Lecture 4


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  • To the instructor: This presentation attempts to cover every term in the text, sometimes via a slide, sometimes via the Notes page. Additional material beyond what is in the text is presented via: Occasional “FACTOID” notations on the Notes page, and; Occasional hyperlinks in the slides themselves. ScreenTip text has been added to each hyperlink allowing you to see in advance of selecting the hyperlink where that link will take you. In addition, the last ~20 slides are questions covering the material just presented. They can be used to increase interaction between the instructor and students at the end of each lecture, to ensure students understand the material just presented, etc. Finally, some of the Notes pages include “Discussion questions” for use in encouraging student interaction during the lecture.
  • Key Questions (from the text): 4.1 What are three components of system software? 4.2 What are the principal functions of the operating system? 4.3 What are the characteristics of device drivers and utility programs? 4.4 What are some common desktop, network, and portable OSs? 4.5 What are some future directions operating systems might take? 4.6 What are some recent trends in online software?
  • Operating system (OS) - the master system of programs that manage the basic operations of the computer. Also called the software platform.
  • The OS also manages memory via: Partitioning - division of memory into separate areas called partitions, each of which can hold a program or data. Foreground/background - division of memory into higher priority (foreground) and lower priority (background) areas. Queues - temporary line-ups for programs waiting to be executed.
  • Time-slicing - the apportionment of tiny slices of time (fractions of a second) to various tasks, which allows time sharing to take place. Two possible approaches to multiprocessing: Coprocessing - the controlling CPU works together with specialized microprocessors called coprocessors, each of which handles a particular task. Parallel processing - several full-fledged processors work together on the same tasks, sharing memory.
  • Utilities - programs which perform tasks related to the control and allocation of computer resources. FACTOID: Now that recordable CDs (CD-Rs) and rewritable CDs (CD-RWs) are becoming more and more common, backup utilities are being created to back up files onto them. Backup NOW! by NTI is one such utility.
  • The Macintosh OS was first launched in 1984, and inspired rival Microsoft to upgrade DOS to the more user-friendly Windows operating systems. It set the standard for icon-oriented, easy-to-use graphical user interfaces.
  • FACTOID: Annoyances.org is a Website that claims to be “the most complete collection of information assembled for and by actual users of Microsoft Windows.”
  • FACTOID: Netware was introduced by Novell in 1983. It was the first LAN software based on file-server technology. The current release of Netware is Netware 6.
  • NT stands for “New Technology.”
  • Solaris - super-reliable version of Unix that seems to be most popular for handling large e-commerce servers and large websites. BSD - free software which began in the 1970s in the the computer science department of the University of California at Berkeley. There are now three variations: The Free BSD Project, focused on standard PCs; NetBSD - focused on a wide range of platforms; and OpenBSD - focused on security.
  • FACTOID: The Open Source Initiative is a non-profit corporation “dedicated to managing and promoting the Open Source Definition for the good of the community.”
  • Network computer - an inexpensive, stripped-down computer that connects people to networks and runs applications tied to servers.
  • ERP software was predecessor to ASP. The high cost and huge risk borne by the buyer with ERP software makes ASP an attractive alternative.
  • Lecture 4

    1. 1. Using Information Technology Chapter 4 System Software
    2. 2. System Software The Power behind the Power 4.1 The Components of System Software 4.2 The Operating System: What It Does 4.3 Other System Software: Device Drivers & Utility Programs 4.4 Common Operating Systems 4.5 The OS of the Future: “The Network is the Computer” 4.6 Online Software & Application Software Providers: Turning Point for the Software Industry?
    3. 3. 4.1 The Components of System Software <ul><li>Operating system - the principal component of system software </li></ul><ul><li>Device drivers - help the computer control peripheral devices </li></ul><ul><li>Utility programs - support, enhance, or expand existing programs </li></ul>
    4. 4. 4.2 The Operating System: What It Does <ul><li>Booting - the process of loading an operating system into a computer’s main memory </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Operating System: What It Does <ul><li>User interface - user-controllable display screen that allows you to communicate, or interact, with your computer </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Operating System: What It Does C PU Management <ul><li>Supervisor (kernel) - program which remains in main memory while the computer is running, and directs other “nonresident” programs to perform tasks that support application programs </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Operating System: What It Does File Management <ul><li>Move </li></ul><ul><li>Rename </li></ul><ul><li>Delete </li></ul><ul><li>Copy </li></ul><ul><li>Back up </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Operating System: What It Does Task Management Processing of two or more programs Simultaneously Two or more One or more Multi-processing Round robin One Multiple Time sharing Concurrently One Multiple Multi-programming Concurrently One One Multi-tasking Order of Processing Number of Processors Number of Users
    9. 9. The Operating System: What It Does <ul><li>Formatting (initializing) a disk - the process of preparing that disk so that it can store data or programs </li></ul><ul><li>Security management </li></ul>
