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  • It's when words on the screen can be read by the computer, on command. In most cases, the words need to be highlighted first. • It allows reading of individual words,  phrases, sentences, or whole passages.• It works with word processors, websites, and more.• Most text-to-speech utilities allow you to change the voice; male, female, child, adult, android, etc.• Some applications highlight each word as read, so that students can follow along.
  • The kids were interested in researching dinosaurs on the Internet in our school lab where they found an online palentology journal with an exciting story of a fossil hunter. The reading level was highschool but by highlighting and using a utility to listen, they were able to follow the story.
  • Personally less annoying.
  • This works well for students who need extra practice, have difficulty following instructions given to the entire class, and are motivated by the music and animation of the program.
  • This works well for students who need extra practice, have difficulty following instructions given to the entire class, and are motivated by the music and animation of the program.
  • TechTips205.ppt

    1. 1. For trainers: These slides should be edited to fit your audience, your setting (hands-on versus lecture), and your objectives. You can also pull individual slides into your existing presentations.
    2. 2. For Windows users: <ul><li>Due to the variety of Windows configurations, not all talking utilities will work on all systems. Testing ahead of time is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Also AT&T Natural Voices ($29.95) will greatly improve sound quality in Windows. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Technology Tips <ul><li>How to merge two PowerPoint slideshows or grabbing a selected batch of slides: </li></ul><ul><li>Have one PowerPoint file open. </li></ul><ul><li>Position cursor where you want added slides. </li></ul><ul><li>Select “Insert” from the menu. </li></ul><ul><li>Select “Slides from File” </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue box allows choice of file & slides. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Technology Tips for Differentiated Instruction Elementary Edition developed by the WestEd Regional Technology in Education Consortium
    5. 5. Technology Tips for Differentiated Instruction <ul><li>PowerPoint training </li></ul><ul><li>Web site at http:// westedrtec .org/ techtips </li></ul><ul><li>Tip-sheets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focused on using technologies most schools already have; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for use in professional development of technology-using general and special educators, and staff. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Technology Tips <ul><li>Merging PowerPoint slideshows or grabbing a selected batch of slides: </li></ul><ul><li>Position cursor where you want added slides. </li></ul><ul><li>Select “Insert” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Slides from File” </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue box allows choice of file & slides. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Differentiated Instruction <ul><li>“ is a model of instruction that revolves around the belief that students learn in many different ways. ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Verde, 2004) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Differentiated Instruction <ul><li>Providing materials and tasks at varied levels of difficulty with varying degrees of scaffolding, through multiple instructional groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging student success by varying ways in which students work: alone or collaboratively, in auditory or visual modes, or through practical or creative means. </li></ul><ul><li>(Tomlinson, 2000) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Differentiated Instruction <ul><li>Student preferences for learning math: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using manipulatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sketching out the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing work with a partner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solving problems as a team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Strong, 2004) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Differentiated Instruction <ul><li>Student Book Report Options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diorama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand up comedy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slide show </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PowerPoint presentation </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Why Differentiate Instruction? <ul><li>Because not all children learn in the same way. </li></ul><ul><li>Because NCLB says all children need to become proficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Because research and practice demonstrate that differentiated instruction techniques are effective. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Why Differentiate Instruction? <ul><li>Because we can maximize student's growth by meeting each student where he or she is and helping them progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the diversity of students found in today’s classrooms. (ELL, disabilities, cultural backgrounds, etc.) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Differentiation Fits with Standardized Instruction <ul><li>Open Court suggests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small groups working collaboratively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-teach to activate prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-teach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partner or round table reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio tape or other audible materials </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Differentiated Instruction <ul><li>Technology is a great tool for differentiation, by allowing changes to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>content, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>channels of input, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>means of output </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is also an excellent platform for cooperative learning </li></ul>
