Southern New Hampshire University MSTELF Program Presentation Transcript
Southern New Hampshire University MSTELF Program EFL 537 CALL Instructor Lyra Riabov Presented by: Chad Detjen & Vicki Hsu February 12, 2004
Part 1(Chad): Autonomy Learning and Distance Education CALL Environments & Internet for English Teaching Part 2 (Vicki): The Impact of CALL Instruction On Classroom Computer Use by Joy Egbert, Trena M. Paulus and Yoko Nakamichi
Autonomy Learning and Distance Education
Chapters 24-28 in Call Environments
Chapters 6-8 in Internet for English Teaching
AUTONOMY IN LANGUAGE LEARNING
What does autonomous learning mean, and how can a teacher create a setting for autonomous learning?
the degree of independence the learner is given in setting language learning goals, the path to the goal, the pace of learning and the measurement of success.
Factors to think about
SETTINGS FOR AUTONOMOUS LEARNING
Source of Structure
Controls that enhance autonomy and learning
degree of self motivation
preference for an independent style
knowledge of how one learns best
knowledge of what one needs to learn
the path to the goal is relatively unambiguous
what is to be learned can be explained clearly
appropriate resources exist for self-directed language learning
TECHNOLOGY AND LEARNING
Five conditions for motivation that must be set by the teacher in classroom learning:
an appropriate level of challenge or difficulty
learning objectives that are meaningful to the learner
variation in the teaching methods used
intrinsic and extrinsic feedback about success
no barriers to learning
Autonomy Through Authoring Software
Authoring software- programs that can be customized by adding data to fit specific learners’ needs in terms of degree of difficulty, interest, culture, etc.
story reconstruction program for MSF-DOS
developed for Macintosh computers
designed to increase reading speed and improve comprehension
AUTHORING SOFTWARE FOR LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING
runs on Macintosh and Microsoft
Facilitator can create the following activities:
story writing exercises
for Macintosh computers
provides a variety of exercise types:
vocabulary, fill-in-the-blank, cloze, MC.
exercises may be linked to audio or video
Multimedia Authoring Software
Can create programs that are highly interactive, fully media capable, easy to use and enjoyable
Software allows user to create, import, and display text, graphics, animations, video and sound
Multimedia allows users to develop presentation and practice software for virtually all language levels
Authors can write simple programs to make the software do almost anything they want.
With the click of a button users can jump from one program or application to another. This is known as branching ability.
Software is user friendly
comes with tutorials that teach the user how to use the software in the matter of hours
Allows for the creation of language learning applications that fall into the autonomy types:
Teacher structured/fixed content
Most of the early tutorial and drill exercises
Learner structured/fixed content
Learners choose their own pathway and time for completion
Teacher structured/variable content
Software like MacReade
Learner structured/variable content
Allowing users to become authors themselves
Language Learning Over Distance
Distance learning has been around for years. Learners receive written materials by mail and then return the completed material for grading.
Radio, video, and audio tapes have been widely used for distance education before the advent of the Internet.
The Internet has globalized learning and has made time and place independent.
The following are some of the variables affecting on-line English courses:
Some courses focus on particular skills while others focus on general
Some courses follow a strict pace while others are more student controlled
Virtual texts vs. traditional texts
Distance Learning Cont.
The Internet has been used in language learning for:
finding references and doing research
locating listening resources
finding grammar rules
finding interactive exercises
communicating in real time
A Look at the Future
Students in the future will be able to take classes anytime, anywhere with teachers from around the world.
Ruth Vilmi writes, “I believe that the methods for teaching languages, now for English but in the future for all languages, are about to change dramatically. The artificial teacher-student-classroom peer environment will be gradually replaced by authentic, dynamic student-teacher-global peer situations.”
Teachers need to change their lesson plans to meet the technologically advancing world to better prepare their students to meet the challenges they will face in the future.
On-line projects are time consuming
Start with something simple and build on it
Computer and Internet Access
Make sure students have access to school computers outside of class
Set an email distribution list so students can contact each other for help and contact the teacher
Explain to the students in the beginning how they are going to be assessed.
How do the roles of teacher and student in the electronic or virtual classroom differ from those roles in the conventional classroom?
What problems exist for students?
What are the differences between discourse over distance and discourse in a classroom?
The Impact of CALL Instruction on Classroom Computer Use: A Foundation for Rethinking Technology in Teacher Education Joy Egbert Washington State University Trena M. Paulus Indiana University Yoko Nakamichi Indiana University PART 2
What do the majority of studies on teacher technology explore?
what teachers are and/or should be learning in technology courses
teacher-education students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward technology
how teachers think about and use computers in the classroom
Transfer of CALL coursework to the classroom
How do teachers learn about CALL-based activities?
How does what they learned in their coursework impact their current teaching contexts?
What factors influence whether they use computers in their classrooms?
