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  2. 2. GNUTELLA <ul><li>What is Gnutella </li></ul><ul><li>Relation to the World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>How it Works </li></ul><ul><li>Sites / Links / Information </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT IS GNUTELLA <ul><li>Protocol that allows for peer-to-peer networking/communicating </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized applications, were each user can act as a server </li></ul><ul><li>General public network, and private networks in isolation or attached to the public ones </li></ul><ul><li>Enables transient computers to effectively participate as servers </li></ul>DEFINITION
  4. 4. WHAT IS GNUTELLA <ul><li>Search for information anonymously (you control what you look for) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows user to determine what information they wish to make public </li></ul><ul><li>Can choose what information to share </li></ul><ul><ul><li>share nothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or your entire hard drive </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. WHAT IS GNUTELLA <ul><li>First created by Nullsoft (developers of Winamp) </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol developed by them in 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Many developers have created compatible code </li></ul><ul><li>Gnutella network exists only to the extent that these developed programs are running and communicating with one another </li></ul>CREATION
  6. 6. RELATION TO THE WWW <ul><li>Gnutella hosts are web sites (although transient, equivalent to fetching a file from a web site) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for P2P file sharing, but file transfer is accomplished via HTTP (the same protocol as web browsers and severs) </li></ul><ul><li>Each Gnutella application contains a web server component for serving files and a primitive browser element for retrieving them </li></ul>
  7. 7. RELATION TO THE WWW <ul><li>WWW uses hyperlinks, under the assumption that content remains accessible under a fixed URL and server </li></ul><ul><li>Some computers/servers at a given IP address may not be the same, day-to-day, hour-to-hour, minute-to-minute, therefore they are transient </li></ul>TRANSIENT WEB
  8. 8. RELATION TO THE WWW <ul><li>Augments HTTP with additional means to locate transient web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional search engines cant find transient web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized, so no single responsible company, no central server, and no single point of failure </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymous searching (hosts are random users, not dedicated servers / search engines) </li></ul>ADVANTAGES
  9. 9. RELATION TO THE WWW <ul><li>Distribution / searching is free, no promo’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides “superdistribution” users who download content can easily become re-distributors. </li></ul>ADVANTAGES
  10. 10. RELATION TO THE WWW <ul><li>Search capability, no guarantee your query will reach the sites/users holding what you seek </li></ul><ul><li>Search results are unorganized </li></ul><ul><li>Puts PC end-user data at risk of unauthorized or unintentionally authorized exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>Cascading effect once files are shared or made available, others can redistribute them </li></ul><ul><li>Individual nodes/users can become overloaded since broadcasting info (scaling) </li></ul>DISADVANTAGES
  11. 11. HOW IT WORKS <ul><li>You can be a fully functional Gnutella site by installing any of several available clients: </li></ul>WINDOWS Gnucleus BearShare Morpheus Swapper XoloX LimeWire Phex UNIX Gnewtellium Gtk-Gnutella Mutella Qtella LimeWire Phex MACINTOSH LimeWire Phex CONNECTING
  12. 12. HOW IT WORKS <ul><li>Get connected to WWW </li></ul><ul><li>Next you have to find a few sites that are willing to communicate with you: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some may be friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>others may be advertised Gnutella sites </li></ul></ul>CONNECTING
  13. 13. HOW IT WORKS <ul><li>Searching by flooding: </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t have the file you want, query 7 of your partners. </li></ul><ul><li>If they don’t have it, they contact 7 of their partners, for a maximum hop count of 10. </li></ul><ul><li>Requests are flooded, but there is no tree structure. </li></ul><ul><li>No looping but packets may be received twice. </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse path forwarding(?) </li></ul><ul><li>Gnutella Demo: http:// www.capnbry.net/gnutella/ss.php </li></ul>Note: Play gnutella animation at: http://www.limewire.com/index.jsp/p2p
  14. 14. HOW IT WORKS (Gnucleus)
  15. 15. HOW IT WORKS (Gnucleus)
  16. 16. HOW IT WORKS <ul><li>use key words only </li></ul><ul><li>do not use astriks, wild cards, dashes, commas, or periods </li></ul><ul><li>search results are immediate </li></ul><ul><li>processed by everyone connected </li></ul><ul><li>new connections made while searching will also be searched and results added </li></ul><ul><li>no re-search function needed </li></ul>SEARCHING
  17. 17. GNUTELLA: QUERY Query Query Query Hit Query Hit Query Hit Query Query
  18. 18. SITES / LINKS <ul><li>ADDRESSES </li></ul><ul><li>www.gnutella.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.openp2p.com </li></ul><ul><li>FAQ’s </li></ul><ul><li>www.gnutellaforums.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.gnutellanews.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.gnutelliums.com </li></ul>
  19. 19. GNUTELLA & FREENET <ul><li>Freenet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bandwidth and disk space sharing concept for promoting free speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very large & geographically distributed hard drive with anonymous access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each file is assigned a complex unique identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To search for files, need to search via that unique identification code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gnutella: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching and discovery network promoting free interpretation and response to queries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gnutella nodes to give hits in the form of filenames, advertising messages, URLs, graphics, and other arbitrary content </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>The key challenge of building wide area P2P systems is a scalable and robust location service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naptser: centralized location service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Gnutella : broadcast-based decentralized location service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Freenet : intelligent-routing decentralized solution (but correctness not guaranteed; queries for existing items may fail) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. REFERENCES <ul><li>Gnutella </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// gnutella.wego.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freenet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.freenetproject.org/index.php?page=icsi-revised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F reenet: A Distributed Anonymous Information Storage and Retrieval System , Ian Clarke , Brandon Wiley , Oskar Sandberg and Theodore W. Hong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.freenetproject.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.oldhat.org/freenet/content.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P2P Dynamic Networks – www.developer.com/java/ent/article.php/10933_1496861_1 </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Thank You! End