Chapter 7 Essentials


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Chapter 7 Essentials

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Network Architectures Network Architecture Overall network structure Physical media Topology Channel access method Ethernet Most popular architecture Ease of installation, Low cost Frames, Baseband, CSMA/CD 10/100Mbps NIC ROM address MAC address IEEE 10Mbps 10BASE-5 Thicknet coaxial 10BASE-2 Thinnet coaxial 10BASE-T Unshielded twisted pair 10BASE-F Fiber-optic cable 10BASE-5 Standard Ethernet Transceivers, vampire taps, 50 meter 500 meters/segment 5 segments Frozen yellow garden hose 5-4-3 rule 10 Base 5
  2. 2. 5-4-3 Rule 10Base-5 Summary 10BASE-2 200 meters (185) Thinnet, not TV coax Transceiver built into NIC BNC connector, terminators Bus topology, 5-4-3 rule
  3. 3. 10 BASE- 2 10BASE-T Most popular, Star topology UTP, STP twisted pair, 100 meters Low cost of media and equipment 5-4-3 doesn’t apply Active hubs act as repeaters 10BASE-T 10BASE- T Hub Connection
  4. 4. 10BASE-T Specifications 10BASE-F Fiber-optic cable 10BASE-FL fiber to the desktop 10BASE-FP passive hubs 500 meters per segment 10BASEFB Fiber backbone between hubs All use star topology 10BASE-F 100Mbps IEEE Standards 100VAnyLAN, 100BASE-T Fast Ethernet Suited for video CAD computer aided drafting CAM computer aided manufacturing Imaging 100VG-AnyLAN Demand priority Cascaded hubs
  5. 5. Star topology Root or parent hub 100BASE-VG, 100VG, VG, AnyLAN 100VG-AnyLAN 100VG-AnyLAN 100BASE-T Category 5 UTP, Cascading hubs Star topology, Modified 802.3 100BASE-T4 4 pair Cat. 3,4,5 UTP 100BASE-TX 2 pair Cat. 5UTP 100BASE-FX 2 strand fiber-optic
  6. 6. 100BASE-T 100BASE-T Summary Ethernet Frame Types Four frame types: Ethernet 802.3 Ethernet 802.2 Ethernet SNAP Ethernet II Ethernet 802.3 Frame IPX/SPX Usually only Novell NetWare 2.X 3.X Ethernet raw Start Frame Delimiter (SFD) Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) Ethernet 802.3 Frame Ethernet 802.2 802.3 Ethernet standard compliant
  7. 7. Logical Link Control (LLC) OSI layer Has 3 additional LLC fields IEEE 802.2 group was LLC focused Novell had chosen Ethernet raw for 802.3 Ethernet SNAP SubNetwork Address Protocol AppleTalk Phase II Enhanced 802.2 frame Includes a “type” field Network protocol in data portion Ethernet II Used IN TCP/IP networks SFD field included in preamble Type field replaces length field Type field identifies protocol Ethernet II Segmentation Increasing numbers of computers Increasing network traffic Network slows down Break network into smaller pieces Add bridge or router Segmentation Token Ring Developed by IBM IEEE 802.5 standard Star cabled, operate as logical ring Token passing channel access method
  8. 8. Token Ring How Token Ring works Token passes around ring Receives from: Nearest Active Upstream Neighbor NAUN Transmits to: Nearest Active Downstream Neighbor NADN Each computer reads token Acts upon if addressed to it Sends to NADN if not or; Attaches data if token is empty “To” addressee verifies reception Beaconing Automatic Token-Ring fault isolation First computer is active monitor Every 7 seconds transmits packet Travels ring collecting addresses Ring reconfigures avoiding inactive Beaconing Token-Ring Hardware Hub is the IBM; Multistation Access Unit (MAU) or Smart MAU (SMAU) Ten connections, eight computers Ring IN, Ring Out (RI/RO) ports
  9. 9. Token-Ring Cabling American Wire Gauge standards (AWG) Larger AWG means smaller wire diameter Types 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9 Token-Ring Summary The AppleTalk Environment Simple, easy to implement Uses dynamic addressing scheme EtherTalk TokenTalk Local talk Local Talk Uses STP Bus topology Share devices, data in small number Tree structure Connector is three connectors LocalTalk Connector EtherTalk & TokenTalk EtherTalk is AppleTalk protocols running on 802.3 Ethernet 10Mbps network TokenTalk is AppleTalk protocols running on a Token-Ring 4Mbps or 16 Mbps network
  10. 10. LocalTalk Summary ARCnet Environment Attached Resource Computer Network Up to 2.5 Mbps Token-passing channel access Operates in a virtual ring Wired as bus, star, or both ARCnet Network ARCnet Environment Tokens are passed based on SID Station Identifiers NIC addressee is set by dip switches SID for next station in line NID Next Station Identifier 1-255 nodes receive token ARCnet Environment ARCnet Hubs Active hubs are generally 8 ports Regenerate signal Hub to hub < 600 meters
  11. 11. Passive hubs are generally 4 ports Pass signal only from port to port Passive to active hub < 30 meters ARCnet Cabling RG-62 A/U 93 ohm coaxial BNC connectors Bus or star topology UTP up to 121 meters Fiber-optic up to 3,485 meters FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface Token-passing channel access 100Mbps, 500 nodes, 100 km Physical ring, no hubs Dual counter rotating rings FDDI Network Network Alternatives Broadband technology - Analog, Internet, cable modems Broadcast technology - Satellite home reception, Internet Gigabit technology - 1,000 Mbps, 802.3z/D2 for UTP Chapter Summary Architecture defines how: Data is placed on the network How data is transmitted What transmission speed How problems are handled Ethernet IEEE 802.3 10 Mbps Thicknet 10BASE-5 Thinnnet 10 BASE-2 Twisted pair 10 BASE-T Fiber-optic 10BASE-F Ethernet IEEE 802.3 100 Mbps Twisted pair Fiber-optic
  12. 12. 100VG-AnyLAN Easily bridge to other networks FDDI, Token-Ring, ATM Token-Ring networks 4 or 16 Mbps, equal network access Beaconing to solve cabling problems, expensive AppleTalk - Macintosh network ARCnet - reliable, slow, not popular FDDI - reliable, fast, secure