GUIDELINES FOR USING THE SECTION TEMPLATE
The thesis template is designed to assist students who want to format their
theses using Microsoft Word according to the publication standards and guidelines
of California State University, Fresno, as set forth in the Division of Graduate
Studies Guidelines for Thesis Preparation. It is not meant to be used in place of
the Guidelines for Thesis Preparation, which should be purchased from the
Kennel Bookstore or accessed for free through the Thesis Office Web site
(www.csufresno.edu/gradstudies/thesis) and reviewed carefully before and while
using this template. The template is a skeletal document providing built-in
margins, pagination, standard text and text breaks, and styles for the most
commonly used features of the two types (chapter divisions and section divisions)
of university theses.
It is assumed that students have basic word processing program and
computer usage skills, and have access to a MacIntosh or PC computer with a
recent version of Microsoft Word installed.
The Thesis Office Web site also has a series of short movies under
“Template Tutorials” which demonstrate the basics of using the template.
Starting to Use Your Template
After you receive the template, either by disk, download from the Web site,
you should print out and review these instructions and save the template onto your
hard drive. Always retain an original copy of the template for future reference.
1.Be sure to click on the ¶ symbol in the Standard Toolbar at the top of the
document. This is necessary for viewing the spaces, tabs, and paragraph
formatting programmed into the template.
2.Highlight and replace (or delete, if not needed) the red text in the
template. Black text indicates standard wording, and should not be replaced.
3.You’ll want to save each revision of your thesis, just in case you want to
retrieve something from that draft later. Use the Save As function under File. We
recommend using a date code or sequential numbering for each revision.
Using the Style Box to Format Styles
Using the style box can be a real time saver as it automatically formats text
and headings. Familiarizing yourself with this function through some practice will
certainly pay dividends as you craft your thesis.
Use the style box at the upper left corner of your document above the ruler
to obtain formatting for text (thesis text), chapter titles, subheadings, reference
format, etc. You can view the styles in your template by holding down the arrow
on the right of the box and scrolling through the list to see the styles available. On
newer versions of MSWord, click on Format, then choose Styles and
Formatting... For a complete listing of template styles, see Appendix Table 1.
You can change styles either by selecting the style first from the style box
and then typing your text, or by placing the cursor at any spot in the designated
paragraph and changing the style after typing. For example, if you place your
cursor on this paragraph and check the style box, you will see thesis text as the
current style. Choose a different style and observe the change. Re-select thesis
To create a heading, press the Return or Enter key (¶) at the end of the
paragraph preceding the line on which you wish to place your heading, and select
the desired heading style from the style box. (Note that the headings are located at
the top of the box. You may have to scroll up to reach the correct choice.) Type
your heading in your text. Correct spacing and alignment are automatically
created. Don’t use the “Heading 1,” “Heading 2,” etc. styles built into MSWord.
The next paragraphs outline which styles you should use.
Creating Centered Headings
Centered headings are limited in line length (see Guidelines). Select 1st-
Level Cent Hdg from the style box. If your heading exceeds the limit in one line,
you will need to create an inverted pyramid for a two-or-more-line centered
heading. Place your cursor at the best aesthetic point for breaking the line, and
press Shift-Enter for a “soft return.” This will take you to the next line while
retaining the correct style formatting. The correct spacing and underscoring will be
inserted for you, and the text will be properly placed below the heading.
Be sure to review the Headings section in the Graduate Division’s
Guidelines for Thesis Preparation for specific directions on capitalization, heading
length and form, etc.
A Second-Level Side Heading That
Exceeds 3 Inches
The template should return you to the thesis text style as the style following
the side heading. For a third-level subdivision, select 3rd-level paragraph hdg
from the style box.
A third-level paragraph heading. The text will continue immediately after
the heading, in normal fashion. Highlight and underscore the heading only, after
finishing the heading or the paragraph, in order to complete the correct formatting.
The next paragraph returns to standard thesis text style (set at Exactly 24-
point line spacing). If you need further subdivisions, consult the Guidelines, and
construct your headings accordingly.
Thesis Text vs. Normal Style
Use of thesis text style will automatically indent with each press of the
return key. If you do not wish to use this feature, you will need to select Normal
style from the style box, rather than thesis text. This will allow you to insert your
own tab indent (automatically set to .5" on Word), as well as any other features
that do not fit into the preexisting styles programmed under the Format - Style
Double Spacing and Paragraph Line Spacing
In the thesis template, the text is programmed at Format – Paragraph –
Line Spacing – Exactly 24 points, rather than Line-spacing - Double space. This
allows slightly more lines to the page. You will need to pay attention to this
feature only if you are adding previous copy to the template. See number 1 below.
