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  • 1. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services Computing Fundamentals at U-M The University of Michigan has a special and unique computing environment. U-M staff, faculty, and students have access to some of the finest academic computing resources in the nation. This part of the workshop is an introduction to the special features of our computing environment. It is our intention that this workshop will help you become more familiar with the computing services available to you here at U-M. As you become more familiar with the rich source of computing resources available at the University, you will be better able to make a more informed choice about which programs can be of most help to you in your specific work or study situation. Additional aids besides this workshop are available to help you learn to use the U-M computing resources most effectively. These include additional workshops, a vast array of computing documentation, and information stored online. These aids are listed in this workshop handout. We will refer to many of them throughout the workshop. Many of the computing services we will be exploring—including this workshop—are provided by the University’s Information Technology Division (ITD). **Service will be demonstrated in the workshop. *Indicates documentation that is included in the workshop materials. Using the U-M Computer Networks To use many of the computing resources available at U-M, you must be able to communicate with the computers where these services are stored. This frequently requires connecting to a network. A network is two or more computers connected together with printers, and possibly other appropriate devices, so that they can all communicate with each other. Many, if not most of the members of the U-M community who use computers are part of one or more networks. Your network may be a LAN (Local Area Network), operated by your department. The campus backbone network, which is made of fiber optic cable, connects these LANs together into a network of networks enabling the entire U-M community, including the Flint and Dearborn campuses to communicate and work together. We should point out that the computing, telephone, and video connections between the three campuses do not travel on cable. Instead, they are transmitted electronically between microwave towers on each of the three campuses. ITD is responsible for creating and maintaining this entire U-M communications network and for connecting the University community to the outside world. While the ITD telecommunications unit handles internal phone calls, University phone calls to places outside the U-M are transferred to the common telecommunication carriers. ITD is also responsible for providing the computing connections between the U-M and the computing world outside the University, including connections to MichNet, and the National Science Foundation Network (NSFnet)—the principal academic and research backbone for the US and a major part of the worldwide Internet. The University of Michigan’s computing environment is generally decentralized and distributed. In other words, at U-M we don’t rely on a single centralized computer system, but rather on many networks serving various parts of the U-M that are joined together. Authority over the various parts of the campus-wide computing network is diffused among the units which own each part. Two of the very large units of the University have their own extensive fiber networks. These include CAEN the Computer-Aided Engineering Network, which serves the many buildings that 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 1
  • 2. comprise the College of Engineering on the U-M North Campus. The Medical Center Information Technology (MCIT) organization has its own fiber network which connects the entire Medical Center together. The CAEN and MCIT networks are interconnected with the ITD- maintained campus-wide computing backbone network which connects most of U-M LANs together. MichNet and the World-wide Internet While many of the computing resources we choose to use are located on the U-M campus, some of these require that we connect to the computing world beyond U-M. Consequently, its important for us to have some understanding of the networks that exist beyond the University. The U-M computing network is connected to and part of the Michigan regional network called MichNet. MichNet is operated by Merit, a consortium of Michigan universities which is based on the University campus and has a close relationship with the U-M. MichNet connects many networks around the state, including those at universities and colleges, K-12 schools and school districts, hospitals, private corporations, research institutions, libraries, and many other organizations. MichNet is one part of the international Internet, that vast collection of networks around the world that are interconnected. The Internet is sometimes called the “information superhighway.” Since our campus networks are part of MichNet, they are also part of the Internet. Members of 2
  • 3. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services the University community with computer connectivity thus have access to the extensive resources available on the Internet. The Internet The Internet is a worldwide network of about half a million computers belonging to educational and research organizations, the military, corporations, and many other types of organizations. The Internet, or information superhighway, is not a destination but the means by which you get to your destination. Mail and files move across the “net” from computer to computer until they reach their final destination. You can send personal mail and access many different services. The Internet is free to users, the costs being paid by participating educational and research organizations, the military, the government, and the other organizations and corporations who use it. U-M is one of the original members of Merit and contributes to the support of MichNet— the Michigan part of the Internet.) The Internet has been around for many years, but it only recently became the “information superhighway” of the general population. Previously the software that accessed remote computers was complex and navigating tools were not developed. A few years ago the University of Minnesota developed Gopher, a software program which makes it relatively easy to access information stored on the Internet. We will talk about and demonstrate the U-M GOpherBLUE server later in this workshop. Client/Server Programs In order to access services stored on U-M servers and elsewhere on the Internet, a user often needs one or more software programs loaded on their computer. These programs make it possible for the computer to make the connection(s). In these situations, your computer is the “client” machine, receiving services from the “server” computer. The software you need to accomplish this is called “client” programs. Information on how and where to get these programs for the various services is listed in this handout. **The U-M GOpherBLUE Server (Note: The GOpherBLUE server is scheduled to be phased out over the 1996-97 year. We include it in this workshop until it is truly gone, because it contains much useful information and is easy to use. A recent ITD customer survey indicates that GOpherBLUE is a very popular service at U-M. When Gopher is phased out, the information currently stored there will be moved to the World-Wide Web.) Gopher uses menus and allows easy selection of items. The U-M’s GOpherBLUE information server is accessible to U-M faculty, staff, and students on the Internet, and through the campus AppleTalk network. Some of the information on GOpherBLUE, U-M open positions and Non- Credit Campus Computing Workshops, is stored on computers on the U-M campus. Where the information is stored is not of concern to the GOpherBLUE user. Once an item is selected from a menu, GOpherBLUE makes the appropriate connection and presents the information on the user’s screen. U-M information available on the U-M GOpherBLUE includes: news and weather, the X.500 directory, historic documents and speeches, U-M Library information, and Computing on Campus. The Computing on Campus information includes computer sales information, software available at U-M, and ITD computer documentation. Complete copies of InfoTech Digest, an ITD-produced periodical which keeps U-M users up-to-date on the latest computing changes and 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 3