    15. 15. How can technology can help support students… <ul><li>who are reading below grade level ? </li></ul><ul><li>who have difficulty following oral instruction or a discussion? </li></ul><ul><li>who need help organizing information? </li></ul><ul><li>who need increased support in the writing process? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Technology Tips for Differentiation <ul><li>Talking Text (text-to-speech) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Text </li></ul><ul><li>Word Features </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Text </li></ul><ul><li>Portables </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic organizers </li></ul>
    17. 17. Talking Text See a Video Clip: CAST TES Supports to Help Recognition
    18. 18. What is Talking Text ? <ul><li>Words on the screen are read by the computer on command. </li></ul><ul><li>In most cases, the words need to be highlighted first. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows reading of individual words or phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Works with word processors, websites, and more. </li></ul><ul><li>Often called text-to-speech. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Who does Talking Text help? <ul><li>Remember your student who struggles with comprehension? Would they benefit from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pre-reading to increase comprehension? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reading to access standard or advanced materials? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reading and listening together (reinforcement)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reading selected words or phrase? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Talking Text also helps writers to hear omissions or inaccuracies in their work. </li></ul>
    20. 20. What does research say about Talking Text ? <ul><li>Developing reading comprehension is a complex skill. </li></ul><ul><li>If a great deal of effort goes to sounding out words, energy for comprehension is reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Talking text can provide one more tool for supporting comprehension for some students. </li></ul><ul><li>(Rose & Dalton, 2002) </li></ul>
    21. 21. What does practice show…? <ul><li>Many students improve editing and proofreading if they can hear their work. </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing one’s own words is rewarding and motivating. </li></ul>
    22. 22. How-to Instructions for Talking Text Hint: Hearing multiple computers with Talking Text is disturbing; you will need headphones.
    23. 23. Kidspiration Talks <ul><li>The Talking Interface reads menus, buttons, and other program elements on-screen </li></ul><ul><li>The Listen tool ( symbol of an ear ) reads the words in their projects </li></ul><ul><li>The Record command ( click Record on the Goodies menu ) records sounds so they can be attached to symbols or ideas; expanding and reinforcing learning </li></ul><ul><li>Allows a teacher to record instructions for students to use in an activity </li></ul>
    24. 24. KidPix Talks <ul><li>Speech Menu </li></ul><ul><li>Read Text Aloud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reads text entered with the keyboard, using typewriter key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text boxes will be read in order, top to bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pick a Voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialog box with choice of voices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview to hear how each sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click OK to select a voice </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. AppleWorks (Mac) Talks <ul><li>Open a Word Processing document </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight text and click Lips or Text to Speech icon in the button bar </li></ul><ul><li>If there is no Talking icon in the tool bar: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open: Preferences > Available Buttons > Word Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drag Lips into button bar, click Done </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. AppleWorks (Win) Talks <ul><li>If there is no “talking” icon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Press the triangle button in top left of tool bar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select Default and Visible at Start Up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Press triangle button again and select Edit Button Bar. Select Default and Modify. From the pulldown menu, Button Categories, select Word Processing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select Speak Text, a dialogue box will explain the function. Select Add, OK and Done. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This adds the Plain Talk button to your tool bar. Change voices via the Speech Control Panel </li></ul>
    27. 27. Storybook Weaver Talks <ul><li>Look for Speech under Goodies </li></ul>
    28. 28. Macintosh (10.3.1) <ul><li>- Set Key to read highlighted text (Command plus L) </li></ul><ul><li>- Choice of voices & rate (under Default Voice) </li></ul>Speech Preferences in the: Finder menu > System Preferences> Speech > Spoken User Interfaces
    29. 29. Macintosh (10.2 or earlier) <ul><li>Download free utility called HearIt </li></ul><ul><li>Install as a control panel and restart </li></ul><ul><li>Set key combination (Hit Control plus to hear text.) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hint: Select a key not frequently used by other software. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Works with highlighted text in any program </li></ul><ul><li>Deselect text to stop the talking </li></ul>http://www. ldresources .com/files/ hearit .sea. hqx
