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  • 1. 6. INFORMATION SYSTEMS SOFTWARE
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    • DESCRIBE MAJOR TYPES OF SOFTWARE
    • EXAMINE SYSTEM SOFTWARE & OPERATING SYSTEMS
    • EXPLAIN SOFTWARE EVOLUTION
    • ANALYZE MAJOR APPLICATION LANGUAGES
    • DESCRIBE APPROACHES TO SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
    • *
  • 3. Software
    • DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTROL COMPUTER OPERATION
    • PROGRAM: Set of instructions (i.e., html) for computer to run
    • System Software: Manages computer resources, e.g., Win98.
    • Application Software: MS Office, QVT-term, WS-FTP, etc.
    • Utility Programs: add-on, supplementary programs; e.g., Mapedit.
    • *
  • 4. SOFTWARE HARDWARE SYSTEM SOFTWARE APPLICATION SOFTWARE OPERATING SYSTEM: SCHEDULED COMPUTER EVENTS ALLOCATES COMPUTER RESOURCES MONITORS EVENTS LANGUAGE TRANSLATORS: INTERPRETERS COMPILERS UTILITY PROGRAMS: ROUTINE OPERATIONS MANAGE DATA PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES: ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE; FORTRAN; COBOL; PL / 1; QBASIC; PASCAL; C; C++; “FOURTH GENERATION” LANGUAGES
  • 5. Operating System
    • MANAGES & CONTROLS ACTIVITIES
    • Allocation & Assignment of memory and other resources
    • Scheduling (which program gets to use CPU time, and how)
    • Monitoring for resource usage conflicts
    • *
  • 6. Multiprogramming PROGRAM 1 TRADITIONAL SINGLE-PROGRAM SYSTEM OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY PROGRAM 1 PROGRAM 2 PROGRAM 3 MULTIPROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT
  • 7. Multitasking
    • More than one program running on a single-user system such as PC.
    • Note: different from multi-processing .
    • *
    6.7
  • 8. Virtual Storage/Memory
    • To allow one or many larger programs to run on the computer using relatively small amount of RAM (work area)
    • Current portions reside in primary storage
    • Portions swapped out to HD when done
    • *
  • 9. Time Sharing
    • MANY USERS SHARE LARGE CPU:
    • TIME IN CPU DIVIDED INTO SLICES (e.g.: 2 MILLISECONDS)
    • EACH USER HAS ACCESS TO CPU DURING SLICE
    • SINCE CPU IS FAST, CAN DO MUCH DURING TIME SLICE, like a master chess player
    • *
  • 10. Multiprocessing
    • Two or more parallel processors in system
    • Program can be divided to be processed by multiple CPUs
    • Can process large programs more rapidly
    • “ Cosmic Cube” and Inktomi search engine
    • *
    6.10
  • 11. Language Translation
    • SOURCE CODE: your program
    • COMPILER: convert your program into machine language
    • OBJECT CODE (aka binary code or bi-code): ready to run program, executables.
    • *
  • 12. Interpreter vs. Compiler
    • Interpreter translate one line at a time for execution. For example, Basic and Javascript
    • Compilers translate the whole program before execution
  • 13. Graphical User Interface (GUI)
    • Uses Recognition Memory rather than Recall Memory (used in command-driven interface)
    • More user friendly
    • *
    6.13
  • 14. MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURES DOS Windows 95, 98, Me Windows NT, 2K (NT5) Windows CE For IBM (PC-DOS) and PC (MS-DOS). Program Memory: 640K 32-bit operating system; GUI; Multitasking. Networking 32-bit operating system not limited to Intel chips. Multitasking; Multiprocessing; Networking 32-bit. Developed for IBM PS/2. Multitasking; Networking Paired-down for handheld computers, wireless communication devices OS/2
  • 15. MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURES UNIX For powerful Microcomputers, Workstations, Minicomputers. Multitasking; Multi-user Processing; Networking. Portable to various Computer Platforms Mac OS For Macintosh computers. Multitasking. Powerful Graphics; Multimedia 6.15 Linux UNIX on PC
  • 16. Generations Of Programming Languages
    • 1st. Since 1940s. MACHINE LANGUAGE: binary code
    • 2nd. Since early ’50s. ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE: mnemonics for numeric code
    • 3rd. Since mid ‘50s. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES
    • 4th. Since late ‘70s. MODERN APPLICATION PACKAGES
    • *
    6.16
  • 17. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES
    • FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator). Scientific, Engineering applications
    • COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language). Predominant for Transaction Processing
    • BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). General Purpose PC Language
    • *
    6.17
  • 18. High-level Languages
    • PASCAL. Used to Teach Structured Programming Practices. Weak in File Handling, Input / Output
    • C and C++. Powerful PC Language for Developing Applications. Efficient Execution; Cross Platform
    • PL/1 (Programming Language 1). Powerful IBM Language for Business & Science
    • ADA. Designed for Weapon Systems. Can be used on many Platforms. Structured. Can be used for Business
    • *
    6.18
  • 19. Fourth Generation Languages (4GL)
    • Address the “expertise” requirement of “right” tool. Relatively easy to use
    • Nonprocedural
    • Can develop applications more quickly
    • Use “Natural Languages” *
    6.20
  • 20. Fourth Generation Languages (4GL)
    • 1. Query Languages (e.g., SQL)
    • rapidly retrieve data
    • interactive/ on-line
    • may use NATURAL LANGUAGE
    • support special requests for data from relational databases
    • *
    6.21
  • 21. Fourth Generation Languages (4GL)
    • 2. Report Generators
    • 3. Graphics Languages
    • 4. Application Generators (e.g., InterDev) *
    6.22
  • 22. Fourth Generation Languages (4GL)
    • SQL will be used in Project 3, and IFPS will be used in Projects 5 and 6 to demonstrate the capability and limitations of 4GL
    • *
    6.23
  • 23. SOFTWARE TOOLS
    • WORD PROCESSING
    • SPREADSHEETS
    • DATA MANAGEMENT
    • PRESENTATION GRAPHICS
    • INTEGRATED SOFTWARE SUITES
    • E-MAIL
    • WEB BROWSERS
    • GROUPWARE
    • *
    6.26
  • 24. Object-Oriented Programming
    • JAVA: Sun Microsystem’s Object-Oriented programming language
    • Applet: small programs for specific functions (e.g., “hit” counters)
    • Applets downloaded from network
    • “ Cross-platform”
    • Only the network software needs upgrade
    • *