Copying and Pasting Your Text Into the Template
It is preferable to begin typing your text into the template from the start of
your composing process. However, if this is not possible, and you need to move
preexisting copy into the template, some general precautions are necessary.
1. Select all (Control-A, for the PC; Apple-A for the Mac) your text and
change it to the font and point size used in the thesis template you have
chosen to use (in this case, Times New Roman 13 point).
2. If you have typed your text using the standard double spacing default,
you will need to change your paragraph line spacing to match that of the
template, which is set at Exactly 24 point Line spacing. Select all your
text, then go to the Format-Paragraph-Line Spacing, selecting Exactly:
24 points (see Figure 1).
Figure 1. Paragraph line spacing (Exactly 24 points)
3. Next, start the cut and paste process. In the template, go to the first
section (after the List of Figures). Select the section title and replace it with your
own title wording. Press the Return key, to prepare for your text. In your
previously typed document, copy the first portion. Return to the template, and
paste this at the created insertion point below the section title. Note: It is best to
copy one section (i.e., a group of paragraphs of straight text from between
headings) at a time, rather than moving the entire section, which may carry with it
additional unwanted formatting such as page numbering, incorrect line spacing,
4. Insert any headings, and other necessary formatting (e.g., block quotes)
by using the style box as directed above. Proceed in this manner with your
succeeding sections, being sure to retain the double-line section break between
sections (this keeps the page number from showing on the first pages of each
section, according to correct Guidelines format).
Note: If you have inserted a .5" manual indent in your original copy, you
may have to check the style of paragraphs following titles and headings in the
template, to be sure they are correctly indented, deleting any extra tabs. This kind
of clean-up action can be done after you have completed your first draft!
Inserting Tables and Figures
Hint: Create your tables and figures in a separate document file from your
thesis text. This will allow you to copy and paste as needed, and to later delete
and replace your material for editing purposes, without overloading the memory
of your machine.
To insert a figure or table:
1.Place your cursor between the paragraphs where you wish your table or
figure to appear.
2.Change line spacing at point of insertion and below: In the Format-
Paragraph-Line Spacing menu, select Multiple. This will allow the table or figure
to retain its original appearance and formatting, rather than forcing the insertion
into the preceding template style such as thesis text (indented first line, exactly 24
points, etc.). Alternatively, applying the Figure style will make the necessary
adjustments in most cases.
Placing Tables and Figures Less Than
One-Half Page in Length
1.If a figure or table is less than one-half page, including the caption, it may
be included on a page with text, following the end of the paragraph containing the
text reference to it. Place the cursor where you want your object inserted and
change your line spacing as instructed.
2.With the thesis open in one document window, open the second document
containing the table or figure you wish to import. You can either drag the table or
figure from this second document into the thesis, or perform a basic “copy” and
“paste” function (under the Edit menu) into the thesis. The latter works best for
importing JPEGs and other photo files, as well as tables or figures created using
Excel and similar programs.
3.Type in your caption above or beneath the inserted item, as appropriate
(see Guidelines table and figures directions). There are Figure caption and Table
Title styles in the template. They are set to the specifications of most style manual
specifications, but may need modification if your style converges from most
4.From text to table caption or top of figure, and from bottom of table or
figure caption, add one space to the standard text spacing, if possible. This is
equivalent to two blank lines, or "triple spacing."
Placing Tables and Figures One-Half
Page or More in Length
1.If your referenced figure or table is one-half page or more, it should stand
alone on the page(s) following the full page of text. This will require that you (a)
complete your text page with your text; (b) create a page break (Insert-Break-
Page break) after the last line of text on the page; and (c) change the line spacing
per the preceding instructions. Note: It is always easier to format this portion of
your thesis if you can arrange to place your figures and tables on separate pages
rather than placing on a page with surrounding text. A sample insertion is offered
here, showing the reference to a figure at the top of a text page, text continuing to
fill the page, and the figure placed on its own, on the next page (see Figure 2).