  • 4. services are there. A list of ITD products and services, computer use policies information, and much, much more is available on the U-M GOpherBLUE server. Telnet: gopherblue.itd.umich.edu A U-M GOpherBLUE page ITD Documentation: Accessing GOpherBLUE, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4124 The World-Wide Web (WWW) Now, in addition to Gopher, we use the World-Wide Web (WWW or “the Web”). The World- Wide Web is a global web of computer-accessible information, organized into “pages.” There are over 20 million “home pages” on the Web, set up by people and organizations, including U-M schools and departments, which provide excellent sources of information. Each Web page contains links—words, pictures, sounds, and even video—that you click on to move to other pages, often of related information. This clicking on the various links allows you to “surf the Web.” When you use your mouse to click on highlighted words, pictures and icons, the related files which may be located anywhere on the Internet, are presented on your screen. The advantage of making information available on the Web is that it can be more easily updated and distributed than information in hard copy format. The interconnected computers and computer networks, including MichNet and the U-M campus network that make up the Internet, can communicate with each other because they have agreed to a common language or set of protocols called TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.) Although some Internet resources are available without TCP/IP, (and we will mention these in this workshop), if you want to fully connect your computer to the Internet, you need software that uses or supports TCP/IP. Web Pages: http://www.merit.edu/michnet/how.to.get.connected/michnet.nos/ (Merit/MichNet) http://www.itd.umich.edu/Getting_Help/Training (Non-credit Computing Workshops) http://www.itd.umich.edu (ITD) http://www.umich.edu (U-M) ITD Workshops: Data Networking - U-M Environment Internet Access Kit (dialup) - Mac OS Internet Access Kit (dialup) - Windows 3.1 Internet Access Kit (dialup) - Windows 95 Internet: How It Works Internet: What Is It? ITD Documentation: Installing MacTCP, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4134 U-M Campus Data Networking Guide, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1090 4
  • 5. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services Network Systems Family Housing Customer Guide, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1075 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services The ITD Web Page viewed in Netscape ** Using Netscape to Access the Internet Currently, at U-M, the Netscape Navigator (usually called “Netscape”) software program is the most popular method for “browsing” the Web for information stored on the Internet. Lynx, a text-only browser, available from the ITD Login Service, is also available. There are versions of Netscape that run on Macintosh, Windows 3.1, Windows 95, and Windows NT, as well as on Unix computers. Netscape is available at all U-M Campus Computing Sites and in the U-M Libraries. It is also available on the U-M network. This software is licensed to the University for use by all U-M students, staff and faculty members. There is no fee to the individual user as the University has paid one site license fee to enable everyone to use it. Minimum system requirements: A direct connection to the Internet, through the U-M backbone network, or a dial-up PPP connection with a 14.4 bps or faster modem is necessary to use this software. Macintosh minimum system requirements are at least a Mac II computer with a minimum of 4 MB memory (RAM); 8MB of memory is preferable. Macintosh Operating System version 7.0 or later is necessary along with MacTCP. MacTCP version 2.0.2 will work; version 2.0.6 is recommended. The minimum computer for Windows users is a 386SX with a minimum of 4 MB memory (RAM). A 486/33 computer with 8 MB memory is recommended. More powerful computers are also acceptable. Also necessary to run Netscape is Windows 3.1 running in enhanced mode and WinSock. WinSock is available as a LAN WorkPlace for Windows patch and is included in PC/TCP software. (A patch is a small program supplied by the software creator that corrects errors in the program or adds the necessary piece to allow the program to run on other computers.) The necessary programs are bundled (packaged together) in the Internet Access Kits along with the necessary configuration file. ITD Workshop(s): Internet Navigation with Netscape Internet: Incorporating the Web at Work ITD Documentation: Browsing the World-Wide Web With Lynx, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by- step S4176 Obtaining Software from the Archives, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4121 Obtaining and Installing Antivirus Software, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4200 Web Pages: http://www.umich.edu (U-M) http://www.itd.umich.edu (ITD) http://www.shareware.com (for shareware) 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 7
  • 8. Software: Netscape is available in the IFS swdist directory. Netscape and the TCP/IP connectivity software (for Ethernet or modem) are also available from the Campus Computing Sites. Sharing Files and Collaborating At U-M and Around the World It can be of critical importance in doing our work that we can easily share files and communicate with colleagues and co-workers. Moving documents and other files to others at U-M and to people and places around the world is easily accomplished using various local and wide area networks. Methods of moving files and documents include: a) attaching the document or file to an e-mail message, (methods for doing this vary depending on the type of e-mail program being used.); b) dropping or retrieving files to or from another user’s public folder or directory on their computer; or, c) dropping or retrieving files to or from a coworker’s folder or directory stored on the IFS server (see below), d) or, to or from a departmental server. **The Institutional File System (IFS) The Institutional File System (IFS) at U-M is a flexible, secure mechanism for collaborating and sharing information among users. File storage space on IFS is apportioned into “home directories” that are assigned to groups and individuals. You can store files, share them, and retrieve them from Macintosh, Unix, and DOS/Windows computers, at work, at home, or in many locations around the world. IFS group directories are used for sharing program assignments, research results, and for storing departmental and individual World-Wide Web home pages. Group directories are also accessible from many locations world-wide. IFS has some special features. The entire contents of IFS are backed-up on a regular basis, providing security for your work. Since the U-M IFS is part of the Andrew File System (AFS) which is available world-wide, members of the U-M community have world-wide access to information. An IFS home directory is included in the set of services provided by ITD’s UMCE (University of Michigan Computing Environment) Subscription Service. The basic account is 5MB of storage space—additional space can be purchased. This storage space resides on a series of servers and related support systems on the U-M campus that make up the IFS service. The IFS server includes the swdist area which allows U-M people to make copies of software that is commonly used at the University to use on their own computers. The swdist directory is especially handy for copying client software to your computer for use with some of the tools unique to the U-M campus. Many of the programs and services are discussed in this workshop. IFS is available directly on Macintosh computers using the Chooser. On Intel (Windows) computers, you will need to telnet to the server. Telnet: ifs.umich.edu 8
  • 9. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services ITD Documentation: IFS Macintosh User Guide, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Tutorial T7021 IFS User Overview, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1070 Obtaining Software From the Archives, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4121 Obtaining Software From U-M, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4147 Accessing IFS (Mac), ITD Documentaion, Series Title: Step-by-step S4103 ITD Set-Up (Mac), ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4105 IFS File Backup and Restore, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4110 Your ITS AppleVolumes File (Mac), ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4104 Other Ways to Transmit Files, Both Long- or Short- distance: Telneting Telneting allow you to connect to another computer and work on that computer. Using the Internet, which is available from most desktop computers connected to the U-M network, a user can connect to NASA, many libraries in a variety of locations, universities, research centers, and other institutions around Michigan, the US, and the world. ITD Documentation: Installing and Using NCSA Telnet, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4137 Software: NCSA Telnet and MacTCP are available in the swdist folder/directory on the IFS server. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) FTP (File Transfer Protocol) allows a user to transfer files between any two computers connected through the Internet. There are vast archives of files on public sites throughout the world. You do not need an account or password on the host computer to use its public files. Accessing these sites is done via anonymous FTP. Fetch is a FTP client software program for Macintosh; Rapid Filer works on Windows machines. ITD Documentation: Using Anonymous FTP to Transfer Files, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1173 Using Rapid Filer to Transfer Files With FTP, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step- by-step S4162 Using Fetch to Transfer Files With FTP, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4161 Using NCSA Telnet, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4137 Software: Available in the swdist folder/directory on the IFS server. 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 9
