Co-researchers Andy Horne, Carl Huberty, and Michele Lease of UGA, Jean Baker of Michigan State, Christine DiStefano of Louisiana State University, Linda Mayes of Yale Child Study Center, David Pineda of Universidad de Antioquia
Student research team members Anne Winsor, Ellen Rowe, Jennifer Thorpe, Cheryl Hendry, Amanda Dix, Erin Dowdy, Anna Kroncke, Sangwon Kim, Robert Brown, Tracey Troutman.
Alumni research team members Drs. Nancy Lett, Shayne Abelkop, Martha Petoskey and Ann Heather Cody
Research is supported in part by grant number R306F60158 from the At-Risk Institute of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement of the United States Department of Education, to R. W. Kamphaus, J. A. Baker, & A. M. Horne.
Both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are observed
Multiple methods are used including clinician rating, time sampling, and qualitative recording of classroom functional contingencies
A generous time interval is allocated for recording the results of each time sampling interval (27 seconds)
Operational definitions of behaviors and time sampling categories are included in the BASC manual
Inter-rater reliabilities for the time sampling portion are high which lends confidence that independent observers are likely to observe the same trends in child’s classroom behavior (see Lett & Kamphaus, 1997).
There is typically no need to select target behaviors to observe
schedule the observation period at a time of day and, in a class, where problems are known to be of teacher or parent concern so that target behaviors can be observed. In addition, the examiner may want to also observe in a class where problems are not present
Use an observer who is already familiar to the school, or introducing himself or herself to the teacher ahead of time
Develop a timing mechanism (PDA software available April, 2003)
Traits that are considered stable are rated consistently by teachers over a 2 to 8 week interval (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992). A study of three clinical samples produced median test-retest values of .89, .91, and .82 for preschool, child, and adolescent levels.
Different teachers rate the same child similarly (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992). A sample of 30 children was rated by two teachers each within a few days of one another. Interrater coefficients were variable ranging from a low of .53 for social skills to .94 for learning problems. Most clinical scales had adequate reliabilities such as aggression .71, anxiety .82, attention problems .68, and learning problems. 94.
Teacher internal consistency coefficients are higher than those for either parents or adolescent self-reports (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992).
Behavior is stable as rated by different teachers: TRS-C Means, 1996-2000
Teacher ratings are better able to diagnose the subtypes of ADHD than classroom observations by independent observers (Lett & Kamphaus, 1997). The TRS was significantly better than the SOS at differentiating non-disabled, ADHD combined type, and ADHD combined type plus conduct problem groups with about a 70% accuracy rate.
Teacher ratings are significantly associated with adjustment to school (Baker, Kamphaus, & Horne, Project ACT Early)
Teacher ratings are predictive of adjustment six years later (Verhulst et al., 1994)
Discipline Reports for Physical Aggression by Type for ACT Early Year 3 Reported in Proportions of Sample Well Adapted (Type 1) Average (Type 2) Disrupt Behavio Probs (Type 3) Academic Probs (Type 4) Physical Complaints and Worry (Type 5) Gen Probs Severe (Type 6) Mildly Disruptive (Type 7) Percent Cited for Physical Aggress 1 8 43 15 2 43 14
Schwean, Burt, & Saklofske (1999) Items on the Atypicality scale of the BASC are relevant to several different interpretations…, with many describing behaviors that parallel those seen in a hyperactive-impulsive disorder (e.g., daydreams, complains about being unable to block out unwanted thoughts, stares blankly, babbles to self, sings or hums to self, rocks back and forth). Several examples will help illustrate this point. Although we typically think of inattentive children as “daydreamy”. Research has noted that one of the most common observations made by elementary school teachers about hyperactive children is that they appear to be daydreaming (Goldstein & Goldstein, 1992). Hyperactive-impulsive children are also often known to talk excessively and to hum or make odd noises (American Psychiatric Association, 1994; Barkely, 1990). Moreover, irrelevant and purposeless gross bodily movements (i.e., hyperactivity) can easily be confused with more stereotypic motor behaviors. (p. 59)
Pearson and Annan (1994) concluded,“Findings suggest that chronological age should be taken into consideration when behavior ratings are used to assess cognitively delayed children for ADHD. However, the results do not support guidelines stating that mental age must be used to determine which norms should be applied when such children are evaluated clinically.” (p. 395)
The use of mental age as a consideration in making the ADHD diagnosis for children with mental retardation may result in the denial of somatic and behavioral treatments that are known to have demonstrated efficacy (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2002).
