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Chapter 6 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Web 101 Third Edition by Wendy G. Lehnert & Richard L. Kopec Chapter 6: Software on the Internet
  • 2.
    • Know what to expect when you download software from the Internet.
    • Learn to configure antivirus software and ensure that it scans all new files.
    • Become familiar with five different software installation scenarios.
    • Know which file utility to use when you need to open a file archive.
    • Locate reputable software on the Internet through clearinghouses.
    Learning Objectives
  • 3.
    • Learn how to navigate FTP servers and download files from them.
    • Find out how to keep your computer in good working order as you add software to your system.
    • Learn the proper procedure for removing unwanted software from your system.
    • Find many software reviews.
    • Leanr the difference between open source and proprietary software.
    Learning Objectives
  • 4.
    • Learn about file formats.
    Learning Objectives
  • 5.
    • On the Net, you can find software recommendations, tutorials, discussion groups and software.
    • Some retail software can be purchased in stores and also purchased and downloaded over the Internet.
    • Some manufacturers offer demos of their software on their Web sites.
    Taking Charge
  • 6. Taking Charge
    • Shareware: Software that can be be installed and evaluated for some fixed trial period at no charge but that requires a registration fee when the trial period ends.
    • Nagware: Shareware that continues to launch after the free trial period is over, but with reminders that it’s time to register.
    • Freeware: Software that is distributed free of charge.
  • 7. Taking Charge
    • Open Source Software: Software whose code is willingly shared publicly so that other programmers can offer their own improvements.
    • Open Source software includes application software and even operating systems
  • 8. Open Source vs Proprietary Software vs Freeware
    • Source Code - software product in its original form, usually in a high level language like Java
    • Executable Code - a translated version of the source code in the form the machine language of the computer processor
    • Compiler - program that converts source code to executable code
  • 9. Open Source vs Proprietary Software vs Freeware
    • Open Source products are not necessarily free (but many are), but they are copylefted
    • Copyleft - intellectual property that is freely available for use, modification, and redistribution, as long as the modified product is also freely available
    • A license is required to make modifications, however
    • The source code must be made available
  • 10. Open Source vs Proprietary Software vs Freeware
    • Freeware includes only the executable code
    • Some free-libre/open source software (FLOSS) for Macs and PCs:
      • Audacity (audio editor)
      • Thunderbird (e-mail client)
      • Juice (Internet radio)
      • Democracy Player (Internet TV)
      • Open Office (productivity software)
      • Firefox (web browser)
  • 11. Open Source vs Proprietary Software vs Freeware
    • FLOSS products are typically developed by large groups of loosely organized developers (the true believers!)
    • Dynamic - upgrades appear frequently
    • Users are encouraged to contribute via bug reports, general comments, feature requests - that’s why they’re often free
    • Avoid alpha versions (the first release)
    • Be wary of beta versions (subsequent releases, may be buggy)
  • 12. File Formats
    • Each software product that allows users to create files has its own method of storing the file contents.
    • Usually in the form of meta-data plus user data.
    • Meta-data - information about the contents and organization of the user data.
    • In some cases, the meta-data may also describe how the user data should be displayed.
  • 13. File Formats
    • Applications are often unable to decipher the meta-data and or understand the organization of a file created by a different application.
    • Some file formats are intended to be universal, like rich text format (rtf) files - most word processors can read these.
    • Some applications allow you choose the specific file format you wish to use.
  • 14. File Formats
  • 15. File Formats
    • File extensions can be used to identify the particular file format and the type of application that created it.
    • File extensions are typically three characters preceded by a period appended to the file name.
    • Changing the extension on a file does NOT change the file format!
  • 16. File Formats
    • Some common file formats:
      • .exe (Windows executable file, installer)
      • .js (Javascript file)
      • .sea (Mac self-extracting archive)
      • .tar (UNIX, Linux archive file)
      • .zip (compressed file format)
      • .wma (Windows media player)
      • .bmp (bit map image)
      • .png (portable network graphic)
      • .tif (tagged image file)
  • 17. File Formats
    • Some common file formats:
      • .css (cascading style sheet)
      • .pdf (portable document format)
      • .csv (comma-separated value, spreadsheet)
      • .tab (tab-separated value, spreadsheet)
      • .avi (Windows media player - audio/video)
      • .asp (Microsoft active server page)
      • .html (hypertext file - Web page)
      • .shtml (secure Web page)
      • .doc (Microsoft Word file)
  • 18.
    • Most software available on the Internet can be found on the Web.
    • Web browsers can download software.
    • FTP programs and download managers can help you download software too.
    • Only download software from trusted sources.
    • Never download software from someone’s personal Web site, an email, chat channel, chat room, or instant messaging session.
