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[PPS]Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC)

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  • 1. Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) R. W. Kamphaus, Ph.D. The University of Georgia
  • 2. Acknowledgements
    • Cecil R. Reynolds, BASC senior author
    • Mark Daniel and Rob Altmann of AGS
    • Co-researchers Andy Horne, Carl Huberty, and Michele Lease of UGA, Jean Baker of Michigan State, Christine DiStefano of Louisiana State University, Linda Mayes of Yale Child Study Center, David Pineda of Universidad de Antioquia
    • Student research team members Anne Winsor, Ellen Rowe, Jennifer Thorpe, Cheryl Hendry, Amanda Dix, Erin Dowdy, Anna Kroncke, Sangwon Kim, Robert Brown, Tracey Troutman.
    • Alumni research team members Drs. Nancy Lett, Shayne Abelkop, Martha Petoskey and Ann Heather Cody
    • Research is supported in part by grant number R306F60158 from the At-Risk Institute of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement of the United States Department of Education, to R. W. Kamphaus, J. A. Baker, & A. M. Horne.
  • 3. Multimethod
    • Structured Developmental History (SDH)
    • Student Observation System (SOS)
    • Teacher Rating Scales (TRS)
    • Parent Rating Scales (PRS)
    • Self-Report of Personality
  • 4. Objectives
    • Learn five assessment uses unique to history taking
    • Use the SOS to take a 15 minute classroom observation
    • Write and describe clinically significant findings for the PRS, TRS, and SRP
    • Explain the impact of child culture and sex on TRS and PRS results
    • Describe a TRS-based 7 cluster classification system of child behavioral adjustment status and its use for screening and classifying risk for school problems
    • Describe research findings regarding the use of the BASC as a program evaluation too.
    • Summarize research findings regarding the use of the BASC to classify cases of ADHD.
  • 5. History Taking SDH
    • Identifying age of symptom onset (e.g. ADHD)
    • Developmental course (e.g. LD)
    • Assessment of etiology (e.g. Thyroid condition)
    • Treatment or intervention design (e.g. Prozac related relapse or Cheryl’s head banging)
    • Assessment of risk and resilience factors (e.g. family resemblance, peers, recreation)
    • Documentation of educational or other impairment (e.g. grades, productivity, test scores, relations with parents, school attendance)
  • 6. Student Observation System (SOS)
    • Both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are observed
    • Multiple methods are used including clinician rating, time sampling, and qualitative recording of classroom functional contingencies
    • A generous time interval is allocated for recording the results of each time sampling interval (27 seconds)
    • Operational definitions of behaviors and time sampling categories are included in the BASC manual
    • Inter-rater reliabilities for the time sampling portion are high which lends confidence that independent observers are likely to observe the same trends in child’s classroom behavior (see Lett & Kamphaus, 1997).
  • 7. SOS
    • Part A - Treatment/IEP Planning; frequency, range, and disruptiveness of classroom behavior
    • Part B - Treatment/Program evaluation of effectiveness (track change with ADHD Monitor software)
    • Part C - Functional analysis of antecedents, behavior, and consequences (e.g. teacher position)
  • 8. SOS Scales
    • Adaptive Scales
    • Response to teacher
    • Work on school subjects
    • Peer interaction
    • Transition movement
    • Behavior Problem Scales
    • Inappropriate movement
    • Inattention
    • Inappropriate vocalization
    • Somatization
    • Repetitive motor movements
    • Aggression
    • Self-injurious behavior
    • Inappropriate sexual behavior
    • Bowel/bladder problems
  • 9. Using Part B
    • There is typically no need to select target behaviors to observe
    • schedule the observation period at a time of day and, in a class, where problems are known to be of teacher or parent concern so that target behaviors can be observed. In addition, the examiner may want to also observe in a class where problems are not present
    • Use an observer who is already familiar to the school, or introducing himself or herself to the teacher ahead of time
    • Develop a timing mechanism (PDA software available April, 2003)
  • 10. Cecilia - Age 8, Optimal Response to Ritalin
  • 11. SOS Functional Assessment
    • Frequency - Part A ratings of NO, SO, or FO. Part B frequencies.
