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  • 1. The University of Sheffield Department of Psychology MSc in Psychological Research Course Handbook 2005-2006
  • 2. THE DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY Welcome to the Department of Psychology. We hope that you find your time in the Department both enjoyable and rewarding. This handbook is intended to tell you about the Department and the structure of your course. It gives you information regarding examinations and assessment. It is important that the Department can contact students easily. Please always inform Carina Fowkes and the Student Services Information Desk (SSiD) in the Union of any change of address. STAFF AND RESEARCH INTERESTS There are over 40 members of academic staff together with a number of support staff – a departmental administrator, 13 secretaries, 8 technical staff and a number of research fellows. The academic members of staff are organised into 7 research groups: • Cognition and Cognitive Neuroscience • Neuroscience and Psychobiology • Computational Neuroscience • Social and Health Psychology • Developmental Psychology • Clinical Psychology within the Clinical Psychology Unit (CPU) • Occupational and Organisational Psychology within the Institute of Work Psychology (IWP) Details of these groups’ work can be found on the Departmental Web Page (http://www.shef.ac.uk/psychology) ACADEMIC STAFF Dr Jackie Andrade Dr Nikki Hunkin Dr Richard Rowe Dr Christopher Armitage Dr Claire Isaac (CPU) Dr Anil Sahal Dr Nigel Beail (CPU) Dr Myles Jones Prof Paschal Sheeran Dr Mark Blades Dr Gerry Kent (CPU) Prof Michael Siegal Prof Kevin Connolly Dr John Martindate Dr Adrian Simpson Dr Jason Davies (CPU) Dr Jon May Prof Pauline Slade (CPU) Prof Paul Dean Prof Rod Nicolson Prof Christopher Spencer Prof Christine Eiser Dr Paul Norman Ms Christine Sprigg (IWP) Prof Richard Eiser Dr Paul Overton Dr Jim Stone Dr Angela Fawcett Dr Nikos Papadakis Dr Andrew Thompson (CPU) Dr Kevin Gurney Prof Larry Parsons Prof Graham Turpin (CPU) Prof Gillian Hardy (CPU) Dr Olivier Pascalis Prof Toby Wall (IWP) Dr Peter Harris Dr John Porrill Prof Peter Warr (IWP) Dr Jane Herbert Dr Tony Prescott Prof Stephen Wood (IWP) Prof Bob Hockey (IWP) Prof Pete Redgrave Dr Ingram Wright (CPU) Dr Ying Zheng DEPARTMENTAL ADMINISTRATOR Ms Julia Poole SECRETARIAL STAFF Mrs Maxine Boon (CPU) Ms Jo Heron Ms Angela Rollinson (CPU) Mrs Liz Carl Miss Diane Inkersole Mrs Rachel Saunders (CPU) Miss Carina Fowkes Miss Amy Kann (CPU) Ms Jacqui Turner (CPU) Mrs Carole Gillespie (CPU) Ms Sarah Lampard (CPU) Mrs Carol Heathcote Mrs Sue Maskrey (CPU) TECHNICAL STAFF Mr Malcolm Benn Mr Len Hetherington Mrs Marion Simkins Mr Alan Grundy Mr Ross Pointon Mrs Natalie Walton Mr Andy Ham Mr Michael Port
  • 3. RESOURCES Each full-time postgraduate student has a minimum of a room (usually shared with one other student), a telephone and a computer. There are several laser printers in the Department that are shared by academic staff and postgraduate students. When printing you should select one of these public laser printers. If you have a problem with your computer there should always be someone to go to – the IT support staff can be contacted on psy-it-support@sheffield.ac.uk. They provide general hardware and software support and are responsible for: • The physical integrity of both the networks. • The public printers. • The day to day running of the backup. • Providing training for staff and giving computer support in addition to If you ultimately require new equipment you should speak to your supervisor. Most books and journals relevant to Psychology are housed in the Main Library at the University, with some Clinical material being held in the nearby Medical School Library. If you are new to the University you should be given an introductory tour of the library. It may be worth asking at one of the Graduate Research Office's introductory meetings. Photocopying Postgraduate students have access to the student's photocopying machine in the Department. It is run by a card system. Cards can be obtained from Diane Inkersole (Room 1-26). If you need a large number of copies you should let one of the secretaries know, since it may be wiser to use one of the duplicating centres elsewhere in the University Mail Postgraduate student’s mail is placed in the ‘Postgraduate’ pigeonholes, which are labelled alphabetically, and are located in the main foyer area on the ground floor. Students are asked to collect mail regularly. Internet Resources The Department’s web pages are to be found at http://www.shef.ac.uk/psychology and the pages for the University of Sheffield can be found at http://www.shef.ac.uk They contain a wide variety of information that will help you while you are here. There is information regarding student welfare, administrative procedures regarding registration, examinations and services. The Student Services Information Desk based in the Students’ Union has a web site at http://www.shef.ac.uk/~ssid Note Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this handbook, but the Department and University cannot accept responsibility for errors and omissions. We are continually reviewing and amending our courses, so there may be changes between the issue of this booklet and the start of the course.