    10. 10. 4.3 Other System Software: Device Drivers & Utility Programs <ul><li>Device drivers - specialized software programs that allow input and output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system </li></ul>
    11. 11. Utilities: Service Programs <ul><li>Backup utility - program which makes a duplicate copy of the information on your hard disk </li></ul><ul><li>Data-recovery utility - program which restores data that has been physically damaged or corrupted </li></ul>
    12. 12. Utilities: Service Programs <ul><li>Antivirus software - program that scans hard disks, floppy disks, and memory to detect viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Data compression utility - program which removes redundant elements, gaps, and unnecessary data from a computer’s storage space so that less space (fewer bits) is required to store or transmit data </li></ul>
    13. 13. Utilities: Service Programs <ul><li>Fragmentation - the scattering of portions of files about the disk in nonadjacent areas, thus greatly slowing access to the files </li></ul><ul><li>Defragmenter utility - program that finds all the scattered files on your hard disk and reorganizes them as contiguous files </li></ul>
    14. 14. Utilities: Service Programs <ul><li>Disk scanner and disk cleanup utilities: </li></ul><ul><li>Detect & remove unnecessary files </li></ul><ul><li>Detect & correct disk problems </li></ul>
    15. 15. 4.4 Common Operating Systems Desktop & Laptop Operating Systems <ul><li>Platform - the particular processor model and operating system on which a computer system is based </li></ul><ul><li>Disk Operating System (DOS) - the original operating system produced by Microsoft, which had a hard-to-use command-driven user interface </li></ul>
    16. 16. Desktop & Laptop Operating Systems <ul><li>Mac OS - operating system which runs only on Apple Macintosh computers </li></ul>Mac OS X
    17. 17. Desktop & Laptop Operating Systems <ul><li>Microsoft Windows 3.X - released in 1992; simply a layer over DOS </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows 95/98 - successors to 3.X </li></ul><ul><li>Plug and Play - the ability of a computer to automatically configure a new hardware component that is added to it </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows Me (WinMe) - Millennium Edition </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows XP </li></ul>
    18. 18. Network Operating Systems <ul><li>Novell’s Netware - a long popular network operating system for coordinating microcomputer-based local area networks (LANs) throughout a company or campus </li></ul>
    19. 19. Network Operating Systems <ul><li>Windows NT - Microsoft’s multitasking OS designed to run on network servers; it allows multiple users to share resources such as data and programs </li></ul><ul><li>Windows XP - successor to Windows NT </li></ul>
    20. 20. Network Operating Systems <ul><li>Windows XP - Microsoft’s newest OS, which combines elements of Windows 2000 and Windows Me </li></ul>New GUI featured in Windows XP
    21. 21. Network Operating Systems <ul><li>UNIX - a multitasking operating system for multiple users with built-in networking capability and versions that can run on all kinds of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Microsystems’ Solaris </li></ul><ul><li>Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Network Operating Systems <ul><li>Linux - a free version of UNIX, with continual improvements resulting from the efforts of tens of thousands of volunteer programmers </li></ul>
    23. 23. Network Operating Systems <ul><li>Open-source software - software which any programmer can download from the Internet for free and modify with suggested improvements </li></ul>Linus Torvalds, creator of Linux
    24. 24. Operating Systems for Handhelds <ul><li>Palm OS - the dominant OS for handhelds, which runs the Palm and Handspring Visor, and is licensed to other companies </li></ul><ul><li>Windows CE (now Pocket PC) - slimmed-down version of Windows for handhelds </li></ul>
    25. 25. 4.5 The OS of the Future: “The Network is the Computer” <ul><li>.Net - Microsoft’s platform for an OS for the entire Internet, designed to link unrelated websites so that people can organize all info in their lives using PCs and smaller devices </li></ul>
    26. 26. The OS of the Future <ul><li>E-speak - H-P’s version of an Internet OS, or “universal language,” that allows different websites to communicate with one another </li></ul>
    27. 27. The OS of the Future <ul><li>Jini - Sun Microsystems’ software designed to let all types of electronic gadgets on a wired or wireless network communicate with one another </li></ul>
    28. 28. The Opposite Possibility: No One Company Dominates <ul><li>Distributed System - a non-centralized network consisting of several computers and other devices that can communicate with one another </li></ul>
    29. 29. 4.6 Online Software & Application Software Providers : Turning Point for the Software Industry? <ul><li>ASP (Application Service Provider) - a firm that leases software over the Internet to customers </li></ul>
    30. 30. Network Computers Revisited: “Thin Clients ” versus “Fat Clients” <ul><li>Thin client - users download not only data but also different kinds of application software from an online source </li></ul>
    31. 31. Network Computers Revisited: “Thin Clients” versus “Fat Clients” <ul><li>Data can be input or downloaded from online sources. </li></ul>Fat client - users provide their own software and are usually responsible for any upgrades of hardware and software
    32. 32. From ERP to ASP: The Evolution of “Rentalware” <ul><li>ERP (Enterprise resource planning) software - large client/server software applications that help companies organize and operate their businesses </li></ul>
    33. 33. Summary <ul><li>Three components of system software: Operating system, device drivers and utility program </li></ul><ul><li>The principal functions of the operating system: user interface, CPU management, file management, task management, security management </li></ul><ul><li>Common Operating system, Windows XP, 2000, 98, Linux, Unix, Palm OS, Windows CE </li></ul>
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