    • Duration - Part B ratings of percentage of time engaged in behavior.
    • Intensity - Part A ratings of disruptive and Part B ratings of relative frequency.
    • Antecedent Events - Part C teacher position and behavior.
    • Consequences - Part C teacher change techniques.
    • Ecological Analysis of Settings - Observations at various times of school day. PRS ratings.
    • Use three classroom observations to establish trajectory of behavior
  • 12. TRS Details
    • Discourage having two or more teachers complete the same form collaboratively
    • Norms extend to age 2 years 6 months
    • General, gender, and clinical norms available for TRS, PRS, SRP
    • When needed help teachers define a “never” response as a behavior that they have not seen or experienced
    • Advise teachers to rate most recent behavior
    • When a current teacher is not available a teacher from the past academic year may provide a good estimate (see next slide)
  • 13. TRS Reliability and Validity
    • Traits that are considered stable are rated consistently by teachers over a 2 to 8 week interval (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992). A study of three clinical samples produced median test-retest values of .89, .91, and .82 for preschool, child, and adolescent levels.
    • Different teachers rate the same child similarly (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992). A sample of 30 children was rated by two teachers each within a few days of one another. Interrater coefficients were variable ranging from a low of .53 for social skills to .94 for learning problems. Most clinical scales had adequate reliabilities such as aggression .71, anxiety .82, attention problems .68, and learning problems. 94.
    • Teacher internal consistency coefficients are higher than those for either parents or adolescent self-reports (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992).
  • 14. Behavior is stable as rated by different teachers: TRS-C Means, 1996-2000
  • 15. TRS Reliability and Validity
    • Teacher ratings are better able to diagnose the subtypes of ADHD than classroom observations by independent observers (Lett & Kamphaus, 1997). The TRS was significantly better than the SOS at differentiating non-disabled, ADHD combined type, and ADHD combined type plus conduct problem groups with about a 70% accuracy rate.
    • Teacher ratings are significantly associated with adjustment to school (Baker, Kamphaus, & Horne, Project ACT Early)
    • Teacher ratings are predictive of adjustment six years later (Verhulst et al., 1994)
  • 16. Discipline Reports for Physical Aggression by Type for ACT Early Year 3 Reported in Proportions of Sample Well Adapted (Type 1) Average (Type 2) Disrupt Behavio Probs (Type 3) Academic Probs (Type 4) Physical Complaints and Worry (Type 5) Gen Probs Severe (Type 6) Mildly Disruptive (Type 7) Percent Cited for Physical Aggress 1 8 43 15 2 43 14
  • 17. TRS
    • Hyperactivity (impulsivity)
    • Aggression (verbal or physical)
    • Conduct Problems (delinquency; 6-18 only)
    • Anxiety (worry, nervousness)
    • Depression (sad, unhapppy)
    • Somatization (physical complaints)
    • Attention Problems
    • Learning Problems (academic problems; 6-18 only)
    • Atypicality (hyperactivity, odd behaviors, psychoticism)
    • Withdrawal (avoidance of social interactions)
    • Adaptability (4-11) (adjusts easily to change)
    • Leadership (especially interpersonal skills)
    • Social Skills
    • Study Skills (6-18)
    • Patterning
    • Consistency
    • Fake Bad (F)
  • 18. Schwean, Burt, & Saklofske (1999) Items on the Atypicality scale of the BASC are relevant to several different interpretations…, with many describing behaviors that parallel those seen in a hyperactive-impulsive disorder (e.g., daydreams, complains about being unable to block out unwanted thoughts, stares blankly, babbles to self, sings or hums to self, rocks back and forth). Several examples will help illustrate this point. Although we typically think of inattentive children as “daydreamy”. Research has noted that one of the most common observations made by elementary school teachers about hyperactive children is that they appear to be daydreaming (Goldstein & Goldstein, 1992). Hyperactive-impulsive children are also often known to talk excessively and to hum or make odd noises (American Psychiatric Association, 1994; Barkely, 1990). Moreover, irrelevant and purposeless gross bodily movements (i.e., hyperactivity) can easily be confused with more stereotypic motor behaviors. (p. 59)
  • 19. George - ADHD Combined Type Comorbid with MR
  • 20. Under-diagnosis of ADHD in Children with MR
    • Pearson and Annan (1994) concluded,“Findings suggest that chronological age should be taken into consideration when behavior ratings are used to assess cognitively delayed children for ADHD. However, the results do not support guidelines stating that mental age must be used to determine which norms should be applied when such children are evaluated clinically.” (p. 395)
    • The use of mental age as a consideration in making the ADHD diagnosis for children with mental retardation may result in the denial of somatic and behavioral treatments that are known to have demonstrated efficacy (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2002).
