Essential concepts


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Essential concepts

  1. 1. <ul><li>Essential Computer Concepts </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  2. 2. Course Objectives At the end of the course, you will understand: <ul><li>The components of a computer system </li></ul><ul><li>The different types of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Personal computer hardware and its functions </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral devices </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware and software used to establish a network connection </li></ul><ul><li>Internet, e-mail, and World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>System software </li></ul><ul><li>Popular application software </li></ul><ul><li>Data sharing among different application software </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  3. 3. What is a Computer? <ul><li>A computer is a device that : </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts input </li></ul><ul><li>Processes data </li></ul><ul><li>Stores data </li></ul><ul><li>Produces output </li></ul><ul><li>A computer executes machine instructions. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  4. 4. How a Computer Works <ul><li>The data you type into the computer is called input. </li></ul><ul><li>The result of the computer processing your input is called output. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  5. 5. What is a Computer? <ul><li>A Computer System is made up of: </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware—the physical components ( physical body of a human being) </li></ul><ul><li>Software—the programs or lists of instructions ( mind, thought of a human being, issuing instructions to control the hardware to work properly ) </li></ul><ul><li>Peripherals (optional, not the core)—the additional components </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  6. 6. How a Computer Works <ul><li>The hardware, software, and you work together to complete tasks. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  7. 7. What is a Computer? <ul><li>Architecture or configuration is the design of the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>As in, what does the computer consist of? </li></ul><ul><li>Specification is the technical detail about each component. </li></ul><ul><li>As in, how big is the monitor? </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  8. 8. Types of Computers <ul><li>The categories of computers are: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal or microcomputers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notebook, Laptop, Table PC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hand-help or PDAs </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframes </li></ul><ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  9. 9. Types of Computers <ul><li>Personal computers are used for general computing tasks and fit the needs of most users </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  10. 10. Types of Computers <ul><li>Hand-held computers fit in the palm of your hand and run on batteries. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  11. 11. Types of Computers <ul><li>Mainframes are used by companies to provide centralized storage, processing, and management for large amounts of data. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  12. 12. Types of Computers <ul><li>Supercomputers are the largest and fastest of computers, and can process an enormous volume of data. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  13. 13. Computer Hardware <ul><li>Computer hardware includes: </li></ul><ul><li>CPU (processor, microprocessor) </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Storage devices and media </li></ul><ul><li>Input devices </li></ul><ul><li>Output devices </li></ul><ul><li>Communication devices </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  14. 14. Processing Hardware <ul><li>The two most important components of personal computers hardware are CPU ( the microprocessor) and memory . (Together they can be compared to the brain of a human being.) </li></ul><ul><li>These two factors directly affect the computer’s price and performance. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  15. 15. The Microprocessor <ul><li>The microprocessor is a silicon chip designed to manipulate data. </li></ul><ul><li>Its speed is determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clock speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache size </li></ul></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  16. 16. Computer Hardware <ul><li>The most important computer function is data processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the processing hardware responsible for executing instructions to process data . </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  17. 17. Memory <ul><li>Computer memory is a set of storage locations on the motherboard. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four types of memory: </li></ul><ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual memory </li></ul><ul><li>Read-only memory </li></ul><ul><li>Complementary metal oxide semiconductor memory (CMOS) </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  18. 18. Memory <ul><li>RAM is temporary memory that is constantly changing while the computer is on. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual memory is extra memory that simulates RAM if more is needed. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  19. 19. Memory <ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) is the permanent storage location for a set of instructions the computer uses. </li></ul><ul><li>CMOS memory is semi-permanent information about where essential software is stored. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  20. 20. Processing Hardware <ul><li>Computers interpret every signal as “on” or “off.” </li></ul><ul><li>1 (“on”) and 0 (“off”) are referred to as bits . </li></ul><ul><li>Eight bits is a byte . Each byte represents a unique character. For example ‘A’ usually consumes 1 byte. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  21. 21. Data Representation <ul><li>Storage and memory capacity is the amount of data the storage device can handle. </li></ul><ul><li>Kilobyte (KB) is about one thousand bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Megabyte (MB) is about one million bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Gigabyte (GB) is about one billion bytes </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  22. 22. Storage Devices <ul><li>A storage device receives data from RAM and writes it on a storage medium. Later, it can be read and sent back to RAM. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  23. 23. Storage Devices <ul><li>Data is stored as files. </li></ul><ul><li>Executable files tell computers how to perform specific tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Data files are created by the user, usually with software. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  24. 24. Storage Devices <ul><li>Files are kept on storage devices. </li></ul><ul><li>There are: </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic storage devices and </li></ul><ul><li>Optical storage devices. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  25. 25. Storage Devices <ul><li>Some common magnetic storage devices are: </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy disks </li></ul><ul><li>Hard disk drives </li></ul><ul><li>Tape drives </li></ul><ul><li>Zip drives </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts A floppy disk
  26. 26. Storage Devices <ul><li>Some common optical storage devices are: </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM drives </li></ul><ul><li>DVD drives </li></ul><ul><li>CD-R drives </li></ul><ul><li>CD-RW drives </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  27. 27. Storage Devices <ul><li>CD-ROMs are for “read-only” access. </li></ul><ul><li>CD-R drives allow you to record data on a CD-R disk. </li></ul><ul><li>CD-RW drives allow you to write data on a CD-RW disk and access and modify data. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  28. 28. Computer Hardware <ul><li>Some input devices are: </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless pointer </li></ul><ul><li>Touch pad </li></ul><ul><li>Track point </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts Cordless mouse
