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    Slides in ppt Slides in ppt Presentation Transcript

    • CSC 110 – Intro. to Computing Prof. Matthew Hertz WTC 207D / 888-2436 [email_address]
    • Announcements
      • Lecture: “ Why White Kids Love Hip-Hop and the King Legacy " at Montante Cultural Center, Tuesday at 8PM
      • Service Learning Partnership Fair at Regis from 11 – 2 today!
    • Service Learning Component
    • Computer Prehistory
      • 16 th Century BCE – abacus
        • Simple device used to perform calculations
        • Relies on training, knowledge of user
    • Computer Prehistory
      • 17 th century – Pascaline
        • Invented by Blaise Pascal using from design by Hero of Alexandria (2 CE)
        • Gear-driven machine performing whole-number addition & subtraction
          • Based on same principle as a car’s odometer
          • Required people to sit and crank machine
        • Cost more to run than paying the people it replaced
          • Pascal was only man who could make repairs
    • Computer Prehistory
      • 17 th Century - Pascaline
    • Computer Prehistory
      • 18 th century CE – Jacquard’s loom
        • Wove cloth, silk, and other materials
        • Knots passing through the holes in cards created patterns woven into fabric
    • Computer Prehistory
      • 18 th century CE – Jacquard’s loom
        • Weavers often attacked these looms
        • Initially used shoes to destroy the machine
        • Reason for the word sabotage
          • “ Sabot” is French for shoe
    • Early Computer Attempt
      • 1833 – analytical engine
        • Designed by Charles Babbage
        • Advanced by Ada, Countess of Lovelace
        • Used same punch cards as Jacquard’s loom
        • Similar to early computers
          • Could store up to 1000 50-digit numbers
          • Punch cards defined program to run
          • Could run more complex programs than early machines
    • Early Computer Attempt
      • 1833 – analytical engine
        • Steam power turned handles
          • Wouldn’t need humans to run
        • Was too complex for time to be built
    • Tabulating Machines
      • 1890 – Hollerith tabulating machines
        • Inspired by train conductors punching tickets
        • Punch cards stored the data to be tabulated
          • Machine could not be programmed or do advanced arithmetic
          • Only ability was to track sums
        • Original customer was US Census
          • Dramatically improved census processing time
        • Hollerith’s formed IBM to sell tabulators
    • Binary Machines
      • 1936 --- Konrad Zuse develops Z1
        • First automatic calculator based in binary
        • Made in Zuse’s parent’s apartment
        • Worked with whole- and decimal-numbers
        • Z1, Z2, & Z3 destroyed by Allied bombing runs
    • Binary Machines
      • 1936 --- Konrad Zuse develops Z1
        • Contained memory to remember 64 numbers
        • Each multiplication took 5 seconds
    • First Computers
      • Mid 20 th Century CE – early “computers”
        • Many long calculations needed
          • Firing tables for gunners
          • Bombing runs for pilots
        • For efficiency, USA and UK used rooms (usually) filled with women
          • Women were cheaper to hire
          • Some used mechanical calculators
            • This was considered a mark of shame!
    • Electronic Computers
      • 1939-1942 – ABC Computer
        • First electronic, digital computer
        • Built by John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry
        • Was not programmable, only performed specific computations
        • Original notes for design written on the back of a cocktail napkin
    • Electronic Computers
      • 1939-1942 – ABC Computer
        • Weighed 800lbs, used 300+ vacuum tubes, & 1 mile of wire
        • Each calculation took 15 seconds
    • Electronic Computers
      • 1944 – Mark I Computer
        • Developed by Howard Aiken & IBM
        • Could add, subtract, multiply and divide
          • Included subroutines to compute logarithms and trigonometric functions
        • Grace Hopper became first person to debug a computer (it was a moth)
      • “ Only 6 electronic digital computers would be required to satisfy the computing needs of the entire US” – Howard Aiken, 1947
    • Electronic Computers
      • 1944 – Mark I Computer
        • Weighed 5 tons, 55’ long, 8’ high
        • Stored 72 numbers
        • 3 additions/second;
        • 3 - 5 seconds per multiplication
    • Electronic Computers
      • 1943-1946 – ENIAC Computer
        • War effort was using up all “computers”
        • ENIAC project trying to make electronic computer
        • Programs set by external switches and dials
          • Took weeks to physically reprogram machines
        • 6 women hired as first programmers
    • Electronic Computers
      • 1943-1946 – ENIAC Computer
        • Weighed 30 tons
          • 17,460 vacuum tubes
          • 5 million soldered joints
        • Performed 5000 additions, 357 multiplications or 38 divisions per second
    • Electronic Computers
      • 1953 – 701 released, IBM’s 1 st computer
        • IBM 701 seen as threat to IBM’s main tabulator business
        • Stored 256 numbers in memory
        • Only 19 ever made
          • Rented by businesses for $15,000 per month
        • IBM sold 1,800 IBM 650s, which worked with IBM punch card equipment, from 1954-1962
    • Electronic Computers
      • 1953 – 701 released, IBM’s 1 st computer
        • Performed 2200 multiplications per second
    • 1955 – The Year In Computers
      • ENIAC turned off after 12 years of service
        • Estimated having done more arithmetic than entire human race had done prior to 1945
      • First demo of ERMA
        • System that enabled computers to read and process checks using numbers at bottom
        • First 32 units delivered in ’59; used into ’70s
    • Electronic Computers
      • 1956 – IBM 301 is first computer to work with “hard drive”
        • Contained space for 5 million numbers
        • Disk leased for $35,000/year (computer extra)
    • Smaller Computers
      • 1960 – Digital PDP-1 released
        • Did not need its own room!