    30. 30. <ul><li>Windows: 98SE, NT, 2000, & XP </li></ul><ul><li>Select what you want it to read </li></ul><ul><li>Click on the floating toolbar to hear it </li></ul><ul><li>$29 or less </li></ul>The Universal Reader Ureader . htm
    31. 31. HELP Read™ <ul><li>Windows 3.1 and 95 </li></ul><ul><li>Freeware </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a text-to-speech synthesizer </li></ul><ul><li>Can read text files, web pages, e-books, and text in the windows clipboard </li></ul> helpread . htm
    32. 32. ReadPlease 2003™ <ul><li>Windows 95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP </li></ul><ul><li>Freeware </li></ul><ul><li>Includes 3 Microsoft voices. </li></ul><ul><li>Free conversion utility to make MP3 files </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>Free Text-to-Speech Package works with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 98, 2000, EP, Me </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Tablet PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhanced appearance of text- “book-like” </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation by page or by chapter </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarged text </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to add bookmarks or drawings </li></ul>Microsoft Reader http://www. microsoft .com/reader/downloads/default.asp
    34. 34. Microsoft Reader (cont.) <ul><li>Ability to find words, notes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to copy text </li></ul><ul><li>Link to free Encarta English Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights each word as it is read </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of three voices </li></ul><ul><li>Insert notes next to selected text, allowing students to ask questions or record thoughts </li></ul>
    35. 35. Microsoft Reader (cont.) <ul><li>Can convert Word documents to MS Reader format (in Windows 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Free books and documents from University of Virginia can be added into the library </li></ul><ul><li>Word documents can easily be converted </li></ul><ul><li>Allows you to highlight words and then search for highlighted words </li></ul>
    36. 36. E-Text Reader <ul><li>Free talking word processor for PC </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights each word as read </li></ul><ul><li>Can adjust speed of reading </li></ul><ul><li>Allows zoom, colored highlighting & find </li></ul><ul><li>Allows setting bookmarks, for jumping from forward and backward </li></ul><ul><li>Opens .doc files (Microsoft Word) </li></ul>
    37. 37. Tex-Edit Plus (Mac) <ul><li>Talking word processor - $15 shareware </li></ul><ul><li>Other languages include Japanese, French, German, Spanish, Dutch, and Italian . </li></ul><ul><li>Can adjust speed of reading </li></ul><ul><li>Will highlight each word as read </li></ul><ul><li>Can change highlight, font, and background colors. </li></ul><ul><li>Can insert voice recordings and graphics. (Vicki may be the best voice.) </li></ul>
    38. 38. Talking Web Site <ul><li>Merriam Webster On Line </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. merriam - webster .com </li></ul>
    39. 39. Thinking of Your Students… <ul><li>Who would benefit from highlighting individual words and hearing them read? </li></ul><ul><li>… from hearing the definition of the word read? </li></ul><ul><li>Who would benefit from hearing an entire selection or article on a website read aloud? </li></ul><ul><li>Who would enjoy hearing their own words read by the computer? </li></ul>
    40. 40. Example of Use <ul><li>2nd graders are using the computer to conduct research on dinosaurs. They use the text-to-speech function to hear the short passages read aloud. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Example of Use <ul><li>“ There is a group of young boys that love to change the voices and listen to their words in funny ways. They write longer drafts when they know we are going into the computer lab for writing and editing.” </li></ul><ul><li>More examples at : http:// westedrtec .org/ techtips </li></ul>
    42. 42. Other Products <ul><li>Not free but maybe worth the expense. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write OutLoud ($99 or less- free 30 day trial.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IntelliTalk ($140 or less - free 45 day trail.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAST eReader ($199-$229) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All of these </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highlight sentence and word within sentence as it is read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow reading by letter, word, or sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow correction of pronunciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have other helpful features, e.g. talking dictionary </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Suggested Hands-on Activities <ul><li>Try out some of the built in speech in KidPix, Kidspiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Try speech using the OS or a utility that will allow you to highlight any word in browser to hear it aloud. </li></ul><ul><li>Download and try the features of IntelliTalk3 http://www. intellitools .com </li></ul>
    44. 44. Digital Text Visit this topic at the Technology Tips Website: http:// westedrtec .org/ techtips
    45. 45. What is Digital Text ? <ul><li>Text stored as strings of characters. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you can select and change the font of text on the computer screen, it’s digital text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many books and historical documents have been converted to digital format, for access via computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New writing is being done to take advantage of hyperlinking and multi-media. </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Free Digital Text <ul><li>Dickens </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Frost </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Twain </li></ul><ul><li>Edgar Allan Poe </li></ul><ul><li>Rosa Parks </li></ul><ul><li>Star Spangled Banner </li></ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><li>The Jungle </li></ul><ul><li>First Across the Continent </li></ul><ul><li>The Tell-Tale Heart </li></ul><ul><li>Heidi </li></ul><ul><li>Oliver Twist </li></ul><ul><li>Tom Sawyer </li></ul><ul><li>Little Women </li></ul><ul><li>Kidnapped </li></ul><ul><li>The Silver Balloon </li></ul><ul><li>Dragonwings </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Poppins </li></ul>
