Technology In Action 2 Technology In Action

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Technology In Action 2 Technology In Action

  1. 1. Technology In Action 1
  2. 2. Technology In Action Chapter 5 Using System Software: The Operating System, Utility Programs, and File Management 2
  3. 3. Topics  System software  Operating systems (OS): • Kinds of systems • Common desktop systems • User interaction • How the OS manages the processor • How the OS manages memory 3
  4. 4. Topics  Operating systems: • How the OS manages hardware • How the OS manages interacts with application software • How the OS helps to start the computer • How the OS helps you keep the computer organized  Desktop and windows features  Utility programs 4
  5. 5. System Software Operating System utilities systems  Programs that  Control computer perform computer functions: housekeeping tasks: • Manage system • Hardware resources • Memory • Improve efficiency • Application • Virus prevention programs • System maintenance  Provide user interface 5
  6. 6. Operating System Categories  Four categories: • Real-Time (RTOS)  No user interaction required • Single-User, Single-Task • Single-User, Multitask • Multiuser 6
  7. 7. Real-Time Operating Systems  Built into devices, not usually sold separately  Uses include: • Industrial machines • Robotic equipment • Automobiles • Video game consoles • Home appliances 7
  8. 8. Single-User Operating Systems Single-task Multitask systems systems  Perform simultaneous  Perform one task at a time tasks  PDAs (Personal Digital  Windows Assistants):  MAC OS • Pocket PC  Linux • Palm OS • Windows Mobile  MS-DOS 8
  9. 9. Multiuser Operating Systems  Known as network operating systems  Allow access to the computer system by more than one user  Manage user requests  Systems include: • UNIX • Linux • Novell Netware • Windows Server 2003 9
  10. 10. Desktop Operating Systems  Operating system combined with the processor is known as a platform • Microsoft Windows / Intel • Apple Macintosh / Motorola in older versions • Now Apple also uses the Intel processor  Desktop operating systems include: • Microsoft Windows • MAC OS • UNIX • Linux 10
  11. 11. Microsoft Windows  Market leader – 90% market share Click to view the various Windows systems Introduces First operating Fundamentally This widely Includes better This upgrade This upgrade ThisPC a new upgrade point-and-click usedWindows different Offers graphics system runs NT toWindows to includes commands and graphical with operating user multi-user capabilities faster 95 and offers additional file a mouse (GUI) interface and system with and more as desktop introduces 98 Windows Windows improvements protection and Windows Windows Windows Windows includes modest operating increased well as keyboard efficiently, includes Windows Windows Windows XP to file security incorporates multitasking system. and security, power, improved ME 2000 NT 98 95 shortcuts introduces Plug system and Internet Internet and 3.x 1.0 2.0 (2001) capabilities Improvedand performance, the Play media digital and ability to backup (2000) (1993) (1998) (1995) support. 4.0, a Explorer and desktop point-and-click and (1990- (1985) (1987) features overlap capabilities, multimedia customizable applications. mouse names, multitasking Internet windows. long file capabilities 1992) taskbar, and operations scheduler. and capabilities. short-cut (such as desktop multitasking right-click Media Player). features capabilities. a menus, and cleaner desktop. 11
  12. 12. Windows Vista  Introduced in 2007 Windows XP Comparable Versions Description Version Windows Vista Home Basic Low-level, budget home users. Windows XP Home Edition Windows XP Home Edition with features from Windows Vista Home Combines media features of to support advanced home Windows XP Media Premium media uses such as HDTV and DVD authoring. Center Edition As its name implies, this version is aimed at the business market. Similar to Windows XP Professional, this version has added support for networking capabilities. This product comes bundled with a new version of Internet Information Services (IIS), the most widely used Windows Vista Business Web server for corporate Web sites. Windows XP Professional This edition is aimed at the enterprise segment of the business market and is not be available through retail stores or OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers). It comes with Microsoft Virtual PC, which enables it to run on any platform, and has a Windows Vista Enterprise multilingual user interface. This is the “ultimate” operating system for high-end PC users, gamers, multimedia professionals, and PC enthusiasts. Vista Ultimate comes with RSS (Real- time Simple Syndication) support for easy access 12 to podcasts and weblogs, a game performance tweaker, DVD ripping capabilities, and other Windows Vista Ultimate online capabilities for downloading media.
  13. 13. MAC OS  First operating system with point-and-click technology (Graphical User Interface)  Excellent in: MAC OS X • Graphics display • Processing capabilities • System reliability • Document recovery  Fewer software applications 13
  14. 14. UNIX  Multiuser, multitask operating system  Used primarily with mainframes 14
  15. 15. Linux  Open-source operating system  Based on UNIX  Stable system  Free  May be downloaded through the Internet 15
