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    Class #2 Class #2 Presentation Transcript

    • Intro to Information Systems I System & Application Software ISYS 101 Glenn Booker
    • System Software
      • System software includes the operating system (OS) and utilities
      • The operating system performs the basic functions for a computer to be a computer
        • Communicate between software and hardware
        • Read from and write to storage
        • Manage memory
        • Run applications
    • Operating System
      • The main part of the operating system is the kernel, which is always in memory (“resident”) when the computer’s running
      • Other parts of the operating system are called upon as needed (“non-resident”)
      • Operating systems are CPU-specific
        • You can’t run Windows on a G4 processor
    • Operating System
      • DOS was a single tasking operating system – you could only run one program at a time
      • Most OS’s are multitasking – they can run many programs at once
        • One is the foreground application, the others are background applications
    • Multitasking
      • Older OS’s (Windows 3.1) used cooperative multitasking – the foreground application uses all of the CPU’s attention
      • Newer OS’s (MacOS 8-X, Win NT) use preemptive multitasking, which isolates each application in memory
        • Even if an application crashes, the operating system doesn’t
    • Multithreading, Multiprocessing
      • Within one application, multithreading allows several tasks (“threads”) to be done at the same time
        • Most modern OS’s use multithreading
      • Multiprocessing (MP) is when the computer has more than one CPU
        • For symmetric MP, each thread can be assigned to a different CPU
    • Memory Management
      • Memory (RAM) is divided into partitions for each application
      • If RAM is limited, part of the hard drive can become virtual memory
      • Chunks of memory are divided into “pages” to pass in and out of virtual memory
      • Pages are written in a swap file on hard disk
    • Interfaces
      • Hardware interfaces are controlled by programs called device drivers
        • Most are installed automatically
      • User interfaces are
        • Command line (DOS, UNIX)
        • Menu-driven (CMOS – see later)
        • Graphical user interface (MacOS, Windows)
    • User Interface
      • The user interface lets the user
        • Gain access to the computer (log in)
        • Run applications
        • Manage disks and files
        • Shut down the computer safely (necessary since DOS)
    • Types of Operating Systems
      • UNIX is a 30+ year old family of operating systems
      • Mostly used for servers and workstations
      • Dependable and very powerful, but hard to learn and somewhat obtuse (rename = mv)
      • Two major subfamilies: IBM System V and Berkeley BSD
    • Major UNIX Brands On Intel-based computers, SCO and BSD are also available. Tru64 UNIX DEC/ Compaq HP/UX HP Irix SGI MacOS X Apple Solaris, SunOS Sun AIX IBM
    • Types of Operating Systems
      • MS-DOS powered the IBM PC in 1981, and is still partially the basis for Windows ME
        • Command line interface
        • Copied by PC-DOS, DR-DOS
        • 640 kB RAM limit originally
      • While Xerox invented the GUI in the late 70’s, Apple capitalized on it with the Macintosh, now running MacOS 9 or X
        • 32-bit System 7 released in 1991
    • Types of Operating Systems
      • Microsoft Windows
        • Windows 3.x added GUI on top of DOS, but treated CPU as though it were 16-bit
        • Windows 95, 98, and ME are all still DOS-based, but try hard to be 32-bit operating systems
        • Windows NT and 2000 are clean 32-bit OS’s, which emulate DOS if needed
    • Types of Operating Systems
      • Windows CE (WinCE?) is used for small portable devices (palmtops) (Windows lite)
      • Linux is a clone of UNIX, developed starting in 1991 by Linus Torvalds
        • A third of Web servers run Linux
        • New GUI’s (Gnome and KDE) help reach desktop market
    • Types of Operating Systems
      • Mainframe or minicomputer operating systems include Unix and:
        • IBM’s OS/390 for S/390 computers
        • IBM’s OS/400 for AS/400’s
        • Compaq’s VMS for VAX/VMS or OpenVMS-based computers
    • Types of Operating Systems
      • Windows XP (“Whistler”) will be first Windows operating system for home and office which is 32-bit clean
        • It’s about time!
