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  • 1. Network Components and Equipment Organizational Communications and Technologies Prithvi N. Rao H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management Carnegie Mellon University
  • 2. Readings High Speed and Wireless LANs(Stallings and van Slyke) Chapter 10
  • 3. Objectives
    • Identify the main components of a network
    • Describe the types of servers that can exist on a LAN
    • Discuss differences between deterministic and non-deterministic media access protocols
    • Describe the features of LAN media and be familiar with LAN equipment
  • 4. Network Components
    • Networks are constructed with 3 main components
      • Computers
      • Media
      • Communication equipment
    • Assembly of components depends on requirements of network
    • Incorrect design and implementation results in expensive re-engineering of network
  • 5. Computers
    • Various hardware and software platforms
      • DOS
      • OS/2
      • Macintosh
      • Unix
    • Some platforms are pure clients others can be both
      • Performance
      • Software availability
      • End-user
  • 6. Computers
    • Network server can represent any computer providing services to other computers on network
    • Server can provide services to other clients, hosts, or other servers
  • 7. Servers
    • File Servers are centralized file system
      • Mechanism for storing and retrieving data for applications
      • Mechanism for protecting data through record locking
      • Provide database transaction tracking and security
    • Communication servers
      • Provide communication services
      • Permit other nodes to transmit data on a LAN
      • Provide services of a NOS
      • Permit access to foreign networks or wide area networks
  • 8. Servers
    • Print servers
      • Permit sharing of printers
      • Permits multiple users to share single printer
      • Print jobs are spooled
    • Database server
      • Provides dedicated and centralized source for all users and LAN to access a common database
  • 9. Servers
    • Application servers provide a vast array of services
      • Modem pooling
      • Electronic mail distribution
      • Database services
      • Load balancing
      • Can be single machine or collection of machines
    Novell Netware file server provides file system services, communication services print services and application services
  • 10. Client Workstations
    • Workstations make up majority of computers on network
      • Any computer attached to LAN not dedicated to providing services to other computers
      • Can be clients or peer hosts
      • Clients depend on communication server to process request for data transmission services
      • Clients run shells, redirector or requester
    • Can double as non-dedicated servers
      • Terminate and stay resident (TSR)
      • Enable interaction with servers and other workstations
  • 11. Client Workstations
    • Peer hosts are independent network node units
      • Possess all necessary software to communicate with other hosts
      • Not dependent on communication server to provide NOS software to communicate
    • Multi-user computers typically peer hosts
      • DOS is limited because of single tasking
      • Unix typically can be peer hosts
  • 12. LAN Media
    • Including type of media following are important
      • Topology or physical layout of cable plant (token ring, ethernet)
      • Media access technique
      • Encoding scheme
  • 13. Media Access Technique 10 base 2, BUS, Thinnet Segment, 185 meters max, 30 nodes 10 Base 5, BUS, Thicknet Segment, 500 meters max, 100 nodes 10 Base T, Star, 1 cable per node (type 1 – 5) (STP, UTP) 10 Base F, Star, 1 cable per node, fiber
  • 14. Broadcast – CSMA/CD
    • Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
      • STP shielded and twisted pair
      • UTP unshielded twisted pair
  • 15. Network Interface Card (NIC)
    • Responsible for
      • Providing access to media
      • Interfacing at the physical level with cabling system
      • Framing data for transmission
      • Error detection of transmission units that have been received
  • 16. Concentrators / Hubs
    • Concentrator hubs simple multiport repeaters
      • Repeaters work to extend cable segments past their physical un-repeated limit
      • Multiport repeaters create number of physical LAN segments and logically combine them together
    • Concentrator hubs can maintain a ring or bus internally while creating a physical star topology
  • 17. Hub Benefits
    • Facilitate fault detection
    • Support for different protocols
      • Ethernet, token ring, FDDI can all be combined in a single hub
    • Can be easily linked to backbone
    • Support different media using similar protocol
      • Thinnet, thicknet and 10-Base T Ethernet segments can be combined in a single hub
  • 18. Summary
    • Servers are any computer providing services to other computers on the network
    • Workstations make up majority of computers on network
    • LAN media has specific characteristics
      • Topology
      • Type of access scheme