  • 10. Computer Conferencing As A Tool for Collaboration Local- and Wide-area Conferencing Using Discussion Groups Electronic-mail (e-mail) is generally used for communication between individuals, or between an individual and a group. Various other services—conferencing programs—exist to allow entire groups to participate in online discussion groups. The three most commonly used conferencing programs at U-M are: Confer U, and Lotus Notes. Your choice will be based on where the information you need to access resides, and the type of hardware you have. Also to be considered are whether you need to “download” conference entries to work on another machine which may be disconnected from networks, such as a laptop. Telnet: confer.itd.umich.edu ITD Documentation: Conferencing Options Decision Tool, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1143 Electronic Conferencing at a Glance, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1142 Accessing the ITD Login, UMCE Subscription, and Statistics Services, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4157 Subscribing to UMCE Services, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4173 **Computer Conferencing Using Confer U Confer U is a U-M based program that allows individuals or groups to set up an electronic discussion on a given theme or for a specific purpose. Participants join the conference, enter items for discussion, and respond to previously entered items. Conferences can be public, open to anyone at the University with a uniqname, or private ones, restricted to a specific group, such as a class, organization, or work group. There are many public conferences for general socializing or discussions of a wide range of topics. Confer U can be accessed from anywhere you can use telnet, including the U-M ITD Login Server. This program allows for conferencing on MichNet. It is also possible to access commercial networks using Confer U. (Information about this is included in the Computing Handbook.) Beginning a Confer U conference at U-M Confer U is a program that can be used without TCP/IP connectivity, as it can be accessed by VT100 emulation, using any communications software such as VersaTerm or PROCOMM. To Use the ITD Confer Host: There is a fee for using this service. You need a uniqname and UMICH password, and a subscription to Confer U. You also need client software to connect to the Confer host. You also need to know the name of the conference you wish to participate in. In order to login to a conference, you telnet to the Confer host using its host name. Telnet: confer.itd.umich.edu 10
  • 11. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services ITD Documentation: See Computer Conferencing Using Confer U, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Tutorial T7034 Conferencing Options Decision Tool, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1143 Electronic Conferencing at a Glance, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1142 **Computer Conferencing Using Lotus Notes Lotus Notes is an application that combines conferencing, electronic forms, and other capabilities. It is described as “groupware” because it facilitates collaborative interactions on documents among a group of users. It offers discussion groups, database services, a Web browser, directory services, e-mail, workflow, and other services, in addition to supporting basic productivity software such as word processing, spreadsheeting, etc. The user interface is the same for different applications—creating ease-of-use efficiencies. Departments, classes, work groups, and student organizations can set up a Lotus Notes service for collaborative interactions on shared documents. There is a charge for using this program. The program does require some training in order to make the most effective use of it. (ITD currently offers workshops on the use of this program, for both Mac and Windows platforms.) A Lotus Notes opening screen ITD Workshops: Lotus Notes 4.0 Lotus Notes for Developers ITD Documentation: ITD Workshop handout, available from the Workshop Registrar—(76)3-3649. Web Pages: http://www.notes.itd.umich.edu/ Uniqname and UMICH (Kerberos) Password In order to use many of the computing resources available on the U-M campus, all faculty, staff, and students must have a computing ID which provides proof of their identity to the computing service providers. Your computing ID at U-M is a uniqname (pronounced “unique name”) and its accompanying UMICH password. Everyone connected to the U-M gets a uniqname when they come to the University; this same uniqname will stay with you as long as you are affiliated with U-M. Uniqnames are published along with other information about you in the online X.500 directory (we will demonstrate this later), for others to see and use in order to locate and communicate with you. Uniqnames (unlike passwords) are difficult to change. You will want to choose your uniqname carefully. Uniqnames must be 3-8 lowercase characters with no spaces or punctuation, and one not already selected by another user. A UMICH (Kerberos) password goes with your uniqname. This allows you to authenticate, or prove your uniqname identity when you access U-M computing services. (You do not tell anyone your password so that another person may not make unauthorized use of computing resources in 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 11
  • 12. your name.) Passwords can be changed, and, probably should be, from time to time. A Uniqname and UMICH password are required in order to use most of the services covered in this workshop. If You Forget Your Uniqname or Password: If you forget your uniqname and it’s not printed on your ID card, you can look it up in the X.500 online directory. If you forget your UMICH password, you will need to go to the ITD Accounts Office in the lower level of the Michigan Union or the NUBS (North University Building) Computing Resource Site to get it reset. ITD Documentation: Uniqname and Kerberos, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1080 Your Uniqname and Password, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1136 Choosing a Uniqname Password, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1162 Uniqname: Your Key to Resources at U-M, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1183 Password Security, ITD Documentation Series Title: Reference R1192 All-Password Reset Policies, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1135 Uniqname Application and Compliance Agreement, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1133 **X.500 Online Directory To send e-mail and collaborate online with colleagues, you will need to know their network addresses, in much the same way that you need to know the addresses and phone numbers of your family and friends in order to communicate with them by phone or US mail. X.500 is the online directory (or “white pages”) that you use to look up people at the U-M and at other locations around the world. The directory lists peoples’ names, addresses, uniqnames, e- mail addresses, phone numbers and other useful information. The information about faculty and staff enters the U-M X.500 system from the University Personnel Office. Student information is entered from the Registrar’s Office. The information is updated regularly—every month or six weeks. Because the information is updated regularly, it is often more current than the annual printed directory. (If you have requested that information about you not appear in the University phone book, it will not appear in X.500.) Other X.500 Services The X.500 program provides other services besides directory information for people. The program allows for the creation of electronic mail groups, where a single message can be sent to a few or hundreds of individuals. The program allows a user to join and remove him/herself from these mail groups. Lists of membership in e-mail groups can also be printed. ITD-produced user documents that provide detailed instructions about how to use computer technology are listed in the X.500 directory. Hundreds of these useful documents, which can be printed on almost any local printer, are available online. When you are away from your job for any extended length of time—on University business, vacation, or sick leave—X.500 makes it possible for you to set up e-mail messages that will notify those sending e-mail to you that you are not reading messages for a given length of time. X.500 is one of the ITD services that requires a uniqname and password in order to use it. It is a client/server program, which is a software program that allows your computer to access programs and data stored on one or more computing servers. It is necessary to have the appropriate client 12
