Context-aware design and interaction in computer systems By T.Selker, W.Burleson IBM SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Vol 39, NOS 3&4, 200...
Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User...
Introduction (1/2) <ul><li>The fields of design and computer science are beginning to merge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macintos...
Introduction (2/2) <ul><li>Issues of contextual interaction and knowledge about people’s desired activities and actions af...
Framework <ul><li>Task model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The acts that a person performs to accomplish a task with a system </li...
Design prototypes of context-aware systems  (1/6) <ul><li>Noncomputational models </li></ul><ul><li>Out-Of-Box Experience ...
Design prototypes of context-aware systems  (2/6) <ul><li>Sensor-based systems (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexor </li></ul><ul>...
Design prototypes of context-aware systems  (3/6) <ul><li>Sensor-based systems (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Threshold </l...
Design prototypes of context-aware systems  (4/6) <ul><li>Multifunction systems (1) </li></ul><ul><li>IBM ThinkPad 755CV <...
Design prototypes of context-aware systems  (5/6) <ul><li>Multifunction systems (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Wallet </...
Design prototypes of context-aware systems  (6/6) <ul><li>Proactive model-based systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The system d...
Conclusion <ul><li>The context-aware design framework focuses on design that accounts for contextual information or settin...
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Context-aware design and interaction in ccccccccccccomputer ...

  1. 1. Context-aware design and interaction in computer systems By T.Selker, W.Burleson IBM SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Vol 39, NOS 3&4, 2000 발표자 : 정 병희 (EECS, 20005846)
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design prototypes of context-aware systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noncomputational models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context-aware computer systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor-based systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multifunction systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive model-based systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction (1/2) <ul><li>The fields of design and computer science are beginning to merge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macintosh vs. iMac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetics, ergonomics and cognitive science are important factor in user interface design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traditional design paradigm is broadening the structured design process for human computer interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering design paradigm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Break the problems down into parts and apply the standard solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional design paradigm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote aesthetics, ergonomics, and their relationships to functions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction (2/2) <ul><li>Issues of contextual interaction and knowledge about people’s desired activities and actions affect the design process </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual information can be used to reduce the amount of explicit input a person is required to give a computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What and where the user task is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What the user knows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What the system capabilities are </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New technologies open possibilities for context-aware systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of new and sophisticated sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition technology </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Framework <ul><li>Task model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The acts that a person performs to accomplish a task with a system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) task at the threshold ~ open a door, See if someone is inside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>User model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task-relevant background information about the user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User comfort and user congruency depends on his habit, self-image, and even issues of motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to the capabilities of the computer system – its structure and ability to accomplish an existing task </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Design prototypes of context-aware systems (1/6) <ul><li>Noncomputational models </li></ul><ul><li>Out-Of-Box Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Task model </li></ul><ul><li>- The p erson is setting up a notebook computer </li></ul><ul><li>User model </li></ul><ul><li>- A novice opening a computer for the first time </li></ul><ul><li>System model </li></ul><ul><li>- The paper instructions are near the components they describe and are revealed as the person opens the computer </li></ul>
  7. 7. Design prototypes of context-aware systems (2/6) <ul><li>Sensor-based systems (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexor </li></ul><ul><li>Task model </li></ul><ul><li>- Recognized contextual communication through arm motion </li></ul><ul><li>User model </li></ul><ul><li>- Arm movement </li></ul><ul><li>System model </li></ul><ul><li>- Arm-bending sensor to evaluate motions made by arm </li></ul><ul><li>1) dancing – flashes a varying sequence of lights & sounds </li></ul><ul><li>2) exercising – counts how many repetitions have been completed </li></ul>
  8. 8. Design prototypes of context-aware systems (3/6) <ul><li>Sensor-based systems (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Threshold </li></ul><ul><li>Task model </li></ul><ul><li>- Two-way interaction with the office task model and office occupant model </li></ul><ul><li>1) bringing someone in </li></ul><ul><li>2) rescheduling a meeting </li></ul><ul><li>3) leaving a message </li></ul><ul><li>User model </li></ul><ul><li>- W alks by in order to find out if a colleague is in his office </li></ul><ul><li>System model </li></ul><ul><li>- Relies on two switches(inside & outside) </li></ul><ul><li>- Coupling to voice recognition & Microsoft Office </li></ul>
  9. 9. Design prototypes of context-aware systems (4/6) <ul><li>Multifunction systems (1) </li></ul><ul><li>IBM ThinkPad 755CV </li></ul><ul><li>Task model </li></ul><ul><li>- Work differently for two diverse situations </li></ul><ul><li>1) for a standard notebook computer </li></ul><ul><li>2) used as a LCD panel for an overhead projector </li></ul><ul><li>System model </li></ul><ul><li>- A person could remove the plastic back cover from the LCD panel </li></ul><ul><li>- Place the laptop computer screen on an overhead projector </li></ul><ul><li>- The user could place a finger on the LCD panel like a transparency </li></ul>
  10. 10. Design prototypes of context-aware systems (5/6) <ul><li>Multifunction systems (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Wallet </li></ul><ul><li>Task model </li></ul><ul><li>- Reduces the physical materials in a person’s pocket (paper, money, credit card, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>- Improve the ability to identify carrier, record the financial transactions, etc </li></ul><ul><li>System model </li></ul><ul><li>- Deliver and record important documents </li></ul><ul><li>- Communicate wirelessly </li></ul><ul><li>- Display information </li></ul><ul><li>- Leather wallet design </li></ul>
  11. 11. Design prototypes of context-aware systems (6/6) <ul><li>Proactive model-based systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The system drives or trades off control with the user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>COACH </li></ul><ul><li>Task model </li></ul><ul><li>- A software agent that creates a dynamic user model by observing user interactions with respect to frequency, duration, and efficiency of use </li></ul><ul><li>Separates the task, user, system model for learnable things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Novice, intermediate, professional and expert </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Music Ball </li></ul><ul><li>Task model </li></ul><ul><li>- The ball-user collaboration creates a language of sounds and associated motions </li></ul><ul><li>System model </li></ul><ul><li>- Uses AI strategies for music teaching & structure </li></ul><ul><li>- Communicates with an enunciator and a motion sensor </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conclusion <ul><li>The context-aware design framework focuses on design that accounts for contextual information or settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why ) Reduces communication barriers by analyzing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What can be known about a user </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to support that information with task, use and system models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This paper has shown how context can be embodied in the form and material of design, in the internal models and in computer reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For diverse contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At different levels of complexity </li></ul></ul>
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