How do participants continue to acquire and master new ideas in CALL after formal coursework ends?
Examine how language teachers learn about CALL activities
How they apply knowledge and experience gained in one graduate-level CALL course to their teaching
What factors influence their use of technology in their classrooms
Investigate language teachers’ pursuit of opportunities for professional development after the CALL course
Outline implications for teacher educators
Early studies found:
The majority of respondents use those applications that they needed to use in their lives outside of school
Few teachers actually used telecommunications, hypermedia, or even business programs because they didn’t need to use these technologies in their lives outside of the classroom.
CALL coursework should focus on the needs of individual teachers and their contexts
Teachers are using technology in ways that fit their current practice, rather than transforming their practice through the use of technology
Interaction between Coursework and Classroom
Teachers could not use their projects they developed in their technology class in their teaching because the schools didn’t have the proper facilities.
Teachers didn’t have enough time to adapt their projects to their specific teaching and school contexts.
Early finding: Factors Influencing Technology Use
Time pressures both outside and during class
Lack of resources and materials
Insufficient or inflexible guidelines, standards, and curricula
Lack of support or recognition for integrating computers
A clash between new technologies and other older ones in schools
Lack of leadership and inadequate training and technical support
Age, gender, attitudes toward technology
20 ESL and EFL teachers who had taken the same graduate-level CALL course (L530) within the past 4 years (1996-2000) and who were currently teaching.
a paper-based survey questionnaire was developed based on the literature review and the content of the L530 course.
How do participants learn about CALL activities?
How does what they learned in the L530 course interact with their current teaching contexts?
What factors influence whether they use computers in their classrooms?
How do participants continue to acquire and master new ideas in CALL?
CALL Activity Use 0 0 1 Other: taking a personality test on the Web 0 0 1 Other: using a MOO 89 16 18 e-mailing activity 46 6 13 Using an electronic conferencing system 25 1 4 Developing a technology solution for an inquiry project 41 7 17 Reviewing software/Web sites 64 9 14 Developing computer enhanced lesson plans 45 5 11 Creating a personal Web page 33 4 12 Creating an instructional Web page for students/teachers 29 2 7 Creating a WebQuest 62 8 13 Participating in a professional listserv 56 5 9 Creating a Web address book 14 1 7 Developing a hyperstudio stack 53 8 15 Using content based software 36 4 11 Presenting software to the class 0 0 5 e-mail mystery activity 50 6 12 Creating an external document B/A (%) B. had previous experience with A. completed in the course CALL activity
CALL Coursework Transfer 0 0 4 Skill-building activities 0 0 1 Word processing 0 0 1 Internet research 0 0 1 Web portfolios 100 12 12 e-mailing activity 50 1 2 Using an electronic conferencing system 0 0 1 Developing a technology solution for an inquiry project 50 1 2 Reviewing software/Web sites 86 6 7 Developing computer enhanced lesson plans 67 2 3 Creating a personal Web page 67 4 6 Creating an instructional Web page for students/teachers 0 0 1 Creating a WebQuest 100 2 2 Participating in a professional listserv 100 1 1 Creating a Web address book 50 1 2 Developing a hyperstudio stack 100 5 5 Using content based software 33 1 3 Presenting software to the class 0 0 1 e-mail mystery activity 100 5 5 Creating an external document B/A (%) B. Did it before and do it now A. Use it now CALL activity
Think about it…
CALL coursework seems to provide an extra “practice”…
Do you think CALL coursework has to be redesigned if it is an extra practice?
Reasons for not using CALL activities in current teaching 0 Lack of interest 0 Lack of confidence 1 Lack of knowledge 3 Not currently teaching language 3 Lack of resources 4 Administrative or curricular restrictions 6 Lack of time Number Factor
Resources for CALL Activities 1 Publisher promotions 1 AskEric 2 Self 2 Electronic discussion lists 2 Courses 4 Journals 4 Conferences 4 Books 5 Web browsing 7 Peers/colleagues Number Resource
Limitations of the Study
Small sample size and the diversity of participant teaching contexts
Participants were all at one time graduate students
Potential for error in recall
Previous experiences (had learned CALL activities before took L530) may be a good predictor of CALL
Use colleague and Web resources as primary source for ongoing learning about CALL activities
Reasons for not use CALL are: lack of time, administrative or curricular restrictions, or lack of resources
The findings point to the need for more contextualized instruction directly related to the teaching environments in which language teachers will be practicing.
Findings suggest that a course like L530 is probably insufficient to directly change teachers’ practice.
Implication for Course Design
Link novice teachers with experienced computer-using teachers, develop networks of experts, and find school sites that use technology and incorporate these into our courses, providing evidence that teaching and learning can change through the use of technology
What would you like to learn from a CALL course? Technology that you need in your lives, or…
How can we overcome the barriers of time constraints and limited access?