  • 4. COURSE CONTACTS Course Director Dr Paul Norman p.norman@sheffield.ac.uk Course Secretary Miss Carina Fowkes c.fowkes@sheffield.ac.uk AIMS OF THE COURSE The overall aim of the MSc in Psychological Research is to give advanced training in research methods and professional skills as a foundation for subsequent registration for an MPhil/PhD in Psychology. The MSc in Psychological Research also fulfils the requirements for the first year of the ESRC ‘1+3’ research training programme. The specific aims of the MSc are as follows: Aim 1 To provide personal development and transferable professional skills (e.g., communication and dissemination skills, professional development) Aim 2 To provide general research skills (e.g., bibliographic and computing skills, awareness of ethical and legal issues in research) Aim 3 To provide expertise specific to research in psychology (e.g., an understanding of different methods of data collection and analysis in psychological research, practical experience conducting a piece of psychological research) COURSE STRUCTURE A candidate shall take: (a) HAR6010 Qualitative Data Analysis inc. Computer Aided Analysis 15 Autumn GSC6200 Information Skills for Research 5 Acad Year PSY6010 Advanced Multivariate Statistics for Psychology 15 Autumn PSY6030 Macintosh Computer Applications for Postgraduates 10 Autumn PSY6050 Student Specific Research Training: Literature Reviews 10 Acad Year PSY6060 Oral Presentation of Psychological Research 10 Acad Year PSY6070 Professional Skills for Psychologists 15 Spring PSY6090 Postgraduate Tutor Training Programme 10 Acad Year PSY6100 Ethical and Conceptual Issues 15 Autumn PSY6120 Research Methods in Psychology 15 Spring (b) PSY6110 Research Project in Psychology 60 Acad Year
  • 5. TEACHING Small group seminars and workshops. ASSESSMENT Written coursework and research dissertation. All written coursework for core modules will be double-marked. REGULATIONS for the MSc in Psychological Research 1. A candidate who is awarded 180 credits shall thereby pass the Examination for a Master’s Degree. 2. A candidate must obtain a grade of at least 50 to pass a module. 3. The award of a distinction will normally be recommended where a candidate obtains a grade of 70 or better in core units to the value of at least 90 credits, and where there is no grade below 60 or where a grade below 60 is compensated for by an additional higher grade. 4. The Examiners may, in their discretion, recommend that a candidate who is awarded not fewer than 150 credits be deemed to have passed the Examination for a Master’s Degree. 5. In all cases where a student is awarded a pass for the MSc with less than 180 credits, and then proceeds to register for the PhD, he or she must retake and pass the failed modules (or others of equivalent credit weighting in the case of optional modules only) within the RTP during their first year of PhD registration. 6. A candidate who has failed part of their programme of study and who has not been recommended for a degree may be permitted to resit the failed elements (i.e. be re-examined in failed unit/s or resubmit a failed dissertation, as relevant) on one further occasion, usually during the following session. A candidate satisfying the Examiners in a subsequent examination will be awarded a bare pass grade in respect of that unit. The Examiners have discretion to decide whether or not to permit resits at postgraduate level. SEMESTER DATES FOR 2005 - 2006 Intro Week 19 September - 24 September 2005 Autumn Semester 26 September - 17 December 2005 12 weeks [4 weeks Christmas vacation] 16 January - 4 February 2006 3 weeks Spring Semester 6 February – 1 April 2006 8 weeks [3 weeks Easter vacation] 24 April - 10 June 2006 7 weeks For further details of semester dates see http://www.shef.ac.uk/about/dates Absence from the course The MSc is a full-time course and students are expected to attend all scheduled teaching. If you are absent through illness for more than one week you should submit a doctor’s certificate to Carina Fowkes. If your absence is for less than one week then you should obtain a self-certification notice from student services. Please keep the department informed of any circumstances that might relate to your attendance at classes or your overall performance on the course. Significant illnesses or personal problems are often taken into account when assessing a student’s work. If you think that you have a case for extenuating circumstances, it is important to gather and submit to Carina Fowkes, as much documentary evidence as possible. Leave of absence This is an area of diversity since the circumstances of individual cases vary considerably. The generally accepted position is that leave for up to one year may be granted for personal, family, medical or financial reasons. Renewal for a second year is unusual, but can sometimes be justified. Change of Status forms should be used if you wish to apply for Leave of Absence.
