Computer Aided Publishing Origins and development of the role of the computer in transforming the publishing business.
It all began in the 1970s... Once upon a time...
Gary Starkweather, researcher at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) created the world's first prototype laser printer, known as EARS, based on an office photocopier in 1971. Laser printers started selling 1975, by IBM, and by Xerox from 1977 etc. Xerox Dover laser printer $300,000 print one page per second
1984 First laser printers became available commercially. Hewlett-Packard – the LaserJet Built like a tank, HP created a revolution in desktop printing with its 1984 introduction of the LaserJet. The LaserJet's reliability became legendary and caused HP to become the world leader in desktop laser printers.
Late 1970s John Warnock invented and developed Interpress Xerox Palo Alto Research Centre (Parc) Interpress programming language allowed computers to describe the details of the text and pictures of a page to a laser printer. 1980-1982 Warnock and his boss Chuck Geschke tried to persuade Xerox to adopt and develop Interpress . Xerox saw no commercial value in the program.
December 1982 – launch of Adobe company Adobe - named after the brook that ran at the bottom of John Warnock’s garden, at San Jose, California.
Company founded by:
John Warnock (born 1940) (left)
Chuck Geschke (born 1939) (right)
Result was: 1984 Adobe Postscript Postscript = 'after written' - i.e. after you have written and designed the document this 'page description language' takes over. Warnock’s Interpress program developed further by Adobe.
Beauty of the system: i.e. Postscript generated from any computer can be sent to any laser printer that can interpret Postscript. computer independent laser printer independent and
Postscript Based on scalable vectors, i.e. each element is described mathematically, so no loss of quality if resize the element. 100 150 moveto 300 350 lineto stroke 0 100 200 300 400 400 300 200 100 0 Postscript command:
Postscript character definition Vectors and B é zier curves
Postscript is widely used in printing/publishing industry – (University Palms laser printing system uses Postscript) now the standard way of getting documents printed
1991 Postscript – Level 2
Included - improved speed and reliability. Better typeface support. Improved image handling.
1998 Postscript 3
Included - better colour handling.
Document (e.g. created in Word, PageMaker, InDesign) Postscript version of document, as a file. via printer driver COMPUTER Postscript interpreter (RIP) – raster image processor Printed to paper, negative or printing plate cable, network, CD PRINTER by any Postscript enabled printer or printing negative/plate making device Postscript printing process
Alternatively – and now standard: Portable Document Format (PDF)
Portable Document Format (PDF) Developed by Adobe, from early 1990s √ a form of optimized Postscript ☺ allows documents to be sent between different computer systems with their layout and fonts etc being guaranteed to remain in the form of the original design. Version 1 released 1992
Portable Document Format (PDF) Acrobat Distiller (create PDF) Acrobat Reader (view and print PDF) 1993 Adobe released tools to create and view/print PDF files:
PDF not really take off in printing industry until Acrobat 3.0 released - 1996. Version 3 provided most of the facilities and flexibility required by the printing industry. Currently Acrobat is version 8 (released October 2006) £261.99
PDF has become the usual way of typesetters/graphic designers sending documents to be printed.
PDF has also become the usual way of providing documents over the Internet, where paper-based layout is important, or documents are very long.