  • 13. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services software loaded on your computer in order to access this program. There are separate versions of the program for the three most commonly used U-M desktop computer platforms: Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX. (There is no version of X.500 available for DOS.) While the program versions are basically similar, there are some differences between them. A MaX.500 entry for U-M’s Interim President ITD Documentation: Online Directory Services X.500, User Overview, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1124 Using maX.500 to Find and Change Your Entry, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4185 Using maX.500 to Create and Manage Groups, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4186 Using maX.500 to Find and Join Groups, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4184 Using waX.500 to Create and Manage Groups in X500, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step- by-step S4214 Using waX.500 to Find and Join Groups in X500, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by- step S4213 Using waX.500 to Find and Change X500 Entry, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4212 Using ud to Find and Change Your Entry, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4182 Using ud to Find and Join Groups, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4181 Using ud toCreate and Manage Groups, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4183 Software: The X.500 software is available in the swdist directory on the IFS (Institutional File System). (We will look at IFS later in the workshop.) Connecting Your Computer to the U-M Network, MichNet, and the Internet In order to use the vast number of computing resources available at U-M and around the world, your computer needs to be, and probably is, connected to the University backbone network. There are two primary ways a user can physically connect to the network. Your computer may be directly connected with Ethernet cabling, or you may connect by dialing-in over telephone lines using a modem. Direct Connections—Ethernet Most campus offices and laboratories, as well as the Campus Computing Sites, ResComp Sites and rooms in residence halls are directly connected to the campus network, and therefore, MichNet and the Internet, with Ethernet (TCP/IP compatible) cabling. Dial-in Access of the U-M Network Using a NAS (Network Access Server) (from a Remote, off-campus, Site), Using A Modem University faculty, staff, and students, who have a uniqname, password, and account, can also connect a computer to the campus network from any location by using a modem and a telephone line to dial in to a Network Access Server (NAS). Note that Ethernet connections typically provide much faster connections than do modem connections. 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 13
  • 14. Through the use of a NAS, you can either: a) use full Internet services with the help of PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol), (PPP allows you to use TCP/IP over a dial-in connection); b) connect to Internet hosts without using other types of Internet services, if you have non-PPP or terminal emulation software. After you have connected to the network through direct cabling or a modem, you will need networking and communications software that’s appropriate for your kind of computer and network. Software for TCP/IP connectivity (for Ethernet or modem connections) is conveniently bundled into Internet Access Kits, which can be copied directly onto your computer hard drive. You can download the appropriate kit onto disks and then onto your computer’s hard drive from the disks. Be sure to check the readme files included with software for installation procedures. ITD Workshops: Internet Access Kit (dialup) - Mac OS Internet Access Kit (dialup) - Windows 3.1 Internet Access Kit (dialup) - Windows 95 ITD Documentation: Installing the Macintosh Internet Access Kit, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4199 Installing the Windows Internet Access Kit (Ethernet), ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step- by-step S4136 Installing the Windows Internet Access Kit (NAS), ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4187 Installing the Wi95s Internet Access Kit—UM Online, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step- by-step S4187 Software: Internet Access Kits, in both Macintosh and Windows versions, are available through the IFS swdist directory. VersaTerm can be purchased at Photo & Campus Services on the lower level of the Michigan Union. PROCOMM PLUS is available free of charge through the IFS swdist directory. SOFTWARE CONNECTIONS: INTERNET ACCESS KITS Components Macintosh **Windows 3.1 Windows 95 TCP/IP MacTCP, MacPPP, LAN WorkPlace Dial-up networking Connectivity FreePPP included in Windows 95 Telnet Client NCSA Telnet Host Presenter Host Presenter 3270 Client Brown tn3270 McGill tn3270 (Available from IFS swdist) E-Mail Client Eudora Lite (*telnet (*telnet to Login (*telnet to Login to Login Service) Service) Service) World Wide Web Netscape Navigator Netscape Navigator Netscape Navigator Client 14
  • 15. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services FTP Client Fetch Rapid Filer Rapid Filer X.500 Client maX.500 waX.500 waX.500 *If you wish to use Pine e-mail, no additional software is required; use the telnet client to access the ITD Login Service or Statistics Service: use the telnet client to access the ITD Login service, and then type pine at the Unix% prompt. **A new version of the Windows 3.1 Kit will become available during the fall 1996 term. Software selection for the Internet Access Kits continues to evolve. For the most current information, call 4-HELP, send e-mail to online.consulting@umich.edu or check the ITD Web page. System Requirements for Using the Internet Access Kits Minimum requirements: 4MB RAM, a hard drive, a high-density disk drive. For dialing in, you will need a modem with a speed of 9600bps—14,400bps or higher is recommended. Macintosh users need System 7 or later. Windows system requirements include a 386sx processor or later and Windows 3.1 or later. Dial-In Access to a NAS (Network Access Server) from Ann Arbor up to 28.8 Kbps, V.34 213-3720 up to 14/4 Kbps. V/32/ bis 998-1300 For those whose computers do not meet the system requirements for using one of the Internet Access Kits, connection to the campus network is possible. You will not be able to open a TCP/IP session or use the various client programs. However, you can still access your electronic mail (with Pine e-mail program), and use some of the Internet features through the ITD Login Service with the help of terminal emulation software. (Terminal emulation software allows your computer to function like a terminal to another computer and to access information on this other computer.) ITD supports two packages for terminal emulation: VersaTerm for Macintosh computers, and PROCOMM PLUS for DOS machines. A 2400bps modem speed is minimum for connection to a NAS. Dial-in service is metered, costs are shown in the table below. Prime Time 5:00pm to 11:00pm $0.44/hour Daytime 6:00am to 5:00pm $0.22/hour Economy Time 11:00pm to 6:00am $0.11/hour ITD Documentation: Installing and Using PROCOMM PLUS, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by- step S4201 Installing and Using VersaTerm 5.0, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4141 Software: PROCOMM PLUS (for DOS machines) is available from IFS swdist directory. **The UMCE (University of Michigan Computing Environment) Subscription Service A UMCE account is required for using many of the computing services mentioned in this workshop as you are charged for their use. ITD automatically deposits funding (called a 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 15
  • 16. computing) allocation for Ann Arbor campus staff, faculty, and students in their UMCE Individual Accounts on the first working day of each month. The allocations are large enough so that most people have sufficient funding to cover their computing activities. You can accumulate up to two months worth of funds in your UMCE Individual Account. You can use the funds in your account to pay for a variety of computing services, such as e-mail, file space, Confer U, the ITD Statistics Service, and dial-in access. The U-M Computing Environment (UMCE) Subscription service Most UMCE services, such as e-mail and the ITD Login Service, are charged for on a monthly subscription basis. Others, such as dial-in service are metered, according to time and/or usage. This Subscription Service provides the means for subscribing to, and unsubscribing from, the UMCE services. These services include e-mail, and the network dial-in service, as well as some others. You pay a flat monthly fee for some services, such as Confer U. Other services, such as network dial-in are metered; you pay for the amount of time you use the service. To be sure you are properly subscribed to the UMCE services are not spending your ITD Computing Allocation, or paying for services that you don’t need, you can check your subscriptions and account balances. **To Subscribe to UMCE Services: 1. Connect to the UMCE Subscription Service, using NCSA Telnet or Host Presenter. [Telnet to umce.itd.umich.edu 2. At the login prompt: enter your uniqname. At the password: prompt: enter your UMICH password 3. Press the down arrow key to highlight the words: “UMCE Accounting and Billing System” Press <Return> 4. Press the space bar to go to the words “Go to the UMCE Subscription Service.” Press <Return>. 5. Press the space bar to go to the next page. The words “Query ABS” will be highlighted. Press return. 6. When prompted for your user name, enter your uniqname. Press the down arrow key once to highlight the word “Submit.” Press return. 7. You should see a listing of your subscriptions. When finished, press “q” to quit. When you see the prompt, “Are you sure you want to quit? [Y],” press return. By unsubscribing to unnecessary services, you may be able to free up funding for metered service, such as additional dial-in time. To avoid service denials, especially late in the month, you may want to set up a UMCE Self-Funded Computing Account to avoid possible service denials. This account will only be tapped when—and if—your UMCE Individual Account runs out of funds. Contact the ITD Accounts Office (76)4-8000 for more information. Telnet: umce.itd.umich.edu 16