  • 21. PRS Details
    • Audiotape administration
    • Spanish edition available
    • Norms to age 2 years 6 months
    • Fifth grade reading level
    • Mothers and fathers produce similar average raw scores
    • Parent feedback form available for PRS, TRS, and SRP results
  • 22. Parent/Caregiver Ratings
    • Primary caregiver and/or person who knows the child’s problems best will indicate more problems
    • Parent ratings are also predictive of behavior problems six years later (Verhulst et al., 1994)
    • Parent ratings of behavior are predicted by early temperament (Nelson et al., 1999)
  • 23. PRS
    • Hyperactivity
    • Aggression
    • Conduct Problems (6-18)
    • Anxiety
    • Depression
    • Somatization
    • Attention Problems
    • Atypicality
    • Withdrawal
    • Adaptability (4-11)
    • Leadership
    • Social Skills
    • Patterning
    • Consistency
    • Fake Bad (F)
  • 24. Lynn - ADHD Ritalin therapy at school, Mother is primary caregiver
  • 25. SRP Details
    • Validity Scales include: Patterning, Consistency, Lie (L) (12-18), Fake Bad (F), Validity (V)
    • Third grade reading level
    • Spanish version available
    • Children and adolescents may know themselves better that parents or teachers (see next slide)
  • 26. SRP-C Type 9, Internalizing yoked ratings (7.4% of 6-11 year olds, 47% f/53%m)
  • 27. SRP - Clinical and Adaptive Scales
    • Depression
    • Somatization
    • Anxiety
    • Atypicality
    • Sense of Inadequacy (feels unsuccessful in school)
    • Social Stress (tension around peers)
    • Locus of Control (rewarded or punished by others)
    • Sensation Seeking (12-18) (risk taking)
    • Attitude Toward Teachers
    • Attitude Toward School
    • Relations with Parents
    • Interpersonal Relations (friendships)
    • Self-Esteem
    • Self-Reliance (dependability)
  • 28. Maryann - Depression, Conduct Disorder, Cognitive Deficit
    • At age 17 she has history of suicide attempts, runaway behavior, STD’s, dental decay, academic failure, family dissolution, problems in foster care. She currently admits to suicidal ideation.
  • 29. Jonathan - Depression, Polysubstance Dependence
    • A high school senior, he is hospitalized for a suicidal attempt. He was previously treated for addiction to alcohol at age 14. Now, at age 17, he abuses alcohol, marijuana, heroin, and other drugs.