        • Cost only $120,000
        • In 1962 ran first computer game, Spacewar
    • Computer Mouse
      • 1964 -- Douglas Englebart invents mouse
        • Called a mouse because it has a tail
        • Limited use --- few computers had a display
        • Not even shown publicly until 1968
    • Computer Networks
      • 1969 – ARPAnet created
        • Forerunner to the Internet
        • Connected 3 computers early on
      • Crashed in the middle of its first use!
        • Did not get to g typing in “log in”
      • Many uses were not developed until later
        • E-mail was not created until 1971
        • Could use to run another computer from 1972
        • File transfers did not exist until 1983
    • Growth in Computer Chips
      • 1970 – Intel 1103 is first public RAM chip
        • Holds 128KB of memory
      • 1971 – Intel 4004 is first microprocessor
        • This is first “computer on a chip” that we normally think of
        • Matched the power of the ENIAC
        • Used to run Pioneer 10 spacecraft
          • First man-made object to leave solar system
      • 1974 – Intel releases 8080 runs at 2MHz
    • Computer Networks
      • 1973 – Robert Metcalfe created ethernet
        • First (of many) discoveries from Xerox PARC
        • First network to allow local machines to share information
        • Idea was to enable 100s of computers to connect and drive the latest Xerox invention, the laser printer
    • Development of GUI
      • 1973 -- Alto developed at Xerox PARC
        • First GUI system ever developed
        • Never turned into commercial system
        • Heavily influenced future systems
          • Apple developers saw on 1979 tour
    • Home Computers
      • 1974 - 1975 – First home computers sold
        • Altair was most famous computer released
          • Could hold 256 numbers in RAM
          • Required TV for use as a display
          • Did not include any software (even an OS)
          • Owner had to put machine together
          • Cost $400
          • Small company, Microsoft, formed by 2 college kids to sell BASIC compiler for Altair
    • Altair Computer
    • Growth of the Home Computer
      • 1976 – Apple I demoed for Homebrew Computer Club
        • Could store 8192 numbers (8KB) in memory
        • Included keyboard, but needed TV for display
        • Cost $666.66 per machine
        • Sold 200 units over 10 months
    • Apple I Computer
    • Growth of the PC
      • 1977 – Apple II shown at West Coast Computer Faire
        • Contained 4KB of memory
        • First personal computer to include color graphics (included 16 colors!), but still needed TV for monitor
        • Used audio cassette for storage
        • Sold for $1298
    • Apple II Computer
    • Important Applications
      • 1979 – First spreadsheet, VisiCalc, released
        • First serious application that could run on a personal computer
        • Marked PC as a machine for serious business people
      • “ Any product that pays for itself in two weeks is a surefire winner” – Dan Bricklin
    • Important Applications
      • 1979 – First popular word processor, WordStar, releases
        • Best selling application for early 1980s
    • Player Enters the Market
      • 1981 -- IBM PC released
        • First PC fully built from off-the-shelf parts and commercially available operating system
        • Enabled lots of copies
        • Named Times “Man of the Year”
    • Player Enters the Market
      • 1981 – IBM PC released
        • Used 4.77MHz processor
        • Default had16KB of memory, but could be expanded to 256KB
        • Color monitor was optional
        • Cost $1565
      • “ 640KB should be enough for anyone” – Bill Gates
    • First Portable Computer
      • 1981 – Osborne Portable Computer
        • Goal was machine that fit under airplane seat
        • Included 5” screen, but weighed 75 pounds
        • Cost $1795 and sold 10,000 per month
    • Updated Computer Line
      • 1983 – Apple IIe released
        • Used 1MHz processor
        • Included 64KB of memory
        • Cost $1400 per machine
        • Became one of the best selling computers of all time
    • Personal Computer Revolution
      • 1983 – Apple Lisa, 1 st GUI-based home computer
        • Used 5 MHz processor, 512KB of memory, 5MB hard drive
        • 12” monitor
        • Cost $9995
        • Apple Macintosh released in 1984
    • Personal Computer Revolution
      • 1983 – Apple Lisa released
      • 1984 – Apple Macintosh released
    • Other Important Computer Dates
      • 1983 – Intel releases 80386
        • Ran at 16MHz
      • 1983 – 10 million computers used in US
      • 1986 – 30 million computers used in US
      • 1988 – Soundblaster released
      • 1989 – Intel releases 80486DX
        • Ran at 25MHz
        • First Intel chip capable of multiprocessing
    • Other Important Dates
      • 1990 – The World becomes first company selling Internet access
      • 1991 – Tim Berners-Lee launches “World Wide Web”
        • Goal was to facilitate remove collaboration between physicists
      • Jan. 1993 – 50 web servers in existence
      • 1994 – First banner ads on web
        • Start of World Wide Web commercialization