  • 17. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services ITD Documentation: Subscribing to UMCE Services, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4173 Dialing in to UMCE: Tips for Incoming Students, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by- step S4226 Managing Your UMCE Individual Account, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4172 Services: ITD Accounts Office: (76)4-8000 The ITD Login Service The ITD Login Service is the basic computing service subscribed to by most U-M faculty, staff, and students. It is a set of servers and hosts which provide access to various computing resources. It is intended for users who are running interactive software, such as Pine e-mail, Usenet news, programming languages, editors, and Unix utilities, but who don’t need to run applications that require large amounts of computing power, such as statistical programs. (For these, you may need the Statistics and Computation Service, which is described below.) Telnet: login.itd.umich.edu ITD Documentation: Accessing the ITD Login Service, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4157 ITD Statistics Service This set of Unix workstations provides access to SAS, SPSS, S+, and BMDP for statistical analysis. You subscribe to this service by connecting to the UMCE Subscription Service. A subscription to the ITD Statistics Service includes all the resources of the ITD Login Service as well. Telnet: stat.itd.umich.edu Confer U This services runs on a Unix workstation and allows you to participate in a variety of online discussion groups on a wide range of topics. (More information on using Confer U for collaboration is located earlier in this document.) Telnet: confer.itd.umich.edu **Obtaining Software at the U-M Besides providing some of the best academic computing technology to faculty, staff, and students, the U-M makes hundreds of software programs available either free-of-charge, or at significantly reduced prices. The software consists of two large collections of software that are available for copy to all members of the University community. Accessing the U-M Software Distribution Service on a Macintosh computer The U-M software collections are the Software Archives and the Software Distribution directory. Both of these software collections include software for Macintosh, Windows, and Unix 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 17
  • 18. computers. Everything is stored on the IFS server(s). It is possible to access the Merit/U-M Software Archives on the U-M GOpherBLUE server. The U-M Software Archives The U-M Software Archives, sometimes called the Merit/U-M Software Archives, provide a useful collection of data, text, and programs for both Macintosh and Windows. Everything from electronic magazines to games to sound files is available here, including such programs as a generic version of maX.500. This collection contains thousands of programs including public domain, and shareware programs. Public domain software programs are ones made available free by the programmers. Shareware is software also provided by its creators, who request a small fee if you like and use the program(s). Paying the reduced fees makes you a registered user, as a result you will often receive documentation and program upgrades. The U-M maintains the Archive collection as a service to all people using the Internet. These programs are available to anyone using the Internet, and hence are available to any U-M faculty, staff, or student. Users may also access these programs using the FTP client Fetch, or Rapid Filer to connect via anonymous FTP to archive.umich.edu. The U-M Software Distribution System The other collection of software stored in the swdist directory on IFS is available to all members of the U-M community who have a uniqname and umich password. This collection includes software that is free, requires a fee, or is site-licensed. Site-licensed software programs are programs that the University has obtained for use by all members of the U-M community either free, or by purchasing a single license for the entire University. These programs are available free or at a reduced fee to all or part of the U-M community. Programs included in the swdist directory are: X.500 versions which has been adapted for the University of Michigan Computing Environment (UMCE). Also Eudora e-mail, SPSS and SAS statistical software, as well as many other commercial products and upgrades. Availability of Other (Productivity) Software The University also makes bulk purchase agreements and educational discounts on software such as Microsoft Word and Excel, Aldus PageMaker, and Claris FileMaker Pro. These programs are available for purchase from Photo and Campus Services, now adjacent to the Computer Showcase on the lower level of the Michigan Union. See GOpherBLUE for pricing and availability. ITD Workshops: File Transfers/Downloading Software ITD Documentation: Obtaining Software From U-M, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4147 Obtaining Software From the Archives, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4121 Obtaining and Installing Antivirus Software, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-step S4121 18
  • 19. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services **MIRLYN—Using the U-M Library’s Online Reference System You can find out if a U-M book or journal is available, browse other university online catalogs, or request a printout of a specific article—all from your own desktop computer—using MIRLYN. MIRLYN is the University Library’s online system and your gateway to many materials, including books, journals, music, maps, and archives. All materials held by the various U-M libraries, including Business and Law, are listed in MCAT, a MIRLYN database. MCAT provides information on physical location of materials, call numbers, and availability. It is also a connection to other universities’ online catalogs. To access MIRLYN, telnet to the host. Select MCAT from the menu and follow the easy-to-use instructions. Validation by name, social security number, and/or uniqname is required for some files and services. Telnet: mirlyn.telnet.lib.umich.edu Using GOpherBLUE to Access Card Catalogs Around the World Use Ulibrary to browse hundreds of online library catalogs around the world. This is a gopher program and accessible from the GOpherBLUE main menu. ITD Documentation: Accessing MIRLYN, U-M’s Online Library System, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Step-by-Step S4180. Web Pages: U-M Library Home Page: http://www.lib.umich.edu Reference Collection: http://www.lib.umich.edu/refshelf/ U-M Papyrology Home: http://www.lib.umich.edu/pap/HomePage.html The U-M Library MIRLYN online card catalog The Information Technology Division (ITD) Many, if not most, of the services covered in this workshop are provided by the University of Michigan’s Information Technology Division (ITD). ITD coordinates campuswide computing systems and services, including the Campus Computing Sites, networks, file storage systems, e- mail, directory services, computer sales, U-M’s telephone system, a computer assistance telephone line (76)4-HELP), and instructional technology support. Other ITD services include video services and administrative databases and servers, workshops, documentation, and more. ITD is also responsible for the terminal access structure of the University computing environment, that is, the Network Access Systems (NAS). The Division also provides staffing for MichNet. 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 19
  • 20. In addition to the many services provided to the University community, ITD also provides leadership in the innovative application of information technology in higher education, across the nation and around the world. The following are ITD services in addition to the ones previously covered. We will demonstrate a few of them. Additional services which may be of use to you, some of which are not directly available by computer, are mentioned below. Access to Computers Campus Computing Sites All faculty, staff and students at U-M have access to the latest computing technology at the numerous Campus Computing Sites. ITD operates 14 Campus Computing Sites where any member of the U-M community can go to use computers. The number of computers at each site varies from 15 to 350, totaling more than 1,300 computers in all. Many University schools, colleges, and departments run their own specialized computing labs for their students. Each residence hall has a computing site operated by the Residence Halls Computing Program (ResComp) that is open to anyone living in University housing. Altogether, there are more than 20,000 computers at U-M. Electronic Classrooms Faculty and staff can reserve classrooms adjacent to or a part of several of the Campus Computing Sites for instructional use. There are currently eight electronic classrooms available. For more information, send e-mail to sites.reservations@umich.edu, or call (64)7-4837. Instructional Technology Lab (ITL) ITD operates the Instructional Technology Lab, a well-equipped laboratory workspace and resource center where faculty and graduate students can explore instructional media or create their own computer-based teaching applications with the assistance of the ITD staff who work there. This facility, located at 1712 Dow Chemistry Building on the Central Campus, is currently open to faculty and staff Monday through Friday from 1-5 p.m. Call (93)6-1140 for more information. The New Media Center The New Media Center (NMC), located on the third floor of the School of Education Building (SEB), is a state-of-the-art facility providing a hands-on workspace for students interested in using instructional technology, or creating multimedia presentations. The Media Union New in fall 1996, the Media Union on North campus houses interdisciplinary projects that explore the use of leading-edge information technology. The Media Union is dedicated to removing academic boundaries of the information age in order to build a foundation for learning and creativity in the 21st century. The Media Union is a Universitywide endeavor to bring together the creative aspects of all campus disciplines. This state-of-the-art facility is located on the North Campus, adjacent to the Pierpont Commons and the Chrysler Center. The facility is a 250,000 sq. ft., four-level complex. It houses traditional and digital libraries, interactive multimedia classrooms, sophisticated 20