  • 6. Withdrawals While there is no formal need for departments to ‘approve’ postgraduate withdrawals, students considering withdrawal are advised to make contact with the department and with other University services (such as the Careers Service). In some cases students may find that a change of degree programme or a period of leave of absence is a better course of action. Student Feedback There will be a course feedback meeting at the end of each semester. This meeting will involve all students on the course and the Course Director. It is a course requirement for each student to give evaluation on each module taken, and the course as a whole. Questionnaires will be sent to students at the end of a module, and an overall course evaluation questionnaire will be sent to students at the end of the academic year.
  • 7. Modules GSC6200 Information Skills for Research 5 Credits ACADEMIC YEAR Aims/Description: The module introduces students to some important library and information resources. Students learn about information retrieval and evaluation, literature searching and citation methods, using the resources of the University Library and the campus network. On completion of the unit, students will be able to carry out effective and efficient information and literature searches using traditional and computer-based sources. Staff Contact: Mr Alastair Allan, University Library Teaching Methods: Independent Study Assessment: Porfolio HAR6010 Qualitative Data Analysis including Computer Aided Analysis 15 Credits AUTUMN Aims/Description: This module considers the specific processes involved in qualitative data analysis in social research, with a particular focus on data from interviews. During the module, students analyse transcripts of data from interviews. The module includes a practical induction to the use of computer-aided analysis. Staff Contact: Dr Georgina Jones, SCHARR Teaching Methods: Laboratory Sessions, Distance Learning Materials Assessment: Project, Portofio PSY6010 Advanced Multivariate Statistics for Psychology 15 Credits AUTUMN Aims/Description: To present a number of multivariate statistical methods, including multiple regression, logistic regression, multivariate analysis of variance and factor analysis. These are presented in the context of active research issues in personality and social psychology. The course aims to enable students to: (1) understand published scientific research which used multivariate methods; (2) select the statistical method appropriate to each of a number of research questions; (3) understand the method's general principles; (4) interpret the output of the statistics package employed to do the analysis. The syllabus includes correlation and regression, multivariate analysis of variance, logistic regression, factor analysis, reliability and scale construction. Staff Contact: Dr Chris Stride, Work Psychology Teaching Methods: Lectures, Problem Solving/Example Classes Assessment: Coursework PSY6030 Macintosh Computer Applications for Postgraduates 10 Credits AUTUMN Aims/Description: To provide students with up-to-date IT skills, particularly those relevant to research in Psychology, using the common Macintosh applications available on the Open Access Macs in the Department. These include the use of Word, Excel, Powerpoint, Email, and the Internet. The module also provides an opportunity for additional training in specialist Mac applications as required by individual students. Staff Contact: Dr Jon May, Psychology Teaching Methods: Self Directed plus Tutorials Assessment: Proficiency test on computer
  • 8. PSY6050 Student Specific Research Training: Literature Reviews 10 Credits ACADEMIC YEAR Aims/Description: In this module students use the skills developed in GSC6200 to write a literature review. The precise details for the topic and appropriate format of the review are agreed with the supervisor and module organiser. In addition, taught sessions focus on narrative, systematic and meta-analytic reviews as well as the use of Endnote to organise and format references according to different journal styles. Staff Contact: Dr Paul Norman, Psychology Teaching Methods: Seminars, Problem-Solving/Example classes Assessment: Coursework PSY6060 The Oral Presentation of Psychological Research 10 Credits ACADEMIC YEAR Aims/Description: To describe and develop best practice in oral presentation, drawing upon both psychological research and practical recommendations. As working examples, course members attend and critique a series of high-level seminars that form part of the Departmental Seminar series. A number of informal group presentations culminate in each student presenting their research dissertation in and end-of-year conference for the MSc in Psychological Research. Staff Contact: Professor Chris Spencer, Psychology Teaching Methods: Weekly meetings Assessment: Evaluation of talk given in the MSc in Psychological Research Conference PSY6070 Professional Skills for Psychologists 15 Credits SPRING Aims/Description: To provide explicit training and, where possible, hands-on experience in a range of professional skills including a) organising, chairing and being a discussant for symposia and other academic meetings, b) giving conference talks, departmental seminars and undergraduate lectures: asking good questions to other speakers, c) publishing skills, choosing suitable journal, writing style, copyright and intellectual property, refereeing someone else's paper, writing a book review, d) successful PhD strategies - finishing on time, the Viva examination, e) career strategies, writing an academic