2.When you have inserted your table or figure on this page (see Guidelines
for Thesis Preparation and Thesis Office handouts for further directions and
samples), review the appearance of this page in relation to the surrounding text by
using the Print Preview mode ( in your toolbar). (Hint: To adjust text while in
this Print Preview mode, click on the icon to unselect it, and your cursor will
return to being a cursor rather than a magnifying glass! You can then add text,
spacing, or other formatting while viewing it as it will appear in the final printed
document.) You may also use the Print Preview feature of your word processing
program to see if you need to create another page break before resuming your text
3.Be sure to change line spacing back to the style you need before
continuing to type your text: select the correct style from the style box (e.g.,
Normal, thesis text, 1st-Level Centered Heading, etc.). If you have more than one
page of insertions, create the desired number of page breaks needed to
accommodate your material, as directed above, and insert the material in the order
referred to in the text. Check your progress by using the Print Preview feature.
Landscaped Tables and Figures
If you are trying to incorporate a landscape-formatted page (horizontal
orientation) into your text, please note that this involves running the page through
the printer twice.
Create your figure or table in a separate file (see above). You may wish to place a
number of landscape-oriented pages together in one file; each will then be
accessible for copying/insertion individually, where needed. Be sure not to
paginate this file, however!
2. In your main thesis document, when you reach the point for insertion
(fill the page first!), insert two page breaks. Print the blank page, which should
show the page number only, set in the correct upper right-hand place on the page.
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
Figure 2. Travel expenditure comparisons for the period January to June, 1999.
3. Place this paginated sheet in the printer again, and open your 1
landscaped document file. Print the needed figure or table on this previously
paginated sheet. This process can be repeated as many times as necessary.
A Word About Pagination
The template automatically pages your thesis according to the instructions
laid out in the Guidelines for Thesis Preparation manual. No page numbers show
on the pages following a section break (visible in the View-Normal mode as a
double dotted line). Do not delete these unless you don't need a certain section:
they provide correct formatting for the page numbers.
If your page shows a page number where it shouldn't, check to be sure that
you don't have a page break rather than a section break-next page at the top of this
page. You may also wish to check that the Page Setup-Layout menu has the
Different First Page box checked.
Printing Your Document
Printing selected sample pages from the template and printing the final
document occasionally cause difficulties. Two troubleshooting hints are offered
Printing Selected Sample Pages
If you want to print only a page or two, or a single section of your thesis,
you will need first to identify the page number and section from the bar at the foot
of your document screen. Go to the File-Print menu (don't use the printer icon in
the top toolbar, which will print the entire document), and follow the instructions
offered by Word 2000 for printing selected parts of theses only:
A range of pages within a section Type p page number s section number. 2
For example, to print pages 5 through 7
in section 3, type p5s3-p7s3
An entire section Type s section number.
For example, type s3
Printing Black Type
Occasionally, printers will pick up the remaining red type from the original
template, which will show this copy in print as gray rather than black type. Either
one or both of the following measures should help correct this problem:
• Select all your text (Control-A), and change the font color to black
• In your printer menu, under Properties, change your print to black
and white output only, rather than automatic or color.
TEMPLATE STYLES--SECTION FORMAT
HALF-TITLE SHEET REFERENCES,
1st-Level Centered Hdg Centered heading; APPENDIX, and
single-spaced, 4" max. APPENDICES half
length, underscored, titles
inverted pyramid form
Normal Base style for all
2nd-Level Side Hdg Side heading; hanging other styles; left
indent .25", left aligned, double-
aligned, single-spaced, spaced
References Hanging indent
3rd-level paragraph hdg Paragraph heading; .5" reference list style;
indent; manually single-spaced, double
underscore to 1st period between entries
Abstract Author Name Line for author’s name SECTION TITLE Section title, centered,
on the abstract single-spaced, all
abstract date Line for thesis date pyramid; also serves
(Month year) on the as top heading line for
abstract all preliminary pages
ABSTRACT TITLE Thesis title on Table Title For title above table.
Abstract; all caps, Single-spaced and no
centered, single- indent
pyramid form thesis text Basic text style, .5"
Note: Not body text! paragraph indent,
Block quote (APA) Block quote style for double spaced
APA style (double
spaced, 0.5” indent) THESIS TITLE Thesis title on title
Block quote (MLA) Block quote style for
MLA style (double TOC APPENDTITLE Table of Contents
spaced, 1” indent) Appendix section title
Block quote (Turabian) Block quote style for TOC SECTION TITLE Table of Contents
Turabian style (single section title
spaced, 0.38” indent)
TOC lists List of Tables/
Figure For inserted figures, Figures titles/caption
Figure caption For caption below figure. toc subhdg.sect Table of Contents,
Single-spaced and no centered headings
indent exactly as in text