Document (e.g. created in Word, PageMaker, InDesign) Postscript version of document. via printer driver COMPUTER Printed to paper, negative or printing plate cable, network, CD PRINTER PDF version of document via Acrobat Distiller Document (e.g. created in Word, PageMaker, InDesign) PDF version of document Makes use of Acrobat Distiller via export option in application PDF creation and printing process OR
PageMaker PDF export dialogue box File Export Adobe PDF … Creation of PDF file in PageMaker
Advantages of PDF: 1. Compresses pictures and text - without loss of quality - creates convenient-sized files Acrobat Distiller settings dialogue box
Advantages of PDF: 2. Embeds fonts/typefaces into file Acrobat Distiller settings dialogue box
publisher accepts/rejects proposal (if a book) author creates book proposal (using word processor) book proposal to publisher, with sample chapter(s) if written via paper copy or e-mail attachment author informed of decision by publisher if proposal accepted…
author writes book, assembles/creates pictures via paper copy and word processed files publisher publisher requests any text changes from author, clears copyright on images copy editing (marked up on paper version or direct to file) corrections done by publisher or typesetter via paper copy and word processed files typesetter/designer
typesetter/designer designs and typesets book, liaising with publisher about design typesetter may also scan and prepare pictures produces layout document files (or native files ), e.g. in Pagemaker/InDesign produces first draft printout via paper copy draft to publisher and author for corrections/checking corrections back to typesetter via marked up paper copy PREPRESS
typesetter produces second/final draft via paper copy second/final draft to publisher for checking job signed off by publisher typesetter produces PDF/Postscript file(s) within PageMaker/InDesign or via Postscript and Acrobat Distiller PDF file(s) commercial printers via CD or Internet, with paper copy for checking against for layout etc
commercial printers pages assembled with correct imposition (several pages per plate) for printing, on computer system at printers RIP produces paper press proofs (usually on a large inkjet printer), folded and gathered in correct order for publication press proofs checked by publisher plates produced by platesetter machine or plates produced on the actual printer if a digital one or (now unusual) negatives produced on an imagesetter, then plates made (RIP = raster image processor) PRODUCTION – PRESS STAGE
finished books to publisher/book distributor books printed books bound books to shops (cover designed by typesetter or by cover designer)
All this by-passes camera ready copy (CRC) stage. = vastly reduces costs particularly for the printing of pictures = reduces production time as there are fewer stages in the prepress process
Returning to history of computer aided publishing
1984 Apple launched the Macintosh computer. $2,495
Apple Macintosh WYSIWYG – what you see is what you get potential to design pictures and document layout on screen in a visual way
1984 Paul Brainerd founded company Aldus former newspaper editor pre-1984 worked for Atex, an electronic newspaper page makeup system believed a much cheaper graphically based document design program could be developed for the affordable personal computer then emerging
Venetian typographer and publisher Aldus Manutius (1463-1515) Aldus
1985 Apple launched the LaserWriter first generally-affordable laser printer - though cost $6,995 (but closest competition cost $30,000) Based on a Canon printer engine and Motorola 68000 chip
(thanks to Adobe, and $2.5 investment in Adobe in 1984 by Apple)
so could produce pages at typesetter quality Steve Jobs (Apple Co-Founder) (far left) Chuck Geschke (Adobe Co-Founder) (dark suit middle) John Warnock (Adobe Co-Founder) (right) Apple Computer president and CEO Steve Jobs, shown here shortly after the launch of the LaserWriter, backed PostScript from the moment he laid eyes on it. "I was simply blown away by what I saw," Jobs remembers. (http://www.adobe.com/aboutadobe/pressroom/20thanniversary.html)
1985 Aldus launched PageMaker 1.0 for Macintosh, 15th July 1985 Apple were looking for a ‘killer application’ in early 1985 – sales of Macs were dropping. Brainerd was looking for investment and a computer suitable for his prototype program, ready in Spring 1985. Cost = $495
Paul Brainerd used term 'desktop publishing' for first time during an interview. Concept behind term was that it meant easy publishing for everyone, literally from their desktop. Macintosh 512K $3200 Laserwriter $6995 PageMaker $495 Total = $10,690 Also relatively cheap: = approx £7,000 (= about £19,000 today)
PageMaker was made possible because of: 1. Graphics-based Macintosh with a graphical user interface which itself now gained professional recognition (making the previously ‘proper’ IBM PC’s DOS-based command prompt look poor and primitive, leading to the development and release of Windows later that year) 2. Cheaper laser printers 3. Postscript allowed PageMaker to send pages to any laser printer
Work produced in the office or home could be sent to large commercial, very high-quality laser phototypesetters and imagesetters for very crisp output, of a quality acceptable by publishing houses. Postscript very important:
Video clip from BBC2 Into Print – Programme One Introduction (1990) 3.16 minutes File: Postscript-imagesetter.mpg PageMaker , Postscript and a film imagesetter at a bureau