    47. 47. Free Digital Text <ul><li>Historical information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• Rosa Parks• Star Spangled Banner• U.S. Constitution• First Across the Continent• Bill of Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magazines and newspapers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• New York Times• Fossil News• American Girl Online• National Geographic Online• ZuZu (online kids newspaper) </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Free Digital Text
    49. 49. Why use Digital Text ? <ul><li>Visual display can be varied - larger, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory display - good for pre-reading </li></ul><ul><li>Allows embedding learning supports in content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-reading background, definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows students to copy/paste, or otherwise manipulate the text, to indicate comprehension </li></ul>
    50. 50. How-to find Digital Text 87 Digital Book Libraries http://www. ditext .com/ etexts .html
    51. 51. Free Books Online <ul><li>Internet Public Library </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Project Gutenberg </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>University of Virginia's e-Book Library </li></ul>
    52. 52. Finding Digital Text Banned Books On-Line Books about California History and Culture Carrie: A Full-Text Electronic Library The Children's Literature Web Guide Classic Horror Short Stories Documenting the American South Global Language Resources Hyperizons : The Hypertext Fiction Homepage Library of Congress The Thomas Jefferson Digital Archive Victorian Women Writers Project World Wide School: Library
    53. 53. Benetech’s BookShare <ul><li>Inexpensive books online </li></ul><ul><li>Over 12,000 titles </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Sarah, Plain and Tall </li></ul><ul><li>The Mouse and the Motorcycle </li></ul><ul><li>Ribsy </li></ul><ul><li>Island of the Blue Dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Old Yeller </li></ul><ul><li>Dragonsong </li></ul><ul><li>The Black Pearl </li></ul><ul><li>Johnny Tremain </li></ul><ul><li>Caddie Woodlawn </li></ul><ul><li>Tuck Everlasting </li></ul><ul><li>Strider </li></ul><ul><li>Dear Mr. Henshaw </li></ul>
    54. 54. Think of Your Students… <ul><li>Is there one or more who would benefit </li></ul><ul><li>if the text was larger or easier to see? </li></ul><ul><li>if they could hear it read aloud? </li></ul><ul><li>if they could highlight or cut and paste the important points, or mark words that were unclear? </li></ul><ul><li>if there was a summary of the article that could be read before? </li></ul>
    55. 55. Suggested Hands-on Activity <ul><li>Find a selection of text that you would use in class. Copy and paste into a word processor. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about changes that could be made to enhance the reading experience for your student . </li></ul>
    56. 56. Suggested Hands-on Activity (Cont.) <ul><li>What if you break the selection into smaller parts and paste two questions after each section; “What has happened so far? - What do you think will happen next?” with white space for student writing. </li></ul><ul><li>You could even print this out as a worksheet. </li></ul>
    57. 57. Word Features Visit this topic at the Technology Tips Website: http:// westedrtec .org/ techtips
    58. 58. What are Word Features? <ul><li>Differentiation strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer-generated summaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change how the text looks on the screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust the grammar checker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight text </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Why use Word Features? <ul><li>Computer-generated summaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential content for students to pre-read </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change how the text looks on the screen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows user preference for font: type, size, and color </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjust the grammar checker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows teacher to reduce frustration for students or target specific errors </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. AutoSummarize <ul><li>A tool that will: </li></ul><ul><li>highlight key sentences or </li></ul><ul><li>extract key parts of a document </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-reading for meaning by students that struggle with comprehension due to decoding problems or learning disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Post-reading as a way of consolidating learning </li></ul>
    61. 61. AutoSummarize
    62. 62. Gettysburg Address
    63. 63. How-to AutoSummarize <ul><li>Tools > Auto-Summarize </li></ul>
    64. 64. Related research <ul><li>The National Reading Panel found that summarization is an effective strategy that helps readers improve memory and identification of main ideas. </li></ul>
    65. 65. Changing the Display in Word <ul><li>Font: Serif or Sans-serif </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Text Color </li></ul><ul><li>Background Color </li></ul>Yellow text, Serif font Yellow text, Sans-serif font Pink text, Serif font or - Sans-serif
    66. 66. Why Change the Display in Word <ul><li>Thinking of your students- </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any that have trouble reading the computer display? </li></ul><ul><li>Have any been diagnosed with visual processing issues? </li></ul><ul><li>Would printing out material larger, bolder, or in color assist them? </li></ul>
