Computer Science <ul><ul><ul><li>ICS3M - Unit 1 </li></ul></ul></ul>
Central Processing Unit Memory RAM ROM Input Devices Output Devices SecondaryStorage Devices Computer Hardware Functions
I/O Devices <ul><li>Examples of input devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>optical character...
Ports and Connectors <ul><li>Port are catagorized by their mode of transmission: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel port </li>...
Storage <ul><li>Hard Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy Drives </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>DVD </li></ul><ul><l...
Disk Capacities <ul><li>Floppy : 1.4 MB </li></ul><ul><li>Hard disk: 20   G B –  160   G B </li></ul><ul><li>CD 700 - 800 ...
Magnetic Disk Storage
Disk Fragmentation <ul><li>Fragmented disk shows spaces where data has been removed </li></ul><ul><li>Defragmenting has pl...
CD-ROM and Optical Disks <ul><li>CD-ROM (compact disk ROM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>650 MB of information </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Memory <ul><li>RAM = Random Access Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The space available to a computer to use while performing ...
Computer Units <ul><li>Quantity/size/capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>K ilo byte --  KB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one K...
Operating Systems <ul><li>The operating system acts as the interface between the application and the computer system </li>...
Operating System Software <ul><li>Role of Operating System Software is to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>perform common computer h...
Application Software <ul><li>Application software consists of programs designed to perform specific tasks or applications....
Networking <ul><li>A network is defined as two or more computers connected together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer whe...
Conclusion <ul><li>Hardware devices work together to perform input, processing, data storage, and output.  </li></ul><ul><...
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Computer System Review

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Computer System Review

  1. 1. Computer Science <ul><ul><ul><li>ICS3M - Unit 1 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Central Processing Unit Memory RAM ROM Input Devices Output Devices SecondaryStorage Devices Computer Hardware Functions
  3. 3. I/O Devices <ul><li>Examples of input devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>optical character reader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>microphone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples of output devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>video screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>loudspeaker </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ports and Connectors <ul><li>Port are catagorized by their mode of transmission: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard parallel port (printers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard serial port (modem, mouse) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Serial Bus (USB) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Connectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Male have one or more pins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female have locators that match the pins on the male </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Storage <ul><li>Hard Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy Drives </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>DVD </li></ul><ul><li>R-CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>RW-CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Zip Drives </li></ul>
  6. 6. Disk Capacities <ul><li>Floppy : 1.4 MB </li></ul><ul><li>Hard disk: 20 G B – 160 G B </li></ul><ul><li>CD 700 - 800 MB </li></ul><ul><li>DVD 4.7 GB - 17 GB </li></ul>1 BYTE = 1 CHARACTER 1 KILOBYTE = 1000 BYTE S 1 MEGABYTE = 1000 KB or 1,000,000 KILOBYTES 1 G IGA B YTE = 1000 MB or 1,000,000,000 KILOBYTES
  7. 7. Magnetic Disk Storage
  8. 8. Disk Fragmentation <ul><li>Fragmented disk shows spaces where data has been removed </li></ul><ul><li>Defragmenting has placed all files in contiguous spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Defragmenting a drive will increase efficiency for file retrieval </li></ul>
  9. 9. CD-ROM and Optical Disks <ul><li>CD-ROM (compact disk ROM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>650 MB of information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DVD-ROM (digital versatile disk) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4.7 gigabytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CD-R (compact disk-recordable) </li></ul><ul><li>Magneto-optical (MO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>230 MB, 650 MB, 1.3 GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports read and write operation. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Memory <ul><li>RAM = Random Access Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The space available to a computer to use while performing operations. The space is emptied out when the computer is turned off. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROM = Read Only Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The memory programmed by the manufacturer containing system information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be overwritten without special software. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Computer Units <ul><li>Quantity/size/capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>K ilo byte -- KB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one KB is 1024 (2 10 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M ega byte -- MB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one MB is 1024KB = 1024x1024 (2 20 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., 4096MB = 4MB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G iga byte -- GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one GB is 1024MB = 1024x1024x1024 (2 30 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T era byte -- TB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one TB is 1024GB = 1024x1024x1024x1024 (2 40 ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Operating Systems <ul><li>The operating system acts as the interface between the application and the computer system </li></ul><ul><li>The following are examples of operating systems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, and Macintosh </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Operating System Software <ul><li>Role of Operating System Software is to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>perform common computer hardware functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide a user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manage system memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manage processing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide networking capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control access to system resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manage files </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Application Software <ul><li>Application software consists of programs designed to perform specific tasks or applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include, such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web browser programs </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Networking <ul><li>A network is defined as two or more computers connected together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer when a server is not involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client-server when a server is involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses and Benefits of a LAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security through id and password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared peripherals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability and Resilience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>centralized backup systems for data recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>centralized virus protection </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Conclusion <ul><li>Hardware devices work together to perform input, processing, data storage, and output. </li></ul><ul><li>Networks allow computers to share information and resources. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two main categories of software: systems software and application software. </li></ul><ul><li>An operating system (OS) is a set of computer programs that controls the computer hardware to support users’ computing needs. </li></ul>
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