History and Principles of Graphic Design A Reflection Blair Wilson September 2002
Overview <ul><li>Principles </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of design – points I found interesting </li></...
Principles <ul><li>Colour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm vs Cool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illusion of distance </li></ul></u...
History <ul><li>Relatively new profession (~1950s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to this there were Commercial Artists </li>...
Chauvet, France c.35000 B.C – c.30000 B.C. Crude drawing, limited colour Lascaux, France c.17000 B.C More realistic drawin...
History <ul><li>New as a profession (~1950s) </li></ul><ul><li>Design itself has been maturing since the caveman c.35000 B...
Sumerian pictographic clay tablet, c.3000 B.C. Sharp-pointed stylus, pressed into the clay. Sumerian cuneiform clay tablet...
Sumerian cylinder seal. Early form of logo or trademark. Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
History <ul><li>New as a profession (~1950s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to this there were Commercial Artists </li></ul><...
The Papyrus of Ani, c.1420 B.C. Notice the surrounding border and the framing of the illustrations and related text. Blair...
History <ul><li>New as a profession (~1950s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to this there were Commercial Artists </li></ul><...
Book of Durrow c.680 A.D. Example of Illuminated manuscript. Elaborate letters, gold highlighting Blair Wilson History and...
Douce Apocalypse, c.1265 A.D. Still hand written and illustrated, but careful, measured layout of text and illustrations B...
History <ul><li>New as a profession (~1950s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to this there were Commercial Artists </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Gutenberg Bible c.1450 – 1455 </li></ul><ul><li>Also referred to as the ’forty-two-line Bible’: </li></ul><ul><ul>...
History <ul><li>In computing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1950s first GUI computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1970s Alto  by Xer...
Computer Applications <ul><li>Design of GUIs (Graphical User Interfaces) </li></ul><ul><li>Forms </li></ul><ul><li>Web pag...
Summary <ul><li>Graphical design has been evolving for thousands of years. </li></ul><ul><li>The Graphic Design profession...
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History and Principles of Graphic Design

  1. 1. History and Principles of Graphic Design A Reflection Blair Wilson September 2002
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Principles </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of design – points I found interesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in computing – a short summary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications in Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  3. 3. Principles <ul><li>Colour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm vs Cool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illusion of distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-point, 2-point and 3-point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typography </li></ul>Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  4. 4. History <ul><li>Relatively new profession (~1950s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to this there were Commercial Artists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design itself has been maturing since cavemen first began drawing on their cave walls c.35000 B.C. </li></ul>Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  5. 5. Chauvet, France c.35000 B.C – c.30000 B.C. Crude drawing, limited colour Lascaux, France c.17000 B.C More realistic drawing, vivid colour Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  6. 6. History <ul><li>New as a profession (~1950s) </li></ul><ul><li>Design itself has been maturing since the caveman c.35000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerian pictographs c.3100 B.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>considered to be the origins of writing. Originally mostly pictorial images, evolved into cuneiform when the writing implements changed </li></ul></ul>Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  7. 7. Sumerian pictographic clay tablet, c.3000 B.C. Sharp-pointed stylus, pressed into the clay. Sumerian cuneiform clay tablet, 2036 B.C. Triangular-tipped stylus, wedge-shaped strokes. Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  8. 8. Sumerian cylinder seal. Early form of logo or trademark. Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  9. 9. History <ul><li>New as a profession (~1950s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to this there were Commercial Artists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design itself has been maturing since the caveman c.35000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerian pictographs c.3100 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian Hieroglyphs c.3100 B.C. – 394 A.D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>retained their pictographic style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>read in whichever direction living creatures were facing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interesting use of balance and decoration in designs </li></ul></ul>Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  10. 10. The Papyrus of Ani, c.1420 B.C. Notice the surrounding border and the framing of the illustrations and related text. Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  11. 11. History <ul><li>New as a profession (~1950s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to this there were Commercial Artists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design itself has been maturing since the caveman ~35000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerian pictographs ~3100 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian Hieroglyphs ~3100 B.C. – 394 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Illuminated Manuscripts, Europe ~355 A.D. – ~1450 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Celtic Manuscripts ~680 A.D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the invention of the ‘space’ between words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Romanesque and Gothic Manuscripts ~1200 A.D. – ~1450 A.D. </li></ul>Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  12. 12. Book of Durrow c.680 A.D. Example of Illuminated manuscript. Elaborate letters, gold highlighting Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  13. 13. Douce Apocalypse, c.1265 A.D. Still hand written and illustrated, but careful, measured layout of text and illustrations Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  14. 14. History <ul><li>New as a profession (~1950s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to this there were Commercial Artists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design itself has been maturing since the caveman ~35000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerian pictographs ~3100 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian Hieroglyphs ~3100 B.C. – 394 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Illuminated Manuscripts ~355 A.D. – ~1450 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Celtic Manuscripts ~680 A.D. – the invention of the ‘space’ between words </li></ul><ul><li>Romanesque and Gothic Manuscripts ~1200 – ~1450 </li></ul><ul><li>Gutenberg Printing Press ~1450 A.D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gutenberg Bible 1450-1455 </li></ul></ul>Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  15. 15. <ul><li>Gutenberg Bible c.1450 – 1455 </li></ul><ul><li>Also referred to as the ’forty-two-line Bible’: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first nine pages – 40 lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tenth page – 41 lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>remainder – 42 lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>210 copies – 180 paper, 30 vellum </li></ul><ul><li>When Fust (Gutenberg’s partner) took the Bibles to France to sell, he was suspected of witchcraft because of the number and uniformity of the volumes and had to reveal the method of production. </li></ul>Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  16. 16. History <ul><li>In computing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1950s first GUI computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1970s Alto by Xerox Paulo Alto Research Centre, not developed further </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1983 Lisa , by Apple. First personal computer with a GUI. Replaced by the Macintosh in 1984 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1985 Windows 1.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1987 Windows 2.0 – a ‘proper’ GUI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1990s increased interest within the computer community in better graphical design of documents </li></ul></ul>Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  17. 17. Computer Applications <ul><li>Design of GUIs (Graphical User Interfaces) </li></ul><ul><li>Forms </li></ul><ul><li>Web pages </li></ul><ul><li>Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Powerpoint  </li></ul>Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
  18. 18. Summary <ul><li>Graphical design has been evolving for thousands of years. </li></ul><ul><li>The Graphic Design profession is young. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer documents and applications use graphical design principles heavily. </li></ul>Blair Wilson History and Principles of Graphic Design COSC414 2002
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