    67. 67. Background The old lady pulled her spectacles down and looked over them about the room; then she put them up and looked out under them. She seldom or never looked through them for so small a thing as a boy; The old lady pulled her spectacles down and looked over them about the room; then she put them up and looked out under them. She seldom or never looked through them for so small a thing as a boy;
    68. 68. Font Type <ul><li>Serif: Sans-serif: </li></ul>The old lady pulled her spectacles down and looked over them about the room; then she put them up and looked out under them. She seldom or never looked through them for so small a thing as a boy; … The old lady pulled her spectacles down and looked over them about the room; then she put them up and looked out under them. She seldom or never looked through them for so small a thing as a boy; …
    69. 69. How to Change Display <ul><li>Changing font size, type, and color are made in the normal formatting menu, toolbar, or palette. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide a blue background, go to Preferences and select General. Select the option for Blue Background, White Text. </li></ul>
    70. 70. Why adjust the Grammar Checker? <ul><li>The default setting checks for 26 types of grammar problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For the beginning writer, or when drafting an outline, Word will flag an overwhelming number of errors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It will be less annoying and confusing. </li></ul></ul>
    71. 71. Example of Why to Adjust the Grammar Checker <ul><li>Winning student essay flawed? </li></ul>
    72. 72. Example of Why to Adjust
    73. 73. How-to Adjust the Grammar Checker <ul><li>Word > Preferences > Spelling and Grammar > Grammar > Writing Style: Customize grammar checking </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Casual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Custom: 26 settings including capitalization, contractions, passive voice, run-on sentence, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    74. 74. Classroom Example <ul><li>Set the grammar checker to flag only one type of error during a single writing session: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• subject-verb agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• sentences beginning with And, But, or Hopefully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• use of first person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• run-on sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• passive voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• capitalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• contractions </li></ul></ul>
    75. 75. Classroom Example <ul><li>Use an article or other electronic text selection and run each style of grammar checker on it. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the different types of errors that are flagged. </li></ul>
    76. 76. Suggested Hands-on Activities <ul><li>Go into Word spelling and grammar preferences and look at the 26 settings that can be turned on or off in the Custom setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Word general preferences to change the background to blue. </li></ul><ul><li>Take a single sentence and copy it multiple times, using different fonts and colors. Determine for yourself or with your students which is most readable. </li></ul>
    77. 77. Highlighting in Word <ul><li>Highlighting is a low tech strategy that can also be done electronically </li></ul><ul><li>Students and/or teachers highlight specific words, letters, or parts of speech </li></ul>
    78. 78. Who does highlighting help? <ul><li>Students who need help to focus. </li></ul><ul><li>Students who are having difficulty with a specific concept that can be highlighted. </li></ul><ul><li>Students who benefit from interaction with text; actively highlighting material themselves to demonstrate comprehension. </li></ul>
    79. 79. What does research say about highlighting? <ul><li>Adding color to text increases the odds that the information will be stored in long-term memory and more readily recalled . </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging readers may skip over words they don't understand.  Highlighting such words cues them to go back later . </li></ul>
    80. 80. Highlighting Strategies <ul><li>Highlight new vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight important names, dates , places . </li></ul><ul><li>Use different colors ( red for names , green for places ) </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight key points and corresponding details to emphasize meaning. </li></ul>
    81. 81. Highlighting Strategies <ul><li>Allow students to highlight: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to demonstrate knowledge or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>highlight key information, as in note-taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mark words they don’t know </li></ul></ul>
    82. 82. Highlighting Adverbs <ul><ul><li>Come, there's no use in crying like that!' said Alice to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>herself, rather sharply ; `I advise you to leave off this minute!’ She generally gave herself very good advice, (though she very seldom followed it), and sometimes she scolded herself so severely as to bring tears into her eyes; and once she remembered trying to box her own ears. </li></ul></ul>
    83. 83. Highlighting the “Schwa” Sound <ul><ul><ul><li>slow think about </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>synthesis stock track </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>speak pill medium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>syringe great fifty </li></ul></ul></ul>
    84. 84. How-to Highlight in Word <ul><li>Select text. Select highlighter in formatting palette </li></ul><ul><li>Some students will benefit from cutting and pasting the highlighted material for further organization or expansion. </li></ul>
    85. 85. Suggested Hands-on Activity <ul><li>Think of a student who could benefit from highlighting words they don’t understand? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you think of another student who could work with them, who could model good choices? </li></ul></ul>