  • 30. SRP Facts
    • Child ratings are virtually uncorrelated with adult ratings
    • Teachers are unaware of many child problems especially those of an internalizing nature (Kamphaus & Frick, 2002)
    • Children with cognitive delay may be less able to respond untruthfully
    • Adolescents in juvenile detention are known to report high rates of psychopathology (Stowers-Wright, 2000)
  • 31. Ratings Interpretation (Kamphaus & Frick, 2002)
    • All raters possess some evidence of predictive validity
    • Simple Scheme - All indicators of problems weighted equally (e.g. teacher and child ratings of depression weighted equally)
  • 32. Ratings Interpretation
    • Identify all scales with T scores in the at-risk range (T=>60)
    • Confirm or disconfirm the importance of each with available evidence
    • Collect additional evidence as needed
    • Draw conclusions regarding classification, diagnosis, and intervention
  • 33. Ratings Interpretation
    • 70+ Functional impairment in multiple settings, Often diagnosable condition
    • 60-69 Functional impairment in one or more settings, sometimes diagnosable condition
    • 45-59 No functional impairment or condition
    • <45 Notable lack of symptomatology
  • 34. Aggression Scale Interpretation (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2002) Score Range Interpretation 70 + Often acts in a hostile manner (both verbal or physical) that is threatening to others. Significant functional impairment is noted in home and school settings, and with peers. 60-69 Acts in a hostile manner (either verbal or physical or both) that is threatening to others. Functional impairment may be present in home and/or school settings, and with peers. 45-59 Displays of either verbal or physical aggression are infrequent and age appropriate. No functional impairment is present. < 45 Displays of either verbal or physical aggression are extremely rare. No functional impairment is present.
  • 35. BASC + IDEA
    • Impaired relations = Withdrawal, Atypicality, Social Stress, Interpersonal Relations, Social Skills, Relations with Parents
    • Inability to learn = Learning Problems
    • Inappropriate behavior = Atypicality, Withdrawal
    • Unhappiness/depression = Depression, Sense of Inadequacy
    • Physical symptoms/complaints = Somatization
  • 36. Karen - Substance abuse, conduct disorder, bipolar
    • 14 year old female 9th grader with normal development until 1996
    • Academics declined, began spending large amount of time with peers and smoking marijuana and drinking alcohol
    • Hx of day and residential treatment, truancy, drug paraphernalia at school
    • Avg IQ and achievement
  • 37. Karen Maternal Ratings
  • 38. Karen SRP
    • Att to School 71
    • Att to Teach 55
    • Sensation 60
    • Atypicality 41
    • Locus of C 50
    • Somatization 39
    • Social Stress 38
    • Anxiety 47
    • Depression 49
    • Sense of In 45
    • Relations Par 30
    • Interpersonal 57
    • Self-Esteem 58
    • Self-Reliance 46
    • Critical - I just don’t care anymore
  • 39. Stefan - Emotional Distrubance
    • 10 year old fifth grade child with history of poor organization, work incompletion, resistance to teacher direction, anger outbursts, low frustration tolerance
    • Intelligence and achievement are average except for below average scores in written expression including spelling
    • Chaotic family background with loss
  • 40. Stefan SRP
    • Att to School 64
    • Att to Teach 84
    • Atypicality 48
    • Locus of C 68
    • Social Stress 60
    • Anxiety 55
    • Depression 68
    • Sense of In 78
    • Relations Par 10
    • Interpersonal 31
    • Self-Esteem 34
    • Self-Reliance 36
    • Critical - Sometimes I want to hurt myself
  • 41. Stefan Teacher Ratings
  • 42. Stefan Parent Ratings
  • 43. Effects of Culture and Sex
    • Cross-cultural studies have shown small mean differences between at least 13 cultural groups for the CBCL (Crijnen et al., 1997) and 4 for the BASC (Kamphaus et al., 2000)
    • Sex differences, in direct contrast, are large and in the same direction in all countries studied (Crijnen et al., 1997; Kamphaus et al., 2000)
  • 44. Effects of Culture
  • 45. Effects of Child Sex
  • 46. Cross-Cultural Assessment Strategies
    • Collect test scores and ratings from parents and recent teacher from country of origin or previous U.S. school
