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  • 1. GNUTELLA PEER-TO-PEER NETWORKING
  • 2. GNUTELLA
    • What is Gnutella
    • Relation to the World Wide Web
    • How it Works
    • Sites / Links / Information
  • 3. WHAT IS GNUTELLA
    • Protocol that allows for peer-to-peer networking/communicating
    • Decentralized applications, were each user can act as a server
    • General public network, and private networks in isolation or attached to the public ones
    • Enables transient computers to effectively participate as servers
    DEFINITION
  • 4. WHAT IS GNUTELLA
    • Search for information anonymously (you control what you look for)
    • Allows user to determine what information they wish to make public
    • Can choose what information to share
      • share nothing
      • one file
      • a directory
      • or your entire hard drive
  • 5. WHAT IS GNUTELLA
    • First created by Nullsoft (developers of Winamp)
    • Protocol developed by them in 1999
    • Many developers have created compatible code
    • Gnutella network exists only to the extent that these developed programs are running and communicating with one another
    CREATION
  • 6. RELATION TO THE WWW
    • Gnutella hosts are web sites (although transient, equivalent to fetching a file from a web site)
    • Allows for P2P file sharing, but file transfer is accomplished via HTTP (the same protocol as web browsers and severs)
    • Each Gnutella application contains a web server component for serving files and a primitive browser element for retrieving them
  • 7. RELATION TO THE WWW
    • WWW uses hyperlinks, under the assumption that content remains accessible under a fixed URL and server
    • Some computers/servers at a given IP address may not be the same, day-to-day, hour-to-hour, minute-to-minute, therefore they are transient
    TRANSIENT WEB
  • 8. RELATION TO THE WWW
    • Augments HTTP with additional means to locate transient web sites
    • Traditional search engines cant find transient web sites
    • Decentralized, so no single responsible company, no central server, and no single point of failure
    • Anonymous searching (hosts are random users, not dedicated servers / search engines)
    ADVANTAGES
  • 9. RELATION TO THE WWW
    • Distribution / searching is free, no promo’s.
    • Provides “superdistribution” users who download content can easily become re-distributors.
    ADVANTAGES
  • 10. RELATION TO THE WWW
    • Search capability, no guarantee your query will reach the sites/users holding what you seek
    • Search results are unorganized
    • Puts PC end-user data at risk of unauthorized or unintentionally authorized exposure.
    • Cascading effect once files are shared or made available, others can redistribute them
    • Individual nodes/users can become overloaded since broadcasting info (scaling)
    DISADVANTAGES
  • 11. HOW IT WORKS
    • You can be a fully functional Gnutella site by installing any of several available clients:
    WINDOWS Gnucleus BearShare Morpheus Swapper XoloX LimeWire Phex UNIX Gnewtellium Gtk-Gnutella Mutella Qtella LimeWire Phex MACINTOSH LimeWire Phex CONNECTING
  • 12. HOW IT WORKS
    • Get connected to WWW
    • Next you have to find a few sites that are willing to communicate with you:
      • some may be friends
      • others may be advertised Gnutella sites
    CONNECTING
  • 13. HOW IT WORKS
    • Searching by flooding:
    • If you don’t have the file you want, query 7 of your partners.
    • If they don’t have it, they contact 7 of their partners, for a maximum hop count of 10.
    • Requests are flooded, but there is no tree structure.
    • No looping but packets may be received twice.
    • Reverse path forwarding(?)
    • Gnutella Demo: http:// www.capnbry.net/gnutella/ss.php
    Note: Play gnutella animation at: http://www.limewire.com/index.jsp/p2p
  • 14. HOW IT WORKS (Gnucleus)
  • 15. HOW IT WORKS (Gnucleus)
  • 16. HOW IT WORKS
    • use key words only
    • do not use astriks, wild cards, dashes, commas, or periods
    • search results are immediate
    • processed by everyone connected
    • new connections made while searching will also be searched and results added
    • no re-search function needed
    SEARCHING
  • 17. GNUTELLA: QUERY Query Query Query Hit Query Hit Query Hit Query Query
  • 18. SITES / LINKS
    • ADDRESSES
    • www.gnutella.com
    • www.openp2p.com
    • FAQ’s
    • www.gnutellaforums.com
    • www.gnutellanews.com
    • www.gnutelliums.com
  • 19. GNUTELLA & FREENET
    • Freenet:
      • bandwidth and disk space sharing concept for promoting free speech
      • very large & geographically distributed hard drive with anonymous access
      • Each file is assigned a complex unique identification
      • To search for files, need to search via that unique identification code
    • Gnutella:
      • Searching and discovery network promoting free interpretation and response to queries
      • Gnutella nodes to give hits in the form of filenames, advertising messages, URLs, graphics, and other arbitrary content
  • 20. CONCLUSIONS
    • The key challenge of building wide area P2P systems is a scalable and robust location service
      • Naptser: centralized location service
      • *Gnutella : broadcast-based decentralized location service
      • *Freenet : intelligent-routing decentralized solution (but correctness not guaranteed; queries for existing items may fail)
  • 21. REFERENCES
    • Gnutella
      • http:// gnutella.wego.com
    • Freenet
      • http://www.freenetproject.org/index.php?page=icsi-revised
      • F reenet: A Distributed Anonymous Information Storage and Retrieval System , Ian Clarke , Brandon Wiley , Oskar Sandberg and Theodore W. Hong
      • www.freenetproject.org
      • www.oldhat.org/freenet/content.html
      • P2P Dynamic Networks – www.developer.com/java/ent/article.php/10933_1496861_1
  • 22. Thank You! End