        • A special 64-bit version will be made for Itanium
      • BeOS ( is a free OS for graphic and multimedia applications
    • Computer Startup
      • Starting a computer is “booting” it
        • From turned off, it’s a “cold boot”
        • From already running, it’s a “warm boot”
      • First see the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) screen
        • BIOS controls what the computer boots from (floppy, hard drive, CD) and helps initially configure the hard drives
    • Computer Startup
      • After the BIOS is happy, the Power On Self Test (POST) makes sure the hardware is attached
        • Checks RAM, hard drive, floppy, keyboard, and mouse
      • Then the OS loads into RAM
      • Then you can log in
    • Profiles
      • If your OS supports multiple logins, then when you log in you get:
        • Unique desktop appearance as defined in your user profile
        • A home directory for your files
        • Varying privileges for running applications
    • Utilities: File Management
      • Basic file management utilities (like Windows Explorer) help organize files
      • Files under Windows have a file name (myfile), a period, and extension (doc)
        • The extension is used to associate files with the application used to open them
      • Files are kept in directories (folders)
    • Utilities: Backup
      • Backup utilities help archive the contents of your hard drive(s) in case of disaster or severe corruption of the disk
      • Full backup copies everything in the disk (or specified folders)
      • Incremental backup copies only those files which changed since the last backup
    • Utilities: File Compression
      • File compression utilities squash files and directories to make backup or transfer (e.g. via floppy or email) easier
      • WinZip and StuffIt are the most common
      • Pkzip was an early DOS/Windows version
      • Text files and bitmaps compress the best; some formats are already compressed (JPG)
    • Utilities: Disk Scanning & Defragmenting
      • Some utilities help manage the physical hard drives, including defragmenting
      • They also scan, erase, and format drives
        • Windows has built-in “scandisk” & defrag tools
        • DiskKeeper is used for Windows NT or 2000
        • FWB Hard Disk Toolkit for Mac
    • Application Software
      • Application software is broken into horizontal and vertical apps
        • Horizontal apps are widely used across many types of work (Word, Excel, etc.)
        • Vertical apps are designed to manage one entire business function (e.g. manufacturing)
      • Custom software is needed if one of the above doesn’t meet your needs ($$$$)
    • Application Software Types
      • Three major categories of horizontal apps used for business
        • Personal productivity (Office)
        • Multimedia & graphics (Photoshop, Fireworks, Paint Shop Pro, PageMaker, Quark)
        • Internet (Outlook, FrontPage, Internet Explorer, Netscape)
        • Plus personal finance & tax software for home
    • Software Requirements
      • The required hardware and software for running an application typically includes
        • Type of CPU
        • Type of operating system
        • Amount of RAM
        • Amount of hard drive space free
        • Other special needs (mouse, CD-ROM, etc.)
    • Software Licensing
      • Commercial software is often charged per copy of the software, or per CPU
      • Shareware is free, but you should send in money if you use it a lot
      • Freeware is free
      • Some software is public domain
    • Software Licensing
      • Linux falls under the GNU Public License (GPL)
      • Some demos or beta versions are time or feature-limited
      • Academic software might have time or feature limits
      • Site licenses help manage large facilities
    • Software Distribution
      • Software may be distributed on CD-ROM or downloaded via the Internet
      • Documentation may be electronic (PDF) and/or paper
      • Versions (3.0) indicate a major revision;
      • Maintenance releases (3.1) indicate minor improvements and fixes
    • Software Installation
      • Software is installed using a special program for that purpose
      • Installers uncompress files, and copy them to your hard drive
      • Windows apps add entries in the Registry, and in the Control Panel called Add/Remove Programs
    • Software Installation
      • Registration of the software is expected immediately after installation
      • Some apps come with uninstall programs, too – otherwise use Add/Remove Programs to delete them (please!)
    • Visual Metaphors
      • Good software is based on familiar visual appearances
        • Word processing looks like a letter
        • Spreadsheet looks like that used by an accountant
        • Databases look like file cards
        • Contact managers look like an address book
        • Personal finance program looks like checkbook
    • Integrated Applications
      • Often applications from a single vendor are integrated to work more closely with each other
        • MS Office, Works
        • Lotus SmartSuite, Corel Office
      • On a larger scale, this leads to vertical applications (e.g. SAP)
    • Windows Environment
      • A typical window has:
      • Title bar at the top, with minimize, maximize, and close window controls on the right of the title bar
      • Then a Menu bar (File, Edit, …)
      • Then one or more Toolbars
      • Your work is in the Application workspace
    • Windows Environment
      • The right side of the window has the scroll bars, arrows, and boxes
      • Under the workspace is the status bar (which tells you when you’re printing, etc.)
    • Word Processing
      • Word processing allows composition of letters, reports, and other major documents with few formatting needs
        • If you need complex formatting, use a desktop publishing program instead
      • Basic word processing allows for creating, editing, formatting, and printing a document
    • Word Processing
      • One document might be broken into Sections
        • Each section can have its own margins, orientation (landscape vs portrait), page numbering, headers and footers
      • Within a section, the paragraph is the next major element
    • Word Processing
        • Each paragraph may have styles associated with it, as well as line spacing, indenting, and spacing before and after the paragraph
      • Below the paragraph, the character is the next unit
        • Each character may have a font size, style, color, and other effects (shimmer, etc.)
        • Symbols and images are characters
    • Word Processing
      • Word processing programs can add other features, like:
        • Footnotes and endnotes, page numbers, tables of contents, indexes, etc.
        • Tracking changes for document review
      • Beware of grammar and spelling checkers!