    86. 86. Enhanced Text Visit this topic at the Technology Tips Website: http:// westedrtec .org/ techtips
    87. 87. What is Enhanced Text ? <ul><li>Added information, questions, links, or graphics to enhance comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Works with printed or electronic text, as well as to audio versions </li></ul>
    88. 88. Who is helped by Enhanced Text ? <ul><li>Students with who have difficulty with comprehension or with organizing information. </li></ul><ul><li>English-learners who struggle with vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Students who come from diverse cultures and may need more context. </li></ul>
    89. 89. Research on Enhanced Text <ul><li>Techniques that have been shown to enhance text comprehension include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>questions that allow self-monitoring for understanding, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using graphic and semantic organizers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>student-generated questions about the text, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>becoming aware of story structure, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>periodically summarizing key points. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(National Reading Panel, 2000) </li></ul></ul>
    90. 90. More Research on Enhanced Text <ul><li>The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) found that students who read novels in a digital format with decoding supports are more motivated to read because they can access the content at an age-appropriate level that is just challenging enough. </li></ul><ul><li>(O'Neill & Dalton, 2002) </li></ul>
    91. 91. Example of Enhanced Text <ul><li>The old lady pulled her spectacles down and looked over them about the room; then she put them up and looked out under them. She seldom or never looked through them for so small a thing as a boy; they were her state pair, the pride of her heart, and were built for &quot;style,&quot; not service --she could have seen through a pair of stove-lids just as well. </li></ul>Spectacles: a pair of glasses What does it mean that she could have seen through “a pair of stove-lids” just as well?
    92. 92. How-to Find Enhanced Text
    93. 93. The Intersect Digital Library Catalog <ul><li>The Diary of Opal Whiteley </li></ul><ul><li>The Diary of Juan Bautista de Anza </li></ul><ul><li>Your Genes, Your Choices: Cloning </li></ul><ul><li>On the Run </li></ul><ul><li>An American History Sourcebook </li></ul><ul><li>… with more coming </li></ul><ul><li>http://intersect. uoregon . edu / </li></ul>
    94. 94. Enhanced Text : The Intersect Digital Library
    95. 95. Prentice Hall Interactive Text Books <ul><li>Literature analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Reading strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Author Biographies </li></ul><ul><li>Additional questions </li></ul><ul><li>Links to external websites </li></ul><ul><li>Internet activities and research </li></ul><ul><li>Self-tests </li></ul>http://www. phschool .com/ iText /literature/
    96. 96. Enhanced Text : Prentice Hall <ul><li>Preview: </li></ul><ul><li>background </li></ul><ul><li>summary </li></ul><ul><li>visual summary </li></ul><ul><li>video clips </li></ul>
    97. 97. Spark Notes <ul><li>Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of Major Characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Themes, Motifs, and Symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter One: The Worst Birthday </li></ul></ul>http://www. sparknotes .com
    98. 98. Enhanced Text : Spark Notes <ul><li>Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter Summary, Description, & Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links to Characters </li></ul></ul>
    99. 99. - Free Encyclopedia
    100. 100. Classroom Example <ul><li>First graders work in pairs at the single classroom computer where they visit . Zac the Rat is a book with a related animated movie that introduces the short “a” vowel sound. They click each word to hear it read. A game allows them to make words with the short “a”. A printed worksheet is available if they need more practice. </li></ul>
    101. 101. Classroom Example <ul><li>Third graders are reading a Harry Potter book . Before each chapter, the teacher asks what has occurred in the previous chapter and makes a list of the major events. She tells them who will be involved in the coming chapter, using the chapter summaries from Sparknotes .com . </li></ul>
    102. 102. Portables Visit this topic at the Technology Tips Website: http:// westedrtec .org/ techtips
    103. 103. Why use Portables ? <ul><li>Typing in a word processor is easier than writing for some students </li></ul><ul><li>Writing can be exported to other programs, for editing, enhancing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>They support lesson plans that encourage cooperative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Highly transportable for use in non-classroom settings </li></ul>
    104. 104. Who benefits from using Portables ? <ul><li>Students who struggle with paper and pencil because of dysgraphia or physical disability </li></ul><ul><li>Students who are motivated by technology </li></ul>
    105. 105. What does research say about using Portables ? <ul><li>Students’ interest in writing is increased using computers, E-mates, AlphaSmarts, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing on computer has a positive effect on the quality of student writing; the biggest impact for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>students with learning disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students in early elementary grades </li></ul></ul>
    106. 106. Fit with standard curriculum <ul><li>Open Court: “This paragraph needs a better ending and beginning.” </li></ul>Purple Monster was chasing Little Rabbit. Little Rabbit ran faster and faster but Purple Monster was getting closer. Then along came Mr. Bear on his motorcycle. The End.
