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  • This slide show the four regions we used to score the tail damage.
  • This slide shows that tadpoles of both species had a significant amount of tail damage.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Color Pattern and Behavior: How Tadpoles Escape Predation Dr. Janalee Caldwell-Research Scientist Rhonda Clements-Noble Lisa Henderson-Little Axe Cathy Kill-Little Axe Adrian Pearson-Norman Wallisa Stearman-Putnam City Infusing Inquiry into Elementary School Science Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History
    • 2. Key Questions
      • What are major predators of tadpoles?
      • Does tail color pattern aid in escaping predation?
      • What behaviors do tadpoles exhibit in escaping predation?
    • 3. Predators of Tadpoles
      • Dragonfly Larvae
      • Belostomatid (Toe Biter)
      • Other Insect Larvae
      • Birds
      • Fish
    • 4. Dragonfly Larvae and Belostomatid
    • 5. Tail Damage Data Collection
      • Do tadpoles have significant damage on the tails?
        • Examined preserved tadpoles
        • Scored tail damage
        • Measured body and total length
    • 6. Gathering Tail Damage Evidence
    • 7. We studied two types of tadpoles to gather our data
      • Gray Treefrog
      • Narrowmouth Toad
    • 8. Sample Characteristics (mm)
      • Gray Treefrog Tadpoles
        • Mean ± SD = 30.5 ± 6.4
        • Range = 12.1 – 36.4
        • N = 24
      • Narrowmouth Toad Tadpoles
        • Mean ± SD = 29.2 ± 6.1
        • Range = 11.2 – 36.1
        • N = 26
    • 9. Characteristics of the Gray Treefrog Tadpole
      • Mottled Tail
      • Mean Size = 30.4 mm
      • Found in Ponds
      • Occurs in the water column
    • 10. Characteristics of the Narrowmouth Toad
      • Concentration of Pigment in Tip of Tail
      • Mean Size = 29.2 mm
      • Found in Ponds
      • Bottom Dwellers
    • 11. Hypothesis
      • Tadpoles with the pigmented tip would have more damage on the tail tip than the species with out pigment concentrated at the tip
      • To test this hypothesis, we examined tail damage in various regions of the tails of two species of tadpoles
    • 12. Tip Distal Mid Proximal
    • 13.  
    • 14. Narrowmouth Toad tail damage (left) Gray Treefrog tail damage (right)
    • 15.  
    • 16. Use of Behavior to Escape Predation
      • We hypothesized that tadpoles might use a refuge more often in the presence of predators than in the absence of predators
      • We collected two species of tadpoles and introduced them to wading pools with an available refuge, both with and without predators
    • 17. Research Process
    • 18.  
    • 19.  
    • 20. American Toad Tadpoles in Pond Setting
    • 21.  
    • 22.
      • Problems with American Toad Experiment:
        • Many tadpoles in experiment died both with and without predators
        • Possible explanations include:
          • Depth
          • Temperature
    • 23. Conclusions
      • Tadpoles occur in habitats with many types of predators
      • Tail color pattern may help tadpoles escape predation
      • Use of temporary ponds
      • Gray Treefrogs select habitat based on predator location
    • 24. Special Thanks To:
      • Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History
      • Dr. Wendy Gram
      • Bob Melton
      • Jeff Patterson
      • Dr. Edmund Marek
      • Dr. Jon Pederson
      • Dr. Janalee Caldwell
      • Dr. Ingo Schlupp, OU Aquatic Facility
      • National Science Foundation
    • 25. The End