  • 21. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services computational tools (including visualization & virtual reality labs, and digital sound & video equipment). Performance and design studios are available as well as more than 500 workstations in open areas. This facility replaces the Campus Computing Site formerly located in the Commons building. For more information, call (76)3-3266, or send e-mail to ummu-support@umich.edu. Web Pages: http://www.ummu/umich.edu/ Purchasing Computers At the U-M Computer Showcase The U-M Computer Sales Program provides hardware and software to the University community at educational (reduced) prices. Products available include complete computer systems, and printers as well as Ethernet cards and modems. This service is located in the first lower level of the Michigan Union. Product demonstrations and sales consulting are available in the U-M Computer Showcase. ITD consultants provide overviews of hardware and software products, answer sales questions, help plan purchases, and authorize order forms for individuals ready to purchase. This is a non-profit facility, the sales consultants will not try to sell you something you don’t need. Computer hardware is available for purchase to part-time/full-time students, full-time faculty, and full-time staff at U-M. Software is available to all students, faculty, and staff at U-M. Selected software and other supplies, including: disks, paper, toner cartridges, and other supplies are now available for purchase from Photo and Campus Services, located next door to the Showcase. Available products and prices are listed on the GOpherBLUE server. Telnet: gopher.itd.umich.edu Web Pages: http://www.itd.umich.edu/Sales/ Getting Help With Computer Technology ITD Consulting ITD provides a number of consulting services to help members of the U-M community use computing technology more effectively. Telephone Consulting—Call 4-HELP The 4–HELP Hotline is a telephone consulting service staffed by consultants who can handle a wide variety of computing questions. This service is available for people associated with U-M, for use at work or at home. You reach these consultants by calling (76)4-HELP. Occasionally your question will be referred to an expert consultant if the staff at 4-HELP can’t answer it. Expert consultants try to help you within 48 hours, often sooner. Online Consulting This option allows you to ask questions and receive answers through e-mail. Send a message describing your problem to online.consulting@umich.edu. Be sure to include the kind of computer system you are using. A consultant will contact you within 48 hours. 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 21
  • 22. Administrative Systems Consulting Faculty and staff who use the Data Systems Center (DSC) administrative mainframe and Oracle systems can get help by calling the Administrative Hotline at 763-0107, or by sending e-mail to admin.hotline@umich.edu. Arrangements for custom consulting can be made by calling the Hotline. Walk-in Consulting Consultants working at staffed Campus Computing Sites can provide assistance on a walk-in basis. The Angell Hall Courtyard, the Michigan Union, the School of Education, and NUBS Computing Resource Sites have consulting staff available. Custom Consulting Custom consulting is also available from ITD. In these special cases, ITD computer consultants are available for hire on a short-term basis. Contact (76)3-8940 for more information on custom consulting. ITD Computing Workshops The Information Technology Division offers hundreds of computing workshops each term. These workshops offer opportunities for faculty, staff, and students to improve their present computing skills and to enhance their skills by learning to use new software programs and other computing technology. Workshops are offered in the areas of: administrative computing, getting started using Macintosh and/or PC computers, database management, e-mail and group communication, and using the Internet. Additional regular workshops include many on networking and network administration, spreadsheets, Unix use and administration, word processing, and desktop publishing. Special workshops can be arranged for groups. Some computer-based instruction and tutorials are also available. Workshop schedules are available on the U-M GOpherBLUE information server and on the World-Wide Web. A printed course guide is also available. Registration can be accomplished by calling ITD Workshop Registration at (76)3-3700, or by sending an e-mail message to: itd.workshops@umich.edu. ITD Documentation: ITD Non-Credit Computing Course Handouts, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1167 ITD Non-Credit Computing Courses on Campus, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1046 Web Pages: http://www.itd.umich.edu/Getting_Help/Training ITD Computing Documentation **Using the U-M Information System The U-M Information System provides quick and easy online access to information designed to help you use the software and tools of the University of Michigan Computing Environment (UMCE). It allows you to search for and retrieve most of the user documentation, such as QuickNotes, created to enhance your computing experience. 22
  • 23. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services This service, which is available on the World-Wide Web through Netscape, provides documentation, instructions, and other information to help you use ITD services. The system includes QuickNotes and other Reference, Step-by-Step, and Tutorial documents as well as ITD workshop announcements and descriptions. Users can save entire documents onto their computers, where they can be read on screen or printed. Searching the ITD Information System 1) First access the itddoc Web page. 2) Click in the search field box, then type a search term, such as “eudora.” If you know the document’s number, you can enter it as a search term, but you must use the appropriate letter prefix (R, S, or T), such as “S4147.” 3) A Search Results document will appear, showing a summary of your search strategy and a list of documents and workshops that match your search. ((If the system does not find a match for your search term(s), the Search Results document will display “Unsuccessful Search” and present you with other options.) 4) To view a document, follow ifs link by clicking the title’s highlighted (or underlined) text. 5) To submit another search, return to the Information System home page by clicking the highlighted text “Return to Search Page” at the bottom of the Search Results page or by clicking the Back button in the upper left of the Netscape toolbar. Note: If you’ve submitted one search and decide to perform another, make sure you clear the previous search criteria by clicking on the Clear Search Criteria button. If you don’t the criteria you used for your initial search will also be used for subsequent searches. Web Pages: http://www.itd.umich.edu/itddoc The ITD Accounts Office The ITD handles computing accounts for everyone at U-M. These are the people you need to talk to add funds to your UMCE account, or to set up an account for dial-in, or other services. Forgotten passwords are handled in this office. The office is located on the lower level of the Michigan Union. Contact them by e-mail to itd.accounts@umich.edu, or call them at (76)4-8000. The U-M Telephone System In addition to computer networking services, ITD manages and operates the U-M’s telephone system, providing on-campus telephone service to the University community on all three campuses—Ann Arbor, Dearborn, and Flint. The U-M telephone system is the largest privately- owned telephone system in the United States, with 40,000 lines. It handles 15 million calls per month, working closely with the common carrier companies to connecting phone calls around the world. U-M telephone service is available on-campus and to students living in residence halls and family housing. Faculty and staff office telephones have voice mail service on the Meridian Voice Mail System as a feature options along with regular telephone services. 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 23