    • Use three classroom observations two weeks apart to establish trajectory of behavior
    • Defer special education classification until child has been in school system long enough to develop linguistic competencies and friendships
    • Seek second opinion from psychologist with cultural knowledge to reduce tendencies toward under or over-diagnosis (Kamphaus & Frick, 2002)
    • Use history taking to clarify standardized test and rating scale results
  • 47. BASC and Treatment/Outcome Evaluation (SRP/TRS/PRS)
    • Significant effects were shown for a therapeutic adventure program with the SRP-A (Faubel, 1998)
    • Effects have been shown for child cancer (Challinor, 1999; Shelby, 1999), and rheumatoid arthritis (Wutzke, 1999; Youseff, 1999)
  • 48. BASC and Risk Assessment
    • A person-oriented approach may be used to identify children at risk for behavioral problems (Project ACT Early; Baker, Horne, & Kamphaus, 1996-present; Petoskey, 2000)
    • Typologies of behavioral adjustment are associated with important child outcomes (Baker, Kamphaus, & Horne, in press)
    • Types of adjustment replicate in numerous samples for differing SES and cultural groups (Pineda, et al., 199; Kamphaus et al., 2000; Kamphaus & DiStefano, in press)
    • Most children with significant behavior problems are not served by special education or other service delivery system (Kamphaus et al., 1997)
  • 49. Person-Oriented Methodology
    • “ The concepts of average child and average environment have no utility whatever for the investigation of dynamics ...An inference from the average to the particular case is …impossible” (Lewin, 1931, p. 95; cited in Richters, 1997)
    • Child behavior problems are dimensionally distributed in the population and much variability is associated with subsyndromal behavior problems that nevertheless produce functional impairment (Hudziak, et al., 1999; Scahill, et al., 1999; Cantwell, 1996)
    • “… teachers cope with a high degree of variability in their classrooms… By capturing this variability it may be possible to design interventions that ameliorate the risk of failure for some groups of children” (Speece & Cooper, 1990, p. 119)
  • 50. TRS-C Type 1 Well-Adapted (34%) Note. 61% Female
  • 51. TRS-C Type 2 Average (19%) Note. 43% African American
  • 52. TRS-C Type 3 Disruptive Behavior Problems (8%) Note. 78% Male; 30% African-American
  • 53. TRS-C Type 4 Learning Problems (12%) Note. 60% Male; 33% African American
  • 54. TRS-C Type 5 Physical Complaints/Worry (11%) Note. 60% Female
  • 55. TRS-C Type 6 General Problems-Severe (4%) Note. 67% Male
  • 56. TRS-C Type 7 Mildly Disruptive (12%) Note. 70% Male; 25% African-American
  • 57. School Services by Type
  • 58. Peer Social Status (A. Michele Lease, in press) Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Type 5 Type 6 Type 7 Likeability .86 -.40 -1.76 -1.72 1.15 -2.54 -.98 Friendships 2.2 .83 .43 .36 1.37 .50 .25 Center (MDS) .03 .01 .87 .88 -.73 1.39 .29
  • 59. Prevalence of Type by School 1999 - 2000
  • 60. Prevalence of Types in Four Samples
  • 61. Disciplinary Actions by Type
  • 62. “ Services” and Disciplinary Actions by Type
  • 63. Well Adapted Pathway
  • 64. Disruptive Pathway
  • 65. Behavior and Achievement Relations: Annie Winslet
    • Annie has always had problems with behavior at school. In fact, two of her teachers have rated her as the Disruptive Behavior Problem type over the course of five years of elementary school. In other words, her problems began early and they persisted. How might this pattern of adjustment impact her academic achievement?
  • 66. Dowdy Erin
    • Dowdy is the youngest Erin family member. He has been identified by teachers as pretty well-behaved during the first five years of schooling. He did, however, have a particularly problematic year for unknown reasons. His teacher that year rated him as a Type 3, Disruptive Behavior Problems. Now his parents want to know if his behavior is causing achievement problems.
  • 67. Amanda Kroncke
    • Amanda is a very sweet child who has never had behavior problems at school. She has always gotten along well with others and achieved well in school. In at least two of her first five years of schooling she has been rated by a teacher as a Type 1 (Well Adapted) or 2 (Average). She’s a great kid who is unlikely to have achievement problems.