        • Many errors won’t be caught be them
    • Spreadsheets
      • Spreadsheets mimic an account’s spreadsheet – used to add rows and columns of numbers
      • Now they also do charts and help analyze data
      • Data are in columns (for each type of data) and rows (for each record or transaction)
    • Spreadsheets
      • Excel limited to 256 columns and 65,536 (64k) rows
      • One spreadsheet document can have many “sheets” (up to available memory)
      • Spreadsheets calculate based on cell name references = A1 + B3*C3
    • Spreadsheets
      • Spreadsheets recognize three types of data
        • Numbers (including percent, integers, real numbers)
        • Dates and/or times
        • Text (“Hi this is a text cell”)
      • Fill handles or autofill help enter patterns of data quickly
    • Spreadsheets
      • Fixed, or absolute cell references can be defined = $A$1 + B3*C3 (fixes A1)
      • Math functions can be used (beware of weak statistical functions) = SUM(B1:G1)
      • Formatting of fonts, rows, columns, page breaks, etc. can be done too
    • Spreadsheets
      • Most charts can be generated using the Chart Wizard
        • Also can embed Excel objects, including data and charts, in a Word document
      • Macros can be used for more complex programming in Excel
      • Be sure to check sample calculations!
    • Presentations
      • Presentation graphics (PowerPoint) are generally for less technical work than analytical graphics (Excel or SPSS)
      • Images are based on vu-graph slides
      • Slides can be viewed together (slide sorter), or view an outline of the presentation
      • The Notes view reminds you what to say
    • Presentations
      • A master slide can contain common elements you want in the background for every slide (logos, copyright data, presentation or presenter name, etc.)
      • Now presentations can have headers and footers too, like Word documents
      This stuff is in the footer!
    • Presentations
      • Templates can provide a set of predefined layouts and fonts, but generally do so at the expense of contrast (use a good projector!)
      • Entire presentations are outlined in the AutoContent Wizard (under File / New)
      • Animation and movement can also be used
      • But sometimes
    • Presentations
      • Sound, video, and Internet content are possible
      • Keep the content focused on each slide
      • Some recommend no more than five lines, with 5 words per line (the 5x5 rule)
      • Fonts generally shouldn’t go below 24 point
      • This is 32 point Times, with 44 point titles
    • Databases
      • Databases are used for storing, sorting, and analyzing lots of data
      • Data is stored in tables
      • Forms are used for displaying and entering data
      • Reports are used for output of data
      • Queries are used to select data from tables
    • Database Tables
      • Tables have records; records are like rows in Excel
      • Each record (customer) has one or more fields in it (name, address, zip code); fields are like columns in Excel
      • Each field has a data type (text, number (integer or real), money, date, T/F, etc.)
    • Databases
      • Each table is one type of information which can be associated with one unique identifier
        • A person has a SSN
        • A purchase order has a PO number
      • That unique identifier is the “primary key”
      • One event (a purchase) may involve data from several different tables
    • Databases
      • For example, one customer may have placed many orders
      • A single order may have many items in it
      • But a customer might have only one shipping address
      • Those one-to-many and one-to-one relationships make a relational database
    • Databases
      • The use of relational data prevents duplication of data, and allows analysis in many ways otherwise not possible
      • Reports can be generated which draw from many tables
      • Forms may accept input which goes into several tables
    • Databases
      • Queries draw from many tables to find, for example, a particular type of data, e.g.
        • Find all of the customers in the Delaware valley
        • Determine the total sales for each sales person last month
        • Which suppliers have been most reliable?
        • When do we need to reorder tuna fish?
    • Other Database Considerations
      • Validation: databases can check their inputs and outputs to make sure they are the correct format and range
      • Data integrity refers to data being a correct possible value (gender = M or F, not Q)
      • Database independence refers to the ability to keep the data when the database program needs to be updated or replaced
    • Other Database Considerations
      • Data should be kept in only one place (no redundancy)
      • Data needs to be secure, so that only those who need to get to it may do so
      • Maintenance issues need to be addressed, such as adding or deleting data or users of the database
    • Other Database Considerations
      • Large scale databases need to consider the need for replication , where several copies of data are maintained in different servers
        • Local replication is also done (e.g. sales staff maintaining a replica of product features and costs)
      • The location where computation is done may be distributed to different servers
    • Other Database Types
      • A flat file database is like using multiple spreadsheets (FileMaker Pro, or COBOL)
      • Object-oriented databases exist; some are cross-bred with relational databases to make object-relational databases
      • Groups of databases can form warehouses or data marts, and support data mining
    • Database Architecture
      • Databases can be client/server architecture (users run a client program, which asks the server for data as needed)
      • Or many databases are becoming web-based (typically using CGI, ASP (Microsoft), or JSP (Sun) programs to query the database)