    Trouble-Free Downloads
  • 19.
    • Make sure that you download the correct version for your OS.
    • While some software is available for both Windows and the Macintosh, you still need to download the right files for your computer’s operating system.
    • Most downloads are labeled to help you find the right version.
    • The file extensions are also a clue.
    Trouble-Free Downloads
  • 20. Trouble-Free Downloads
  • 21.
    • When downloading with a browser, always choose to save the program to disk rather than run it from its current location.
    • Put all your downloads into a downloads folder so you can easily find them.
    • After downloading a file, and before double clicking it, scan it for viruses.
    • Some antivirus software will scan files automatically when you download them.
    Trouble-Free Downloads
  • 22. Trouble-Free Downloads
  • 23. BitTorrent
    • File sharing protocol - P2P
    • Peer-to-peer protocol
    • User computers act as both servers and clients (the peers )
    • Any file made available on any peer can be transferred to any other peer
    • Requires a centralized tracker that coordinates file transfers between user computers
  • 24. BitTorrent
    • Eliminates need for a centralized file server
    • Network size and resources (files) vary as peers come and go
    • Could violate copyright law
    • Common implementations:
      • Napster
      • Gnutella
      • KaZaA
      • Freenet
  • 25. BitTorrent
    • BitTorrent is one specific implementation
    • Requires installation of BitTorrent application
    • Opera (browsers) has built-in capability
    • Visit Web site that provides BitTorrent file lists
    • Seeds (file sources), Peers (downloaders), Leeches (peers that don’t serve as seeds)
  • 26. BitTorrent
    • BitTorrent is one specific implementation
    • Requires installation of BitTorrent application
    • Opera (browsers) has built-in capability
    • Visit Web site that provides BitTorrent file lists
    • Seeds (file sources), Peers (downloaders), Leeches (peers that don’t serve as seeds)
  • 27. BitTorrent
  • 28. BitTorrent
  • 29.
    • Virus: Potentially destructive code hidden inside a host program and distributed to a large number of computers.
    • Viruses are spread via executable files, documents that contain macros, and scripts read by script-enabled e-mail clients.
    • If you don’t have antivirus software, don’t download software from the Internet.
    AntiVirus Protection
  • 30.
    • Check to see if your antivirus software must be run manually or if it runs automatically in the background.
    • Make sure that your antivirus software is set to scan all incoming files not just executables
    • Some antivirus software can scan file archives so you don’t have to expand them to scan them.
    • Check to see how your antivirus software can be customized.
    AntiVirus Protection
  • 31. AntiVirus Protection
  • 32.
    • An installer is a setup utility used whenever a computer program requires multiple files in order to operate.
    • An installer might include a file containing
      • executable code
      • data files and graphics
    • These are all files that the program may need.
    • The installer automatically places all the program’s files where they need to go.
    Installation Tips
  • 33.
    • Some installers require you to shut down all other running programs.
    • A few installers will ask you to turn off your antivirus software temporarily. Only do so if you trust the software.
    • Always read the software’s license agreement before accepting it.
    • Always read the program’s ReadMe file before installing to learn about bugs or incompatibilities.
    Installation Tips
  • 34.
    • The following installation scenarios are not platform-specific.
    • Ready-to-go executable: An entire computer program that:
      • can be stored in a single file
      • will not require a complicated installation process.
    • Ready-to-go executables do not require an installation program.
    • Check the program’s Web site for ReadMe files and documentation.
    Installation Tips
  • 35.
    • Zipped File Archive: A single file that can be unpacked (unzipped) to produce the multiple files it contains.
    • It is like a package that contains several files (and maybe even folders) that is compressed to save storage space.
    • Software files are often packed in a file archive for easy downloading.
    Installation Tips
  • 36.
    • These archives require a utility to unpack them.
    • StuffIt Expander is popular on the Macintosh platform
    • WinZip is popular on the Windows platform
    Installation Tips
  • 37. Installation Tips
  • 38.
    • Self-Extracting Archive: A file archive that unpacks itself when you double-click it.
    • They are similar to zipped archives.
    • You don’t need a special file utility to open a self-extracting archive.
    • They have a .exe extension under Windows and a .sea extension on the Macintosh.
    Installation Tips
  • 39.
    • A self-extracting archive unpacks its files:
      • into the current directory or
      • Creates a new subdirectory for the expanded archive
    • Documentation files may also be included in the expanded archive to help you work with the software further.
    Installation Tips
  • 40.
    • ActiveX installers only work with Internet Explorer on Windows.
    • ActiveX installations are fully automated.
    • Unlike JavaScript and Java, ActiveX controls have no restrictions on what they can do to your computer.