  • 68. Definitions of Chronicity
    • Group 1 Chronic Disruptive Behavior Group. Children in the Chronic Disruptive Behavior group were rated by two or more teachers as being in the DBP cluster. In other words for at least two of the five years sampled, these children fell in the DBP Cluster.
    • Group 2 Intermittent Disruptive Behavior Group. Children in the Intermittent Disruptive Behavior Group had at least one but not more than one year in which a teacher rated them as being in the Disruptive Behavior Problems Cluster. Cluster membership in other years was not accounted for so that children could have belonged to any other cluster, (Average, Mild Behavior Problems, Learning Problems, etc.) in alternate years.
    • Group 3 Average/Well-Adapted Group. Children in the Well-Adapted Group were rated by teachers as being in either the Average or Well-Adapted clusters for at least two of the five years sampled.
  • 69. Chronicity of Behavior Problems and Mathematics Achievement
  • 70. Chronicity of Behavior Problems and Mathematics Achievement
  • 71. Chronicity of Behavior Problems and Reading Achievement
  • 72. Chronicity of Behavior Problems and Reading Achievement
  • 73. Risk/Resilience Systems
    • Ann Masten’s review “Ordinary Majic” concluded (2001, American Psychologist) that most children develop behavioral adaptive repertoires, and that three components contribute to child development:
        • Socioeconomic Status
        • Intelligence
        • Relationships with parents and teachers
        • How do ACT Early data fit Masten’s prediction?
  • 74. Robert’s Research
    • Selected a sample of 58 children from the ACT Early pool of approx. 800 children over a one-year period.
    • The children were in 2 nd -4 th grade in Spring 2000, and 3 rd -5 th grade in Spring 2001.
    • Children were in one of three patterns: “well-adapted,” “disruptive behavior problems,” and “changers” :
      • Well-adapted and disruptive kids stayed in their respective categories from one year to the next.
      • “ Changers” were rated by the first teacher as disruptive but had a better rating by their next teacher the following year.
  • 75. Results: Teacher and Child Relationship Mean Scores
  • 76. Seven Types and Two Constructs
  • 77. Family School Peers Community Levels of need Severe Psychopathology Disruptive Behavior Problems Learning Problems Physical Complaints/Worry Mildly Disruptive Well-Adapted Average Intervention Secondary and Tertiary Prevention Primary Prevention The roles of related services based on behavior type
  • 78. ADHD Monitor (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 1998)
    • Ratings by parent, teacher, and classroom observer of:
    • Hyperactivity
    • Internalizing
    • Adaptive Skills
    • Attention Problems
    • Change is plotted in T score units
    • Macintosh version under development
  • 79. References
    • Bergman, L. R., & Magnusson, D. (1997). A person-oriented approach in research on developmental psychopathology. Development & Psychopathology, 9, 291-319.
    • Gottlieb, G. (1991). Experiential canalization of behavioral development: Theory. Developmental Psychology, 27 (1), 4-13.
    • Scahill, L., Schwab-Stone, M., Merikangas, K. R., Leckman, J. F., Zhang, H., & Kasl, S. (1999). Psychosocial and clinical correlates of ADHD in a community sample of school-age children. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 38, 976-984.
    • Hudziak, J. J., Wadsworth, B. A., Heath, A. C., & Achenbach, T. M. (1999). Latent class analysis of child behavior checklist attention problems. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 38, 985-991.
    • Kamphaus, R. W., Petoskey, M. D., Cody, A. H., Rowe, E. W., Huberty, C. J., & Reynolds, C. R. (1999). A Typology of Parent Rated Child Behavior for a National U. S. Sample. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines , 40 , 1-10.
    • Kamphaus, R. W., Huberty, C. J., Distefano, C., & Petoskey, M. D. (1997). A typology of teacher rated child behavior for a national U. S. sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology , 25 , 253-263.
  • 80. References
    • Challinor, J. M. (1998). Behavioral performance of children with cancer: Assessment using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Dissertation Abstracts International Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 58 (12-B), 6484.