70+ Functional impairment in multiple settings, Often diagnosable condition
60-69 Functional impairment in one or more settings, sometimes diagnosable condition
45-59 No functional impairment or condition
<45 Notable lack of symptomatology
Aggression Scale Interpretation (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2002) Score Range Interpretation 70 + Often acts in a hostile manner (both verbal or physical) that is threatening to others. Significant functional impairment is noted in home and school settings, and with peers. 60-69 Acts in a hostile manner (either verbal or physical or both) that is threatening to others. Functional impairment may be present in home and/or school settings, and with peers. 45-59 Displays of either verbal or physical aggression are infrequent and age appropriate. No functional impairment is present. < 45 Displays of either verbal or physical aggression are extremely rare. No functional impairment is present.
“ The concepts of average child and average environment have no utility whatever for the investigation of dynamics ...An inference from the average to the particular case is …impossible” (Lewin, 1931, p. 95; cited in Richters, 1997)
Child behavior problems are dimensionally distributed in the population and much variability is associated with subsyndromal behavior problems that nevertheless produce functional impairment (Hudziak, et al., 1999; Scahill, et al., 1999; Cantwell, 1996)
“… teachers cope with a high degree of variability in their classrooms… By capturing this variability it may be possible to design interventions that ameliorate the risk of failure for some groups of children” (Speece & Cooper, 1990, p. 119)
TRS-C Type 1 Well-Adapted (34%) Note. 61% Female
TRS-C Type 2 Average (19%) Note. 43% African American
Peer Social Status (A. Michele Lease, in press) Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Type 5 Type 6 Type 7 Likeability .86 -.40 -1.76 -1.72 1.15 -2.54 -.98 Friendships 2.2 .83 .43 .36 1.37 .50 .25 Center (MDS) .03 .01 .87 .88 -.73 1.39 .29
Behavior and Achievement Relations: Annie Winslet
Annie has always had problems with behavior at school. In fact, two of her teachers have rated her as the Disruptive Behavior Problem type over the course of five years of elementary school. In other words, her problems began early and they persisted. How might this pattern of adjustment impact her academic achievement?
Dowdy is the youngest Erin family member. He has been identified by teachers as pretty well-behaved during the first five years of schooling. He did, however, have a particularly problematic year for unknown reasons. His teacher that year rated him as a Type 3, Disruptive Behavior Problems. Now his parents want to know if his behavior is causing achievement problems.
Amanda is a very sweet child who has never had behavior problems at school. She has always gotten along well with others and achieved well in school. In at least two of her first five years of schooling she has been rated by a teacher as a Type 1 (Well Adapted) or 2 (Average). She’s a great kid who is unlikely to have achievement problems.
Group 1 Chronic Disruptive Behavior Group. Children in the Chronic Disruptive Behavior group were rated by two or more teachers as being in the DBP cluster. In other words for at least two of the five years sampled, these children fell in the DBP Cluster.
Group 2 Intermittent Disruptive Behavior Group. Children in the Intermittent Disruptive Behavior Group had at least one but not more than one year in which a teacher rated them as being in the Disruptive Behavior Problems Cluster. Cluster membership in other years was not accounted for so that children could have belonged to any other cluster, (Average, Mild Behavior Problems, Learning Problems, etc.) in alternate years.
Group 3 Average/Well-Adapted Group. Children in the Well-Adapted Group were rated by teachers as being in either the Average or Well-Adapted clusters for at least two of the five years sampled.
Chronicity of Behavior Problems and Mathematics Achievement
Chronicity of Behavior Problems and Mathematics Achievement
Chronicity of Behavior Problems and Reading Achievement
Chronicity of Behavior Problems and Reading Achievement
Family School Peers Community Levels of need Severe Psychopathology Disruptive Behavior Problems Learning Problems Physical Complaints/Worry Mildly Disruptive Well-Adapted Average Intervention Secondary and Tertiary Prevention Primary Prevention The roles of related services based on behavior type
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