c.v., networking, f) applying for funding, writing grant proposals, g) public understanding of science: why it is important, how to improve it, when and how to invite media coverage of your research. Staff Contact: Dr Paul Norman, Psychology Teaching Methods: Seminars Assessment: Coursework PSY6090 Postgraduate Tutor Training Programme 10 Credits ACADEMIC YEAR Aims/Description: This module aims to help postgraduates develop as confident and effective teachers within the context of group tutorials for undergraduates, by encouraging them to reflect on the goals and behaviour of students as learners and their own goals and practice as teachers. The programme consists of a series of seminars to discuss teaching practice. Topics covered include identifying impediments to good teaching and strategies to overcome them; how student feedback can improve teaching; broadening the repertoire of teaching strategies; and challenges posed by the range of conceptual and methodological approaches within psychology. Practical skills such as 'running tuitions' and 'giving feedback' are also covered. Staff Contact: Dr Anil Sahal, Psychology Teaching Methods: Problem Solving/Example Classes, Conducting and Preparing Tutorials Assessment: Self-assessment Report following feedback from Tutees
  • 9. PSY6100 Ethical and Conceptual Issues 15 Credits AUTUMN Aims/Description: This unit aims to help students reflect upon the ethical and conceptual implications of different research activities and to acquaint students with a range of general historical, theoretical and philosophical issues underlying the discipline of psychology. Topics include ethical principles and prevailing codes of conduct in psychological research; philosophical perspectives on mind, consciousness and personal identity; causality, free will and determinism; the status of theory and the nature of evidence in psychology research; the applicability of the experimental method to complex social behaviour. Staff Contact: Professor J R Eiser, Psychology Teaching Methods: Seminars Assessment: Essay PSY6110 RESEARCH PROJECT IN PSYCHOLOGY 60 Credits ACADEMIC YEAR Aims/Description: Students conduct, analyse and write up a research project under the guidance of their academic supervisor. The topic and methods chosen will normally be closely related to the area in which the student intend to subsequently undertake their PhD research. In conducting the research project under supervision, students gain first-hand practical experience of the managing the research process, starting with the formulation of a specific research question on the basis of review of relevant literature and guidance from the supervisor, through to the design, execution and analysis of a study, and the writing-up of a report. All projects must be submitted to, and receive approval from, the Psychology Department Ethics Committee before they can proceed. Projects are written up in the standard format for submission to an appropriate academic journal (e.g., British Journal of Social Psychology). Staff Contact: Dr Paul Norman, Psychology Teaching Methods: Field Work, Individual Supervision Assessment: Project/Dissertation PSY6120 RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY 15 Credits SPRING Aims/Description: The course provides broad coverage of both quantitative and qualitative methods for psychology graduates. It emphasises the relationship between the research question being addressed and the choice of method of data collection. The course combines lectures, group exercises and workshops to help students to develop a critical awareness of the conceptual basis of the various methods, their advantages and limitations, and their potential relevance to their own research. Topics include quasi-experimentation, diary methods and experience sampling, questionnaire design, interview technique, and the major theoretical (e.g. social constructionism) and methodological (e.g. ethnography, grounded theory) domains in qualitative research. Staff Contact: Dr Peter Harris, Psychology Teaching Methods: Lectures, Problem Solving/Example Classes Assessment: Written Defence of chosen methodology and outline of proposed study for Dissertation
  • 10. Research Project in Psychology Students will conduct, analyse and write up a research project under the guidance of their academic supervisor. The topic and methods chosen will normally be closely related to the area in which the student may intend subsequently to undertake research for a PhD. In conducting the research project under supervision, the student will gain first-hand practical experience of the research process, starting with the formulation of a specific research question on the basis of review of relevant literature and guidance from the supervisor, through to the design, execution and analysis of a study, and the writing- up of a report. Successful performance on this project will show that the student can effectively apply the conceptual, methodological, analytic and professional skills acquired from other modules in the MSc in Psychological Research. The student should then be in a position to embark, in subsequent years of research training, on a programme of independent research leading to a PhD. It is not a requirement that the project report should be of a publishable standard (smaller-scale pilot studies or replications of previous work being quite acceptable), but it should nonetheless be written up in the standard format for submission to an appropriate academic journal. Students will identify the specific journal on the title page (e.g. “Prepared as for