    • Faubel, G. (1998). An efficacy assessment of a school-based intervention program for emotionally handicapped students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 58 (11-A), 4183.
    • Shelby, M. D. (1999). Risk and resistance factors affecting the psychosocial adjustment of child survivors of cancer. Dissertation Abstracts International Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 59 (7-B), 3740.
    • Wutzke, T. M. (1999). An examination of factors associated with resiliency in siblings of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: A family systems perspective. Dissertation Abstracts International Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 60 (1-B), 0380.
    • Youssef, S. (1999). Students with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: Psychosocial and health perceptions in relation to the implementation of school interventions. Dissertation Abstracts International Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 59 (10-B), 5591.
  • 81. References
    • Pearson, D. A., & Aman, M. G. (1994). Ratings of Hyperactivity and Developmental Indices: Should Clinicians Correct for Developmental Level? 1 Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(4), 395-411.
    • Speece, D. L., & Cooper, D. H. (1990). Ontogeny of school failure: Classification of first grade children. American Educational Research Journal, 27 , 119-140.
    • Kamphaus, R. W., & Frick, P. J. (2002). Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Personality and Behavior. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    • Cantwell, D. P. (1996). Classification of child and adolescent psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 3-12.
    • Richters, J. E. (1997). The Hubble hypothesis and the developmentalists = dilemma. Development & Psychopathology, 9 (2), 193-229.
    • Verhulst, F. C., Koot, H. M., & Van der Ende, J. (1994). Differential predictive value of parents’ and teachers’ reports of children’s problem behaviors: a longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22 , 531-546.
  • 82. References
    • Kamphaus, R. W., Jiménez, M. E., Pineda, D. A., Rowe, E. W., Fleckenstein, L., Restrepo, M. A., Mora, O., Puerta, I. C., Jiménez, I., Sanchez, J. L., García, M., & Palacio, L. G. (2000). Análisis transcultural de un instrumento de dimensiones múltiples en el diagnóstico del déficit de atención. Revista de Neuropsicología, Neuropsyqiatría y Neurociencias, 2, 51-63.
    • Pineda, D. A., Kamphaus, R. W., Mora, O., Restrepo, M. A., Puerta, I. C., Palacio, L. G., Jiménez, I., Mejía, S., García, M., Arango, J. C., Jiménez, M. E., Lopera, F., Adams, M., Arcos, M., Velásquez, J. F., López, L. M., Bartolino, N. E., Giraldo, M., García, A., Valencia, C., Vallejo, L. E., & Holguín, J. A. (1999). Sistema de evaluación multidimensional de la conducta. Escala para padres de niños de 6 a 11 años, versión colombiana. Revista de Neurología, 28, 1-10.
    • Petoskey, M.D., Kamphaus, R. W., A. Michele Lease, & Huberty, C. J. (Revision submitted for second review). Stability and change in a dimensional typology of child behavior.
    • Kamphaus, R. W., & DiStefano, C. A. (in press). Evaluación Multidimensional de la Psicopatología Infantíl. Revista de Neuropsicología, Neuropsyqiatría y Neurociencias.
    • Crijnen, A. A. M., Achenbach, T. M., & Verhulst, F. C. (1997). Comparisons of problems reported by parents of children in 12 cultures: Total problems, externalizing, and internalizing. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36 (9), 1269-1277.
  • 83. BASC Contacts/Information
    • www.bascforum.com includes sample cases, research bibliography, and discussion centers for BASC users
    • Project ACT Early, Anne Pierce Winsor, annewinsor@prodigy.net, Randy Kamphaus, Principal Investigator, rkamp@arches.uga.edu
    • American Guidance Service, 4201 Woodland Road, P.O. Box 99, Circle Pines, MN 55014-1796 1 800 328 2560 www.agsnet.com
    • Department of Educational Psychology at The University of Georgia, www.coe.uga.edu/edpsych/
    • PSYCAN Corporation,12-120 West Beaver Creek Road, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 1L2, 1 800 263 3558
    • A clinician’s guide to the BASC. Guilford Publications www.guilford.com

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