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DOS with Windows 3.1 and 3.11 Operating Environments
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  • 1. DOS with Windows 3.1 and 3.11 Operating Environments
    • Designed to allow applications to have a graphical interface
      • DOS runs in the background as the true OS and uses Windows 3.x as the middle layer between the application and DOS
    • Has been replaced with Windows 9x
  • 2. DOS with Windows 3.x
  • 3. Windows 95 and 98
    • Do not completely eliminate DOS
    • Windows 95
      • Windows for Workgroups (Windows 3.11) plus DOS 7.0
      • Introduced Plug and Play capability
    • Windows 98
      • Supports larger hard drives and more hardware devices
      • Includes more software utilities
      • Faster than Windows 95
      • The last Microsoft OS with a DOS foundation
  • 4. Windows 9x
  • 5. UNIX
    • Originally written for mainframe computers in the early 1970s
    • Now a popular OS for networking
    • Linux
      • A variation of UNIX that is free to everyone
  • 6. UNIX
  • 7. Windows NT
    • Completely eliminates the underlying relationship with DOS
    • Supports preemptive multitasking and multiprocessing
    • Designed to work within a powerful networked environment (client/server)
  • 8. Windows NT
  • 9. Windows 2000
    • A suite of operating systems, each designed for a different sized computer system
      • Windows 2000 Professional
      • Windows 2000 Server
      • Windows 2000 Advanced Server
      • Windows 2000 Datacenter Server
    • Built on Windows NT architecture
    • Designed to ultimately replace both Windows 9x for low-end systems and Windows NT for midrange and high-end systems
  • 10. Windows 2000
  • 11. OS/2
    • Written by IBM in cooperation with Microsoft Corporation
    • Provides an altogether different OS in place of DOS
    • Slow to gain popularity due to:
      • Errors in earlier versions
      • Large computer hardware requirements
  • 12. OS/2
  • 13. Macintosh Operating System
    • Available only on Macintosh computers
    • Offers easy access to the Internet
    • Allows any Macintosh computer to become a Web server for a small network
  • 14. Macintosh Operating System
  • 15. How an Operating System Manages an Application
    • DOS naming conventions
      • Filename (up to 8 characters)
      • File extension (3 characters)
    • Memory addressing under DOS
  • 16. Operating System Modes
    • Real mode
      • Single-tasking operating mode whereby programs:
        • Only have 1024K of memory addresses
        • Have direct access to RAM
        • Use a 16-bit data path
    • Protected mode
      • Supports multitasking whereby:
        • The OS manages memory
        • Programs have more than 1024K of memory addresses
        • Programs can use a 32-bit data path
  • 17. Real Mode
  • 18. Protected Mode
  • 19. Applications Software
    • Designed to work on top of a particular OS
    • Comes written on floppy disks or CD-ROMs; usually must be installed on a hard drive in order to run
  • 20. Categories of Applications Software
    • Word processing
    • Spreadsheet
    • Database management
    • Graphics
    • Communications
    • Games
    • Mathematical modeling
    • Software development tools
  • 21. How Applications Software is Loaded and Initialized
    • OS receives command to execute application
    • OS locates program file for the application
    • OS loads program file into memory
    • OS gives control to the program
    • Program requests memory addresses from OS for its data
    • Program initializes itself; it may request that data from secondary storage be loaded into memory
    • Program turns to user for its first instruction
  • 22. How Applications Software is Loaded and Initialized
  • 23. How Applications Software is Loaded and Initialized
  • 24. Launching a Program File
  • 25. Rules DOS Uses to Search for Executable Program Files
    • If no path is given before the filename, DOS looks in the current directory
    • If no path is given and the file is not in current directory, DOS looks in paths given to it by the last PATH command executed
    • If there is a path given in front of filename in the command line, DOS looks in that path
    • If there is a path given but the file is not found in that path, DOS looks in paths given to it by the last PATH command executed
  • 26. Copying the Program into Memory
  • 27. Loading Application Software Using Windows 9x
    • Place shortcut icon directly on desktop
    • Click Start button; select Programs; select program from list of installed software
    • Use Run command, after clicking Start button on the taskbar
  • 28. Loading Application Software Using Windows 9x
  • 29. Loading Application Software Using Windows 9x
  • 30. Applications Software Summary
    • Applications software is executed by either the operating environment (Windows 3.x) or the OS software (DOS or Windows 9x)
    • When an application is executing, you are interacting with the application
    • Applications software interacts with OS software that is executing it
    • OS software interacts with hardware
    • OS software might interact with the hardware through BIOS or the device driver
  • 31. Chapter Summary
    • Individual components that make up a computer system: hardware and software
    • Hardware
      • Devices used for input, output, processing, and storage of data
      • Components that make up the electrical system
      • Components used for communicating data and instructions from one device to another
        • Importance of buses on the system board
  • 32. Chapter Summary
    • CPU
      • Central processing point for all data and instructions
      • Both data and instructions must be stored in memory with assigned memory addresses before processing can begin
  • 33. Chapter Summary
    • Software
      • Works in layers
        • Lowest layer (BIOS and device drivers) interfaces with hardware
        • Highest layer (applications software) interfaces with user
      • OS is the middleman layer that coordinates everything