    107. 107. Example Lesson Plan: Growing Sentences Students are given a “seed” such as “The boat sank” so that they can nurture and grow a completely mature sentence. Students work alone or in groups, thinking of what kind of boat, where it was, what caused it to sink, how it sank, etc. Lesson supports a wide range of abilities
    108. 108. Example Lesson Plan: Pass It On Each student writes 1-2 lines of a story and then passes it on to another student, who adds another line. Can be done with a single device If done with 3-4 students per device, divide into small groups and allow students to edit the stories, or edit as a whole group activity. Lesson supports a wide range of abilities
    109. 109. Fieldtrip Recording <ul><li>Students or adults take notes on 3-4 AlphaSmarts, of what the group saw, did, and learned </li></ul><ul><li>Notes can be printed, or loaded onto a computer and shared when students write up their experience </li></ul>
    110. 110. AlphaSmart with Co:Writer <ul><li>Co:Writer SmartApplet generates possibilities for the words students want. Words are based on spelling, grammar rules, context clues and vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Free topic dictionaries give fast access to very specific words and phrases </li></ul>
    111. 111. Portable Devices in the Curriculum <ul><li>Several classroom examples are posted at: http:// westedrtec .org/ techtips </li></ul><ul><li>Your examples welcome! </li></ul>
    112. 112. Graphic Organizers Visit this topic at the Technology Tips Website: http:// westedrtec .org/ techtips
    113. 113. Graphic Organizers <ul><li>“… a visual representation of concepts, knowledge, or information that can incorporate both text and pictures.” </li></ul>
    114. 114. Why use Graphic Organizers ? <ul><li>Assess understanding or diagnose misunderstanding </li></ul><ul><li>Can increase recall </li></ul><ul><li>Design a complex structure (long texts, large web sites, etc.) or communicate complex ideas </li></ul>
    115. 115. Why not just use pencil and paper?
    116. 116. Because… <ul><li>Text can be read by the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Students can change size, color, and font </li></ul><ul><li>Students can cut and paste or otherwise manipulate information </li></ul><ul><li>Image libraries on computers allow images to be combined with text to increase comprehension or allow students to demonstrate understanding </li></ul>
    117. 117. Who benefits from using Graphic Organizers ? <ul><li>Students who are helped by seeing relationships between information </li></ul><ul><li>Students who enjoy an interactive process </li></ul><ul><li>Students who can take the graphic representation and use it to generate narrative or expository writing </li></ul>
    118. 118. What does the research say about Graphic Organizers ? <ul><li>Direct teaching of the thinking strategies involved in graphic organizers leads students to use them independently </li></ul><ul><li>Use of graphic organizers in pre-reading helps students relate new information to their existing knowledge ( Scruggs, Mastropieri, Monson & Jorgenson 1985) </li></ul>
    119. 119. Ideas for Graphic Organizers <ul><li>Webbing </li></ul><ul><li>Concept mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Flow chart </li></ul><ul><li>Venn diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Time line </li></ul>
    120. 120. Text to Symbols
    121. 121. Story Mapping
    122. 122. Compare / Contrast
    123. 123. Demonstrate Understanding
    124. 124. Examples within Project Based Learning <ul><li>Choosing a Topic (Spider Map) </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing prior knowledge around a problem ( KWHL ) </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Up the Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing Data (Timeline) </li></ul><ul><li>Writing from the Outline (Kidspiration) </li></ul>
    125. 125. Deciding On The Topic What they ate: plants Dinosaurs How they died: Meteors eggs
    126. 126. K-W-L-H Field Trips Archeological digs Videos Internet computer search Dinosaurs eat plants and some eat meat. Fossils uncover dinosaur traits. How long ago did they live? Why did they die? Dinosaurs are large. Dinosaurs are dead. They lived a long time ago. How Can We Learn More What We Learned What We Want to Find Out What We Know
    127. 127. Organizing Data
    128. 128. Using Graphic Templates <ul><li>Images can be dragged off these sites and pasted as images into other software, including Word, AppleWorks, KidPix, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>North Central REL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. ncrel .org/ sdrs /areas/issues/students/learning/lr1grorg. htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SCORE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. sdcoe actbank / torganiz . htm </li></ul></ul>