  • 24. Services: Customer Service (Faculty and Staff), (76)3-2000 Customer Service (Students), (763-0252 Repair, (76)3-9138 Contract Services Departments and administrative units can contract with ITD for on-site technical and user support services. For more information about services available, costs, etc., send e-mail to itdcsa@umich.edu. UMTV Another important and growing service is the University’s campus cable television network— UMTV. This ITD service is available to students in residence halls, in many classrooms, lecture halls, faculty offices, and meeting areas across campus. UMTV channels provide academic units, departments, and student groups an opportunity to program information for the campus community. Channel 26 is the InfoTech Channel. It is designed to provide information about computing services and learning opportunities for students, faculty, and staff. Many other units also provide specialized informational, instructional, and interactive programming. UMTV reception is not currently available to off-campus residents. Information: UMTV, (76)3-8939 To report trouble with UMTV reception, call (94)6-DATA. Videoconferencing/Distance Learning Videoconferencing allows people to meet “face-to-face” even though they may be separated by a great distance. This technology, made available by integrating video and telecommunications, allows members of the U-M community to conduct conferences comprised of members located in widely distributed locations, both in the US and around the world. The U-M also uses this videoconferencing technology to teach courses and entire degree programs in places across the nation and in locations in other parts of the world. Currently, the University teaches a Master’s degree program jointly with the University of Maryland. Students attend classes in the videoconferencing center on one of the campuses. They can see and interact with the faculty and students located at the other course site. The University of Michigan also offers a Master’s in Business Administration to a class of students located in Hong Kong, using the videoconferencing and distance learning technology. The use of videoconferencing/distance learning technology will continue to expand the University’s influence and its ability to teach students at locations other than southeastern Michigan. U-M leadership expects that in the next few years, the number of U-M students attending class in other places will continue to expand. Customers are charged by the hour for the use of the facility. For more information, call (76)3-2001. 24
  • 25. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services Adaptive Technology for Users With Disabilities ITD provides special hardware, software, and services to meet the needs of users with disabilities, including repetitive stress injuries. The central location for these services is in the Adaptive Technology Computing Site (ATCS), Room B136 in the basement of the Shapiro Library. The Adaptive Technology Computing Site recently underwent a major renovation. The attractive and updated lab is the outcome of a grant from the Herman Miller company and includes all ergonomic-designed furniture. The facility is considered to be the best-equipped site at all US institutions of higher learning. The ATCS is open during library hours and is staffed on Tuesday and Friday from 1-5 p.m. The Site is accessible to wheelchair users. Send e-mail to jim.knox@umich.edu or call (93)6-0820 for more information. Computing Rights and Responsibilities University-provided computers and networks are shared resources of the University—much like the library collections and other facilities. It is up to each individual to learn about these resources and use them appropriately. Policies and Guidelines The University’s Proper Use Policy and Guidelines for Responsible Use describe the responsible, ethical, and legal use of computing resources for the protection of all users. We encourage you to read these documents, ask questions, and help us maintain an open community of responsible users. As a member of the U-M computing community, you are expected to follow certain standards of behavior. When you use the University’s technology services, you accept the following specific responsibilities: ∑ To respect the privacy of other users. ∑ To respect the rights of other users. ∑ To respect the legal protection provided by copyright and licensing of data and programs. ∑ To respect the intended use of resources ∑ To respect the intended use of systems for electronic exchange, such as e-mail. ∑ To respect the integrity of the system or network. ∑ To respect the financial structure of a computing or networking system. ∑ To adhere to all General University Policies and Procedures. Violations of Guidelines for Responsible Use Violations of the above guidelines are certainly unethical and may be violations of University policy or criminal offenses. You are expected to report information you may have concerning instances in which the above guidelines have been or are being violated. In accordance with the established University practices, policies, and procedures, confirmation of inappropriate use of U-M technology resources may result in termination of access, disciplinary review, expulsion from the University, termination of employment, legal action or other disciplinary action. 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 25
  • 26. Questions about the Guidelines for Responsible Use and reports of possible violations of the Guidelines or the Proper Use Policy to the ITD User Advocate (itd.user.advocate@umich.edu or call (76)38940. The Proper Use of Information Resources, Information Technology, and Networks at the University of Michigan It is the policy of the University to maintain access for its community to local, national, and international sources of information and to provide an atmosphere that encourages access to knowledge and sharing of information. It is the policy of the University that information resources will be used by members of its community with respect for the public trust through which they have been provided and in accordance with policy and regulations established from time to time by the University and its operating units. In accordance with the above policies, the University works to create an intellectual environment in which students, staff, and faculty may feel free to create and to collaborate with colleagues both at the University of Michigan and at other institutions, without fear that the products of their intellectual efforts will be violated by misrepresentation, tampering, destruction, and/or theft. Access to the information resource infrastructure both within the University and beyond the campus, sharing of information, and security of the intellectual products of the community all require that each and every user accept responsibility to protect the rights of the community. Any member of the University community who, without authorization, accesses, uses, destroys, alters, dismantles, or disfigures the University information technologies, properties, or facilities, including those owned by third parties, thereby threatens the atmosphere of increased access and sharing of information, threatens the security within which members of the community may create intellectual products and maintain records, and in light of the University’s policy in this area, has engaged in unethical and unacceptable conduct. Access to the networks and to the information technology environment at the University of Michigan is a privilege and must be treated as such by all users of these systems. To ensure the existence of this information resource environment, members of the University community will take actions, in concert with State and Federal agencies and other interested parties, to identify and to set up technical and procedural mechanisms to make the information technology environment at the University of Michigan and its internal and external networks resistant to disruption. In the final analysis, the health and well-being of this resource is the responsibility of its users, who must all guard against abuses which disrupt and/or threaten the long-term viability of the systems at the University of Michigan and those beyond the University. The University requires that members of its community act in accordance with these responsibilities, this policy, relevant laws and contractual obligations, and the highest standard of ethics. Though not exhaustive, the following material defines the University’s position regarding several general issues in this area.* The University characterizes as unethical and unacceptable, and just cause for taking disciplinary action up to and including non-reappointment, discharge, dismissal, and/or legal action, any activity through which an individual: (a) violates such matters as University or third-party copyright or patent protection and authorizations, as well as license agreements and other contracts, 26
