/info/asdvideo/asd.htm </li></ul><ul><li>www.w3.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.metroplexvoice.com/demos.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.catea.org/ </li></ul>
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