    • Be aware of the security risk.
    • Authenticode enables a developer to place a digital signature on ActiveX utilities.
    Installation Tips
  • 41.
    • Spyware: Any software application that surreptitiously collects data about your computing activities and send it back to a data broker.
    • The information may be collected by a third party who will sell the information.
    • Adware: Any software application that displays advertisements.
    • There are utilities available to scan for and remove spyware from your computer.
    Spyware and Adware
  • 42. Spyware and Adware
  • 43.
    • If you expect to download a lot of software from the Internet there are utilities that will help you.
    • File archive utilities like WinZip (Windows) and StuffIt (Mac) will easily expand file archives.
    • Web browsers can handle file downloads in a basic way.
    • A download manager is a utility that specializes in managing file downloads and offers many features.
    File Download Utilities
  • 44.
    • Many software clearinghouses index large collections of downloadable software in searchable subject trees.
    • Most include a brief description, software ratings, download counts and e-mail newsletters.
    • Software clearinghouses exist for many platforms (Windows, Mac, Linux, Palm, …)
    • Visit different clearinghouses to find the one you like.
    Software Clearinghouses
  • 45.
    • Examples of some of the more popular sites include:
      • Tucows: www. tucows .com
      • Download: www.download.com
      • Shareware: www.shareware.com
    • Some sites have several platforms, while others specialize in just one
    • Some sites specialize in a particular type of software, such as games
    Software Clearinghouses
  • 46.
    • File Transfer Protocol (FTP): An Internet protocol that makes it possible to transfer files between two host machines.
    • FTP has been used since before the Web to share files on the Internet.
    • To reach an FTP server you can use your browser or an FTP client (Fetch or WinSCP).
    • A mirror site is an alternate FTP site that contains the same files as the main FTP site.
    FTP Software Archives
  • 47.
    • If you aren’t sure sure where to go on an FTP server, look for files named index, welcome or readme.
    • Read everything available that could help you navigate the site.
    • If you get an error when trying to download a file, try again later.
    • Try to visit FTP servers at off hours.
    • If mirror sites are available, use the one closest to you.
    FTP Software Archives
  • 48.
    • Web browsers can be used to download files from Web and FTP servers.
    • Browsers can also upload files to FTP servers.
    • If you use FTP servers a lot, a graphical FTP utility will save a lot of time.
    FTP Software Archives
  • 49. FTP Software Archives
  • 50.
    • Now that you are ready to download lots of software, you need to learn to manage it all
    • If your computer becomes unusually sluggish or unable to open new applications, try restarting it.
    • Restarting your computer can recover RAM and speed up processing.
    • When programs start, they set aside RAM.
    • When they quit, they are supposed to release the RAM (they don’t always)
    Managing Your Software
  • 51.
    • Running a disk optimizer on your hard drive may improve performance by reducing file fragments.
    • Fragmented File: A file that does not occupy contiguous space on a hard drive.
    • Some books recommend defragmenting your hard drive once a month. (At least once a year is good)
    Managing Your Software
  • 52.
    • A device driver creates a communication link between your computer and its peripheral devices so data can flow smoothly between the two.
    • You can solve or prevent driver conflicts by keeping your drivers up-to-date.
    • Drivers can be downloaded from the manufacturer’s Web site
    Managing Your Software
  • 53. Managing Your Software
    • Running too many programs with too little memory may cause your computer to be sluggish or crash.
    • An uninstaller is a utility designed to remove, safely and completely, all files associated with a program.
    • You can use maintenance programs to perform preventative maintenance on your computer.
  • 54. Managing Your Software
    • Maintenance tools
      • Disk scanner/optimizer (if your OS does not do this automatically)
      • General uninstaller
      • Rescue disk tool
      • Crash guard utility (restores system without restarting)
      • Registry scanner/cleaner (Windows only)
      • Antivirus software
  • 55. Finding Good Software Reviews
    • You can use software reviews to help you choose a software package to buy.
    • Software reviews can be found on the Internet.
    • Some sites are general, while other specialize in specific operating systems.
    • There is always some element of risk.
    • Software obtained over the Internet is no riskier than shrink-wrapped software purchased at a retail store.
  • 56. Finding Good Software Reviews
    • General sites:
      • ZDNet Reviews http://review. zdnet .com/
      • CNET http://www. cnet .com/
    • Windows sites:
      • Win Planet Reviews http://www. winplanet .com/ or http://cws.internet.com/
      • PC Magazine http://www.pcmag.com/
    • Mac sites:
      • MacReview Zone http://macreviewzone.com/index.php
      • MacDirectory http://macdirectory.com/mewmd/mac/