submission to the British Journal of Psychology”) and will be expected to adopt the house style and conventions of the journal as described in the journal’s instructions to authors. Syllabus • Independent Study • Collection and Analysis of data • Writing up the dissertation Ethics Sub-Committee Approval All projects must be submitted to the Psychology Department Ethics Sub-Committee at the earliest possible stage, to secure the Ethics Committee approval. Until this is given the project cannot proceed. If your research may mean that you will be working with children or other vulnerable people, consult with your supervisor and the DHoD about how you may need CRB clearance before starting work. Conducting the Project It is vitally important that students keep in contact with their supervisor at least weekly during the period of the project. It is too easy for students and supervisors to lose contact with each other, and for the student to be pushed off track of the project. Researchers almost always meet delays, which put back the progress of a project by weeks or even months. Delays are thus to be expected and anticipated. Where students find themselves beginning to be delayed, it is vital to report this to their supervisor at an early stage, and for the supervisor to relay this information on to the Course Director. If a student’s project is delayed, justification will be required for the Board of Examiners in order to win an extension. Early notification to the Course Director and supervisor will help this process. Data Analysis It is usually wise to begin to analyse data at the earliest date possible. It is helpful if a broad approach is taken to the data initially. Fine-grained analyses can be conducted later. Avoid the danger of getting sucked into too many interesting, but non-central, aspects of the data. Remember that data analysis must be tied to the research questions posed in the introduction of the project. The data must relate centrally to the overall research aims.
  • 11. Writing Up Each dissertation should be structured around clear and specific research questions. These should be derived from a good understanding of the relevant literature. The reader will need to see how these questions were derived and what their importance is. Links between important variables should be explained in terms of causes, outcomes and processes where appropriate. Too many excellent research projects are weakened by rushed writing up at the end of the research. The overall outline of the project should be presented briefly at the beginning of the Introduction, which should conclude with a clear statement of research questions. The Method section should be so clearly written and so comprehensive that another researcher could replicate the research if he or she so desired. Procedures used should be carefully justified in the Method section. It should also be clear how the methodology relates to the questions posed in the Introduction. The Analysis section should give a clear structured explanation of the analyses undertaken, and how the relate to the research questions posed in the Introduction. Some minimal interpretation should at least be included. Although strictly speaking the Results section exists for ht presentation of findings, it is inconsiderate of the reader If some interpretation and summarising is not included where appropriate, to help the reader make sense of the bigger picture painted by the results. The Discussion section should clearly summarise the results and should relate very clearly back to the themes and issues presented in the Introduction. In particular, the Discussion section should show how knowledge has been advanced as a result of the research project. Weaknesses in the research should also be acknowledged. Remember that markers will expect a piece of work which is clearly written with specified objectives, is within the domain of psychology; adopts a predominantly psychological perspective; is placed in relation to the literature; has utilised an appropriate method and appropriate analytic procedures (statistical or otherwise); and draws reasoned conclusions. Preparation and Format of the Dissertation • Word Count – 10,000 – 12,000 (15,000 maximum) • Two unbound copies of the dissertation must be submitted • All dissertations must be A4 in size • Pages should be numbered consecutively through the dissertation • Margins at the binding edge should be not less than 40mm and other margins not less than 20mm (Except for title page – see below) • Double or one and half line spacing should be used in the typescript, except for indented quotations or footnotes where single spacing may be used. • All dissertations must adopt the house style and conventions of a specified journal in the field. • A word processor system giving good quality printing should be used in preparing the dissertation • The title page should show: the full title of dissertation; the author’s registration number; the degree for which the dissertation is submitted (MSc in Psychological Research); the date (year and month only) of submission. The margins on the title page should be set at the following, to enable the information to be seen through the window in the university bound cover: Top: 6.35cm Bottom: 2.54cm Left: 7.37cm Right: 7.37cm Header: 1.25cm Footer 1.25cm The title page should also contain a statement of the form “This dissertation has been prepared in the format required for submission to [Name of Journal]”. This statement does not need to be visible through the window in the bound cover and so can be typed further down the page.