  • 27. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services (b) interferes with the intended use of the information resources, (c) seeks to gain or gains unauthorized access to information resources, (d) without authorization, destroys, alters, dismantles, disfigures, prevents rightful access to, or otherwise interferes with the integrity of computer-based information and/or information resources, (e) without authorization invades the privacy of individuals or entities that are creators, authors, users, or subjects of the information resources. This policy is applicable to any member of the University community, whether at the University or elsewhere, and refers to all information resources, whether individually controlled, shared, stand alone, or networked. Individual units within the University may define “conditions of use” for facilities under their control. These statements must be consistent with this overall policy but may provide additional detail, guidelines, and/or restrictions. Where such “conditions or use” exists, enforcement mechanisms defined therein shall apply. Where no enforcement mechanism exists, the enforcement mechanism defined in the Guidelines for Implementing the Proper Use Policy of the University of Michigan: Responsible Use of Technology Resources shall prevail. Disciplinary action, if any, for faculty and staff shall be consistent with the University Standard Practice Guides and the Bylaws of the Regents of the University. Where use of external networks is involved, policies governing such use also are applicable and must be adhered to. *Information resources in this document are meant to include any information in electronic or audiovisual format or any hardware or software that make possible the storage and use of such information. As example, included in this definition are electronic mail, local databases, externally accessed databases, CD-ROM, motion picture film, recorded magnetic media, photographs, and digitized information such as the content of MIRLYN. (Standard Practice Guide (601.7) ITD Documentation: *Password Security, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1192 *Ethical and Legal Use of Software, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1172 Ethical and Legal Use of Digital Media, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1181 Guidelines for the Administration of the Proper Use Policy, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1103 *Policy: Proper Users of Information Technology Resources, ITD Documentation, Series Title: Reference R1175 *Don’t Let Computer Viruses Bug You, ITD Documentation Web Pages: http://www.umich.edu/start/rights.resp.html http://www.umich.edu/~spgonlin * Included with course materials. Other Resources Books: Williams, Robin, and Cummings, Steve, Jargon, An Informal Dictionary of Computer Terms, Peachpit Press, Berkeley, CA, 1993. Computing Handbook, Guide for U-M Students, Faculty, and Staff, The University of Michigan, Information Technology Division, Reference R1047. (Current Edition.) 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 27
  • 28. InfoTech Digest, The University of Michigan, Information Technology Division, ITD newsletter, published monthly except June, August, and December. Contains information the latest developments in computing at U-M and elsewhere. Free subsciptions available from by e-mail to itd.doc@umich.edu. MichNet News, Merit Network, Inc., 4251 Plymouth Rd., Suite C, Ann Arbor, MI 48105-2785. [Subscriptions: send e-mail to mnn-request at merit.edu.] Glossary access To access something on a computer system is to use it. However, first you much switch to where the thing to be accessed is stored, or, you must tell the computer where it is located. You may also need a password before you can use the information that is needed. browser A browser is World-Wide Web server software that allows the user to locate information on the Web. CD-ROM This is the acronym for “compact disk, read-only memory.” CD-ROMs look like the CDs we use to play music. To use these with your computer, you need a CD-ROM player or drive. A CD-ROM can hold up to 600MB of information—the equivalent of about 700 floppy diskettes. There are CD-ROMS that hold encyclopedias, complete with video clips of moving animals, etc., the entire works of Shakespeare, and huge collections of graphic images and photographs. client A networked computer, often on a user’s desktop, that may access servers. The servers “serve” information to the user’s computer, which is referred to as the “client.” dial-in access Most desktop computers on the U-M campuses are directly connected (by cable) to the U-M network. It is possible to connect computers off-campus (at home or elsewhere), by dialing in to the network using the common telephone lines. Ethernet Ethernet is a type local area network (LAN) connecting computers together with cables so the computers can share information. Within each main branch of the network, Ethernet can connect up to 1,024 personal computers and workstations. EtherTalk is the Apple Computer software that allows Macintosh computers to connect to Ethernet networks. To use EtherTalk and Ethernet, Macs must have an Ethernet interface card installed inside the computer. (In an ad like 8/80E, the E means the computer includes the Ethernet interface card. (The numbers indicate the amount of RAM and hard disk space in megabytes.) 28
  • 29. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services Ethernet, which is widely used on the U-M campus for Macintosh, DOS/Windows, and Unix-based LANa, refers both to an international LAN standard and the cabling that carries data supporting the standard. Invented at Xerox, Ethernet was the first multi-vendor LAN technology, and allows computers and networks made by various manufacturers to interoperate. Ethernet is popular because it is relatively fast (10 million bps); uses inexpensive, readily available cabling; and is quite easy to install. flame Computer users who express their opinion or feelings across a computer network in heated, emotional, and thoroughly disagreeable manner are said to be “flaming.” hard copy A hard copy is a printed version of a document that was created on a computer. It may be on paper, film, or any other “permanent” medium. A copy of the document stored on a computer is a file, sometimes called a “soft copy.” home page A home page is the basic World-Wide Web page for an individual’s or organization’s entry. IMAP e-mail client Interactive Mail Application Protocol. IMAP e-mail (Pine and Mail Drop) clients store and process mail from a central server. Messages can be accessed from many computer locations. Kerberos A password and security mechanism developed at MIT that is used during the authentication process in IFS. MacTCP This is a Macintosh Control Panel. It is Apple’s implementation of the TCP/IP protocols. MacTCP is a Macintosh operating system driver that lets a Macintosh communicate with other computers that use the TCP Internet Protocols. modem A modem is a device that allows computers or other electronic devices to communicate via telephone lines. Computers represent information digitally, as discrete packets of current, or bits. Telephone lines carry analog information, continuous, fluctuating waves of current whose frequencies are in the range you can hear. Modems are used to translate between the two types of information. NCSA Telnet This software allows users to connect to other hosts (computers and services) on the Internet, including the 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 29
  • 30. U-M Computing Environment (UMCE) services. NCSA Telnet is TCP/IP client software. news reader A software application that can connect to a news server and retrieve articles from that server. Nuntius is a news reader. patch A patch is a small program supplied by the software creator that corrects errors in the program or adds the necessary piece to allow the program to run on other computers. A patch may be a program upgrade. POP e-mail Post Office Protocol software (Eudora) downloads messages and stores them on the computer’s hard drive, thus you cannot easily read your messages from another computer. protocol Protocols are particular set of standards or rules usually having to do with communications between two or more computers. If computers were to try to exchange data using different protocols, they wouldn’t be able to talk to one another. public domain Public Domain software has been donated to the public by its creator and is free. It is not copyrighted. ROM (Read Only Memory) ROM is the permanent memory of the computer. This is where the most basic set of operating instructions are stored. In most cases, there is just enough information in the ROM to get the computer started, and to look for the operating system, and load it into memory when it is found. scanner A scanner is a device that takes a picture of a hardcopy image, such as a photograph or diagram on paper. The scanner digitizes the image, breaking it up into dots (picture elements) that can be recreated on the computer screen with electronic signals. It sends this digital information to the computer as a file. Digitized pictures can be added to documents and other programs on the computer. server Sometimes called a “host,” a server is a networked computer that users, “clients,” may access in order to use or download information stored on the server. shareware Software that is copyrighted. However, it can be copied and used without charge, but some creators ask users who like and use the program to send a small fee. Paying the fee registers you as a user of that particular program. As a registered user you may receive upgrades, enhancements, or documentation. 30
  • 31. University of Michigan Information Technology Division Education Services site-licensed Site-licensed software is commercial software for which the University of Michigan has purchased a site license. It is available only to U-M students, faculty, and staff. TCP Transportation Control Protocol. The protocol suite is used as a basis of the Internet. terminal emulation software Terminal emulation software allows your computer to function like a terminal to another computer and to access information on this other computer. Terminal emulation software in use at U-M includes PROCOMM PLUS and VersaTerm. URL Uniform resource locator. Web address to access a particular home page. World-Wide Web A global web of computer-accessible information that is interconnected at numerous points, allowing the user to move from one document or file to another by clicking or selecting work, phrases, or pictures. workstation Workstation is another name for a desktop computer system, usually bigger and more powerful than the personal computers we use at home, but one that is used by one person. Any computer that is one in a group of networked computers. 5/20/2010—mrb Computing Fundamentals at U-M 31