  29. 29. Computer Hardware <ul><li>Output devices are: </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors and Printers are common output devices. </li></ul><ul><li>CRT monitors and LCD (or flat panel display) monitors are two types of monitors. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  30. 30. Computer Hardware <ul><li>Factors that influence a monitor’s quality are: </li></ul><ul><li>Screen Size </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Dot Pitch </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  31. 31. Types of Printers include: <ul><li>Laser </li></ul><ul><li>Ink-jet </li></ul><ul><li>Dot Matrix </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  32. 32. Other media devices <ul><li>Media devices are generally related to storage, input and output functionalities. </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia devices are peripheral devices that include text, graphics, sound, animation, and video. </li></ul><ul><li>Speakers and sound cards are common multimedia output devices </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  33. 33. Data Communications <ul><li>Data Communications is the transmission of text, numeric, voice, or video data from one computer to another. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  34. 34. Data Bus <ul><li>The data bus is the communication between microprocessor, RAM, and the peripherals. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  35. 35. Data Bus <ul><li>Computer expansion ports </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  36. 36. Data Bus <ul><li>USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports replace numerous connectors with one plug and port combination. The device you install must have a USB connector . </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  37. 37. Networks <ul><li>A network connects one computer to other computers and peripherals. </li></ul><ul><li>In a local area network (LAN), computers and peripherals are close to each other. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  38. 38. Networks <ul><li>A client/server network is a network with a file server. A file server acts as the central storage location. </li></ul><ul><li>A network without a file server is a peer-to-peer network . All of the computers are equal. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  39. 39. Networks Essential Computer Concepts
  40. 40. Networks <ul><li>Each computer that is part of the network must have a network interface card and network software. </li></ul><ul><li>Then it becomes a workstation . </li></ul><ul><li>Any device connected to the network is called a node. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  41. 41. Telecommunications <ul><li>Telecommunications is communicating over a telephone. In the telecommunications process , the modem converts digital signals to analog signals at the sending site and a second modem converts them back at the receiving site. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if you dialup to the Internet from your home, it is a kind of telecommuncation. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  42. 42. Telecommunications Essential Computer Concepts
  43. 43. The Internet <ul><li>The Internet is the world’s largest network. </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail and the World Wide Web are two benefits of the Internet. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  44. 44. The Internet <ul><li>A hyperlink is a place on a Web page allowing you to connect to a particular file. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  45. 45. The Internet <ul><li>A Web browser is </li></ul><ul><li>the communications software that allows you to navigate the WWW. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  46. 46. Computer Software <ul><li>Software is the instructions and data that direct the computer to accomplish the task. It can refer to a single program or a package. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  47. 47. Software <ul><ul><li>Software bridges the human beings’ world and machines’ world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software </li></ul></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  48. 48. System Software <ul><li>System software helps the computer carry out it s basic operating tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Application software helps the user carry out a variety of tasks. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  49. 49. System Software <ul><li>The operating system controls the I/O or input/output , the flow of data from microprocessor to memory to peripherals. </li></ul><ul><li>The operating system makes multitasking possible. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  50. 50. <ul><li>If you have a computer, then you must have heard of operating systems, since you are actually interacting with them everyday. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  51. 51. <ul><li>Any desktop or laptop PC that you buy normally comes pre-loaded Windows XP or its variants . </li></ul><ul><li>Macintosh computers come pre-loaded with its proprietary operating system – MAC OS X . </li></ul><ul><li>Many corporate mainframe servers use the Linux or UNIX operating systems. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  52. 52. <ul><li>The operating system (OS) is the first thing loaded into a computer’s main memory to be run by CPU and is the most important program that runs on a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;OS&quot; performs basic tasks such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides a stable, consistent way for applications to deal with the hardware without having to know all the details of the hardware. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  53. 53. Functionalities of Operating System Essential Computer Concepts
  54. 54. Application software <ul><li>Built upon system software, application oriented. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Office 2003 suite (What we will learn!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photoshop, photo processing software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winzip, a tool which can compress your file. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too many to list </li></ul></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  55. 55. Office 2003 Application Software <ul><li>Enables you to perform specific tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Office 2003 suite software includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document production software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database management software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics and presentation software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal web page development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An earlier version of Office 2003 is Office XP </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  56. 56. Application Software <ul><li>Document production software includes word processing, desktop publishing, and Web authoring software that assist you in writing and formatting documents. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  57. 57. Application Software <ul><li>It often has grammar and spell-checking, thesaurus, search and replace, and template features. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  58. 58. Application Software <ul><li>With spreadsheet software , you can create formulas that perform calculations. Spreadsheet software creates worksheets with columns and rows. The intersection of a column and row is a cell. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  59. 59. Application Software <ul><li>Database management software creates structured databases to contain information. </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics and presentation software allow you to create illustrations, diagrams, and charts to be presented or transmitted. Most allow you to include graphics. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  60. 60. Application Software <ul><li>Multimedia authoring software allows you to record digital sound files, video files, and animations that can be included in presentations and other documents. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts
  61. 61. Application Software Integration <ul><li>Object linking and embedding (OLE) is the ability to use data from another file, called the source. </li></ul><ul><li>This integration between applications has become an important skill in business. </li></ul>Essential Computer Concepts