laudon06.ppt

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laudon06.ppt

  1. 1. 6. INFORMATION SYSTEMS SOFTWARE
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>DESCRIBE MAJOR TYPES OF SOFTWARE </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMINE SYSTEM SOFTWARE & OPERATING SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLAIN SOFTWARE EVOLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYZE MAJOR APPLICATION LANGUAGES </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBE APPROACHES TO SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  3. 3. Software <ul><li>DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTROL COMPUTER OPERATION </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM: Set of instructions (i.e., html) for computer to run </li></ul><ul><li>System Software: Manages computer resources, e.g., Win98. </li></ul><ul><li>Application Software: MS Office, QVT-term, WS-FTP, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Programs: add-on, supplementary programs; e.g., Mapedit. </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  4. 4. SOFTWARE HARDWARE SYSTEM SOFTWARE APPLICATION SOFTWARE OPERATING SYSTEM: SCHEDULED COMPUTER EVENTS ALLOCATES COMPUTER RESOURCES MONITORS EVENTS LANGUAGE TRANSLATORS: INTERPRETERS COMPILERS UTILITY PROGRAMS: ROUTINE OPERATIONS MANAGE DATA PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES: ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE; FORTRAN; COBOL; PL / 1; QBASIC; PASCAL; C; C++; “FOURTH GENERATION” LANGUAGES
  5. 5. Operating System <ul><li>MANAGES & CONTROLS ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation & Assignment of memory and other resources </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling (which program gets to use CPU time, and how) </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring for resource usage conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  6. 6. Multiprogramming PROGRAM 1 TRADITIONAL SINGLE-PROGRAM SYSTEM OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY PROGRAM 1 PROGRAM 2 PROGRAM 3 MULTIPROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT
  7. 7. Multitasking <ul><li>More than one program running on a single-user system such as PC. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: different from multi-processing . </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.7
  8. 8. Virtual Storage/Memory <ul><li>To allow one or many larger programs to run on the computer using relatively small amount of RAM (work area) </li></ul><ul><li>Current portions reside in primary storage </li></ul><ul><li>Portions swapped out to HD when done </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  9. 9. Time Sharing <ul><li>MANY USERS SHARE LARGE CPU: </li></ul><ul><li>TIME IN CPU DIVIDED INTO SLICES (e.g.: 2 MILLISECONDS) </li></ul><ul><li>EACH USER HAS ACCESS TO CPU DURING SLICE </li></ul><ul><li>SINCE CPU IS FAST, CAN DO MUCH DURING TIME SLICE, like a master chess player </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  10. 10. Multiprocessing <ul><li>Two or more parallel processors in system </li></ul><ul><li>Program can be divided to be processed by multiple CPUs </li></ul><ul><li>Can process large programs more rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cosmic Cube” and Inktomi search engine </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.10
  11. 11. Language Translation <ul><li>SOURCE CODE: your program </li></ul><ul><li>COMPILER: convert your program into machine language </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECT CODE (aka binary code or bi-code): ready to run program, executables. </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  12. 12. Interpreter vs. Compiler <ul><li>Interpreter translate one line at a time for execution. For example, Basic and Javascript </li></ul><ul><li>Compilers translate the whole program before execution </li></ul>
  13. 13. Graphical User Interface (GUI) <ul><li>Uses Recognition Memory rather than Recall Memory (used in command-driven interface) </li></ul><ul><li>More user friendly </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.13
  14. 14. MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURES DOS Windows 95, 98, Me Windows NT, 2K (NT5) Windows CE For IBM (PC-DOS) and PC (MS-DOS). Program Memory: 640K 32-bit operating system; GUI; Multitasking. Networking 32-bit operating system not limited to Intel chips. Multitasking; Multiprocessing; Networking 32-bit. Developed for IBM PS/2. Multitasking; Networking Paired-down for handheld computers, wireless communication devices OS/2
  15. 15. MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURES UNIX For powerful Microcomputers, Workstations, Minicomputers. Multitasking; Multi-user Processing; Networking. Portable to various Computer Platforms Mac OS For Macintosh computers. Multitasking. Powerful Graphics; Multimedia 6.15 Linux UNIX on PC
  16. 16. Generations Of Programming Languages <ul><li>1st. Since 1940s. MACHINE LANGUAGE: binary code </li></ul><ul><li>2nd. Since early ’50s. ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE: mnemonics for numeric code </li></ul><ul><li>3rd. Since mid ‘50s. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES </li></ul><ul><li>4th. Since late ‘70s. MODERN APPLICATION PACKAGES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.16
  17. 17. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES <ul><li>FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator). Scientific, Engineering applications </li></ul><ul><li>COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language). Predominant for Transaction Processing </li></ul><ul><li>BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). General Purpose PC Language </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.17
  18. 18. High-level Languages <ul><li>PASCAL. Used to Teach Structured Programming Practices. Weak in File Handling, Input / Output </li></ul><ul><li>C and C++. Powerful PC Language for Developing Applications. Efficient Execution; Cross Platform </li></ul><ul><li>PL/1 (Programming Language 1). Powerful IBM Language for Business & Science </li></ul><ul><li>ADA. Designed for Weapon Systems. Can be used on many Platforms. Structured. Can be used for Business </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.18
  19. 19. Fourth Generation Languages (4GL) <ul><li>Address the “expertise” requirement of “right” tool. Relatively easy to use </li></ul><ul><li>Nonprocedural </li></ul><ul><li>Can develop applications more quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Use “Natural Languages” * </li></ul>6.20
  20. 20. Fourth Generation Languages (4GL) <ul><li>1. Query Languages (e.g., SQL) </li></ul><ul><li>rapidly retrieve data </li></ul><ul><li>interactive/ on-line </li></ul><ul><li>may use NATURAL LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>support special requests for data from relational databases </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.21
  21. 21. Fourth Generation Languages (4GL) <ul><li>2. Report Generators </li></ul><ul><li>3. Graphics Languages </li></ul><ul><li>4. Application Generators (e.g., InterDev) * </li></ul>6.22
  22. 22. Fourth Generation Languages (4GL) <ul><li>SQL will be used in Project 3, and IFPS will be used in Projects 5 and 6 to demonstrate the capability and limitations of 4GL </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.23
  23. 23. SOFTWARE TOOLS <ul><li>WORD PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>SPREADSHEETS </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTATION GRAPHICS </li></ul><ul><li>INTEGRATED SOFTWARE SUITES </li></ul><ul><li>E-MAIL </li></ul><ul><li>WEB BROWSERS </li></ul><ul><li>GROUPWARE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>6.26
  24. 24. Object-Oriented Programming <ul><li>JAVA: Sun Microsystem’s Object-Oriented programming language </li></ul><ul><li>Applet: small programs for specific functions (e.g., “hit” counters) </li></ul><ul><li>Applets downloaded from network </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cross-platform” </li></ul><ul><li>Only the network software needs upgrade </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>

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