  • 12. Extensions to the Submission Deadline Students may be granted an extension to the submission deadline for the Dissertation (subject to the approval of the Course Director and the Examining Board) under the following circumstances: • Medical Grounds – An explanatory supporting letter from a GP is required for the consideration of the Examining Board. • Unforeseen Project Difficulties – Occasionally difficulties in carrying out research in a field setting severely hamper the individual’s ability to complete his or her project. In such cases application can be made to the Examining Board for an extension. This must be accompanied by a full explanatory letter submitted by the individual’s supervisor, and the latter must attend a meeting of the Examining Board to support the case. • Other Extraordinary circumstances – the Examining Board may in her circumstances grant extensions and may require appropriate documentation and supervisory support as is seen fit. Whenever extension to deadline dates for dissertations are requested, and except in extreme cases, application from students and all supporting documentation must be submitted at least two weeks before the deadline date. Failure to do so will mean applications will be rejected. A letter from the project supervisor supporting the extension request must also be obtained, and the supervisor is required to attend the Examining Board meeting. All extension requests must include a detailed completion plan including target dates, agreed between student and supervisor. DEADLINE FOR SUBMISSION OF DISSERTATIONS Friday 1 September 2006
  • 13. MSc in PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH MARKING SCALE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES FOR WORK MARKED ON THE 100-POINT SCALE Point 50 and above is a pass grade; Point 70 and above is a distinction grade 100-pt An excellent and probably publishable piece of work 86 • Very high standard of critical analysis using appropriate conceptual frameworks • Excellent understanding of relevant issues 82 • Clearly structured and logically developed arguments • Good awareness of nuances and complexities 78 • Substantial evidence of independent research • Good evaluation and synthesis of source material 75 • Relevant data and, all properly referenced 72 Good understanding. Clear throughout, however, no original contributions 67 • High standard of critical analysis using appropriate conceptual frameworks • Clear awareness and exposition of relevant issues • Clearly structured and logically developed arguments 64 • Some awareness of nuances and complexities • Some evidence of independent research • Some evaluation and synthesis of source material 61 • Relevant data and examples all properly referenced Not well explained in place but a generally competent answer. Some gaps in coverage 57 • Uses appropriate conceptual frameworks • Attempts analysis but includes some errors and/or omissions • Shows awareness of issues but no more than to be expected from attendance at classes 54 • Arguments reasonably clear but underdeveloped • Insufficient evidence of independent research • Insufficient evaluation of source material 51 • Some good use of relevant data and examples, but incompletely referenced Lack of a clear understanding. Some definite misunderstandings about important points • Weak understanding of appropriate conceptual frameworks • Answer too descriptive and/ or any attempt at analysis is superficial, containing errors and/ or omissions 47 • Shows awareness of some issues but also some confusion • Arguments not very clear • No evidence of independent research and reliance on a superficial repeat of class notes • Superficial use of relevant data and examples purely referenced Very limited understanding. Little or direct relevance to the topic • Very weak understanding of appropriate conceptual frameworks • Very weak analysis and several errors and omissions 40 • Establishes a few relevant points but superficial and confused exposition of issues • No evidence of independent research and poor understanding of class notes • Poor or no use of relevant data and examples and no references Nothing of direct relevant to the topic. Complete misunderstanding 34 • No of appropriate conceptual frameworks • No grasp of analysis and many errors and omissions 27 • Very little or no understanding of the issues raised by the question • No appropriate references to data, examples or even class notes 20 • Not worthy of assessment 1 0 • Non-submission
  • 14. N.B. The bullet points refer only to discursive exercises such as essays