    129. 129. Classroom Example <ul><li>4th graders brainstorm what would be included in a good report on an animal </li></ul><ul><li>One person types the ideas into Kidspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Switching into outline view, the ideas are re-arranged into a sensible order. </li></ul><ul><li>Each child can work from this outline in preparing their report, either on the computer or in hard copy. </li></ul>
    130. 130. Suggested Activity <ul><li>Use graphic organizer software or sketch the links between the strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>auto-summary, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changing text display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enhancing text, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>highlighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>portable word processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>graphic organizers. </li></ul></ul>
    131. 131. Suggested Activity <ul><li>Which are good for writing? </li></ul><ul><li>Which can help in reading? </li></ul><ul><li>What about comprehension? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>talking text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>auto-summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changing text display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enhancing text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>highlighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>portable word processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>graphic organizers </li></ul></ul>
    132. 132. A Vision of the Future <ul><li>In the future we expect a number of these tools and strategies to be incorporated into standard websites and curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, CA Law will require publisher websites to be accessible by 2005 with additional software access by 2009. </li></ul>
    133. 133. A Vision of the Future <ul><li>Publisher websites will </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide tools for graphic organizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link text to diverse types of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide text that can be read aloud by the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All operating systems will </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide easy, global, built-in text to speech capacity </li></ul></ul>
    134. 134. What’s happening today… <ul><li>Prentice Hall, Holt, Glencoe Science and others are creating online, interactive forms of their textbooks. </li></ul>
    135. 135. What’s happening today… <ul><li>McDougal Littell Inc. Reading Coach CD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows students to use an electronic highlighter (they can change the color of it) when they read. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>includes electronic text for parts of the Bridges to Literature textbook. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows the creation of 'sticky notes' that are like post-its. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offers audio support for pre-selected vocabulary words, reading the word and the definition. </li></ul></ul>
    136. 136. WestED Knowledge Brief <ul><li>Using Flexible Technology to Meet the Needs of Diverse Learners: What Teachers Can Do </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we/view/rs/763/wresources2 </li></ul></ul>
    137. 137. Sources of Support <ul><li>Visit the website for Technology Tips </li></ul><ul><li> http:// westedrtec .org/ techtips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downloadable materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional hints and tips </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contact: Julie Duffield or Lisa Wahl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>jduffie @ wested .org [email_address] </li></ul></ul>
    138. 138. Technology Tips for Differentiation <ul><li>A new tip on Math will be posted 2/05. </li></ul><ul><li>An free online course based on this material is planned for Summer 2005. </li></ul>http://www. westedrtec .org/ techtips
    139. 139. Further Resources <ul><li>RTEC Exchange archived on line events </li></ul><ul><li>http:// rtecexchange . edgateway .net </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave No Diverse Learners Behind: RTEC Resources That Help! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Technology to Support the English/Language Arts Adoptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All Kinds of Minds </li></ul></ul>
    140. 140. Resources http://www. ataccess .org
    141. 141. Further Resources <ul><li>Universal Design for Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community forums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    142. 142. Further Development <ul><li>Let us know your thoughts on improving the web site, handouts, or presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Contact: </li></ul><ul><li>Julie Duffield jduffie @ wested .org </li></ul><ul><li>Lisa Wahl [email_address] </li></ul>
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