  16. 16. What the Operating System Does  Provides user interface  Manages the CPU  Manages memory  Manages hardware  Coordinates application software with the CPU 16
  17. 17. The User Interface  Enables you to interact with the Command- driven computer  Types of interfaces: • Command-driven Menu-driven interface • Menu-driven interface • Graphical user Graphical interface 17
  18. 18. Processor Management  Controls the timing of events the processor works on • Interrupts • Interrupt handler • Interrupt table • Stack Operatin Process Process g 3rd 1st 2nd 4th REQUEST System 18
  19. 19. Memory Management  The operating system allocates space in RAM for instructions and data RAM Operating System 19
  20. 20. Virtual Memory  Instructions and data are stored on the hard drive when RAM is full • Swap file FULL • Paging • Thrashing Operating System 20
  21. 21. Hardware Management  Device drivers: • Programs that enable the operating system to communicate with peripheral devices • Provided by the manufacturer of the device  Plug and Play: • Hardware and software standard • Facilitates the installation of new hardware 21
  22. 22. Software Application Coordination  Application programming interfaces (APIs): • Blocks of code contained in the operating system • Coordinates the operating system with software applications  Similar toolbars and menus • Microsoft Direct X 22
  23. 23. Starting the Computer The Boot Process Step 1: The basic  input/output system (BIOS) 2 is activated  Step 2: A Power-on self-test 1 (POST) checks attached hardware 3  Step 3: The operating system loads into memory 4  Step 4: Configuration and customization settings are checked 23
  24. 24. Handling Errors in the Boot Process  Non-system disk or disk error • Remove the floppy from the drive and press any key  POST errors • Single beep: Everything is loading properly • Series of beeps: Hardware problem  Safe mode • Windows does not boot properly • Uninstall any new devices or software 24
  25. 25. Click to view Desktop features The Desktop B MY DOCUMENTS ____________ I  Desktop TOOLBAR _________ C MY COMPUTER ____________ features: A • Shortcut icons _______________ SHORTCUT ICONS • My Documents • Start button • Quick launch OPEN _________ • Open programs PROGRAMS _________ ___________ SYSTEM TRAY D ____________ START BUTTON TASKBAR _________ • Taskbar F E ____________System tray G H • QUICK LAUNCH • toolbar 25
  26. 26. Click to view Start Start Menu menu features ____________ USER NAME A B _______________ PINNED ITEMS LIST C _______________ SPECIAL FOLDERS SYSTEM AREA _______________ MOST FREQUENTLY G HELP _______________ _______________ USED LIST ALL PROGRAMS ___________ BUTTON D F SHUT DOWN/RESTART _______________ USER LOG OFF _____________ E 26
  27. 27. Click to view Window features Window __________ TITLE BAR A __________ MENU BAR B G SIZING BUTTONS _______________ TOOLBARS __________ C F SCROLLBARS ____________ ______________ VIEW OPTIONS D STATUS BAR ____________ E 27
  28. 28. File Management  The operating system provides an organizational structure to the computer’s contents  Hierarchical structure of directories: • Drives  Folders Subfolders  Files 28
  29. 29. Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders  Windows Explorer  Views 29
  30. 30. Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders  Windows Explorer • Detail View • Sorted and grouped 30
  31. 31. Naming Files  Filename: • Name assigned plus filename extension Bioreport.doc  only characters not or Bio report.doc legal in filenames are: ⁄ : * ? " < > ¦  all others are allowed 31
  32. 32. Filename Extensions  Filename Extension Type of Document Application extensions: .doc Word processing Microsoft Word; document Corel WordPerfect • Used by .xls Workbook Microsoft Excel programs .ppt PowerPoint Microsoft presentation PowerPoint .mdb Database Microsoft Access .bmp Bitmap image Windows .zip Compressed file WinZip .pdf Portable Document Adobe Acrobat Format .htm or Web page Hypertext Markup .html Language 32
  33. 33. File path  File path • Location of the file Subfolders Filename C:My DocumentsTech in ActionTIA Picsdotmatrix.gif Drive Primary folder 33
  34. 34. Working with Files  File management actions: • Open • Copy • Move • Rename • Delete  Recycle bin Saving files 34
  35. 35. Utility Programs  Small application programs that perform special functions: • Manage system resources • Create a pleasant environment • Improve efficiency 35
  36. 36. Display Utilities  Change the appearance of: • Desktop • Windows colors • Font sizes • Screen savers • Screen resolution 36
  37. 37. Add or Remove Programs  Installation wizard  Uninstall wizard: • Do not just delete program files to remove programs 37
  38. 38. System Maintenance Utilities  Disk cleanup • Deletes unnecessary files 38
  39. 39. System Maintenance Utilities  Disk defragmenter • Tidies up a disk to make it run faster  ScanDisk: • Error-checker 39
  40. 40. System Maintenance Utilities  Task manager • Allows you to see and control the processes on your machine • Can be used to find spyware 40
  41. 41. System Restore  System Restore: • Restores the system settings back to a specific date 41
  42. 42. System Backup  Backup: • Creates a copy of the hard drive to another storage device 42
  43. 43. Accessibility Utilities  Utility manager: • Magnify screen image • Screen contents narration • On-screen keyboard 43

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