Web 101 Third Edition by Wendy G. Lehnert &  Richard L. Kopec Chapter 6: Software on the Internet
<ul><li>Know what to expect when you download software from the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to configure antivirus s...
<ul><li>Learn how to navigate FTP servers and download files from them. </li></ul><ul><li>Find out how to keep your comput...
<ul><li>Learn about file formats. </li></ul>Learning Objectives
<ul><li>On the Net, you can find software recommendations, tutorials, discussion groups and software. </li></ul><ul><li>So...
Taking Charge <ul><li>Shareware: Software that can be be installed and evaluated for some fixed trial period at no charge ...
Taking Charge <ul><li>Open Source Software: Software whose code is willingly shared publicly so that other programmers can...
Open Source vs Proprietary Software vs Freeware <ul><li>Source Code - software product in its original form, usually in a ...
Open Source vs Proprietary Software vs Freeware <ul><li>Open Source products are not  necessarily   free  (but many are), ...
Open Source vs Proprietary Software vs Freeware <ul><li>Freeware includes only the executable code </li></ul><ul><li>Some ...
Open Source vs Proprietary Software vs Freeware <ul><li>FLOSS products are typically developed by large groups of loosely ...
File Formats <ul><li>Each software product that allows users to create files has its own method of storing the file conten...
File Formats <ul><li>Applications are often unable to decipher the meta-data and or understand the organization of a file ...
File Formats
File Formats <ul><li>File extensions can be used to identify the particular file format and the type of application that c...
File Formats <ul><li>Some common file formats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.exe  (Windows executable file, installer) </li></ul>...
File Formats <ul><li>Some common file formats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.css (cascading style sheet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Most software available on the Internet can be found on the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Web browsers can download softw...
<ul><li>Make sure that you download the correct version for your OS. </li></ul><ul><li>While some software is available fo...
Trouble-Free Downloads
<ul><li>When downloading with a browser, always choose to save the program to disk rather than run it from its current loc...
Trouble-Free Downloads
BitTorrent <ul><li>File sharing protocol - P2P </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer protocol </li></ul><ul><li>User computers ac...
BitTorrent <ul><li>Eliminates need for a centralized file server </li></ul><ul><li>Network size and resources (files) vary...
BitTorrent <ul><li>BitTorrent is one specific implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Requires installation of BitTorrent applica...
BitTorrent <ul><li>BitTorrent is one specific implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Requires installation of BitTorrent applica...
BitTorrent
BitTorrent
<ul><li>Virus: Potentially destructive code hidden inside a host program and distributed to a large number of computers. <...
<ul><li>Check to see if your antivirus software must be run manually or if it runs automatically in the background. </li><...
AntiVirus Protection
<ul><li>An installer is a setup utility used whenever a computer program requires multiple files in order to operate. </li...
<ul><li>Some installers require you to shut down all other running programs. </li></ul><ul><li>A few installers will ask y...
<ul><li>The following installation scenarios are not platform-specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Ready-to-go executable: An entir...
<ul><li>Zipped File Archive: A single file that can be unpacked (unzipped) to produce the multiple files it contains. </li...
<ul><li>These archives require a utility to unpack them. </li></ul><ul><li>StuffIt Expander is popular on the Macintosh pl...
Installation Tips
<ul><li>Self-Extracting Archive: A file archive that unpacks itself when you double-click it. </li></ul><ul><li>They are s...
<ul><li>A self-extracting archive unpacks its files: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>into the current directory or </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><li>ActiveX installers only work with Internet Explorer on Windows. </li></ul><ul><li>ActiveX installations are fully ...
<ul><li>Spyware: Any software application that surreptitiously collects data about your computing activities and send it b...
Spyware and Adware
<ul><li>If you expect to download a lot of software from the Internet there are utilities that will help you. </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Many software clearinghouses index large collections of downloadable software in searchable subject trees. </li></...
<ul><li>Examples of some of the more popular sites include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tucows:  www. tucows .com </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>File Transfer Protocol (FTP): An Internet protocol that makes it possible to transfer files between two host machi...
<ul><li>If you aren’t sure sure where to go on an FTP server, look for files named index, welcome or readme. </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Web browsers can be used to download files from Web and FTP servers. </li></ul><ul><li>Browsers can also upload fi...
FTP Software Archives
<ul><li>Now that you are ready to download lots of software, you need to learn to manage it all </li></ul><ul><li>If your ...
<ul><li>Running a disk optimizer on your hard drive may improve performance by reducing file fragments. </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>A device driver creates a communication link between your computer and its peripheral devices so data can flow smo...
Managing Your Software <ul><li>Running too many programs with too little memory may cause your computer to be sluggish or ...
Managing Your Software <ul><li>Maintenance tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk scanner/optimizer (if your OS does not do this...
Finding Good Software Reviews <ul><li>You can use software reviews to help you choose a software package to buy. </li></ul...
Finding Good Software Reviews <ul><li>General sites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ZDNet Reviews  http://review. zdnet .com/ </li>...
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Chapter 6

  1. 1. Web 101 Third Edition by Wendy G. Lehnert & Richard L. Kopec Chapter 6: Software on the Internet
  2. 2. <ul><li>Know what to expect when you download software from the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to configure antivirus software and ensure that it scans all new files. </li></ul><ul><li>Become familiar with five different software installation scenarios. </li></ul><ul><li>Know which file utility to use when you need to open a file archive. </li></ul><ul><li>Locate reputable software on the Internet through clearinghouses. </li></ul>Learning Objectives
  3. 3. <ul><li>Learn how to navigate FTP servers and download files from them. </li></ul><ul><li>Find out how to keep your computer in good working order as you add software to your system. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the proper procedure for removing unwanted software from your system. </li></ul><ul><li>Find many software reviews. </li></ul><ul><li>Leanr the difference between open source and proprietary software. </li></ul>Learning Objectives
  4. 4. <ul><li>Learn about file formats. </li></ul>Learning Objectives
  5. 5. <ul><li>On the Net, you can find software recommendations, tutorials, discussion groups and software. </li></ul><ul><li>Some retail software can be purchased in stores and also purchased and downloaded over the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Some manufacturers offer demos of their software on their Web sites. </li></ul>Taking Charge
  6. 6. Taking Charge <ul><li>Shareware: Software that can be be installed and evaluated for some fixed trial period at no charge but that requires a registration fee when the trial period ends. </li></ul><ul><li>Nagware: Shareware that continues to launch after the free trial period is over, but with reminders that it’s time to register. </li></ul><ul><li>Freeware: Software that is distributed free of charge. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Taking Charge <ul><li>Open Source Software: Software whose code is willingly shared publicly so that other programmers can offer their own improvements. </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source software includes application software and even operating systems </li></ul>
  8. 8. Open Source vs Proprietary Software vs Freeware <ul><li>Source Code - software product in its original form, usually in a high level language like Java </li></ul><ul><li>Executable Code - a translated version of the source code in the form the machine language of the computer processor </li></ul><ul><li>Compiler - program that converts source code to executable code </li></ul>
  9. 9. Open Source vs Proprietary Software vs Freeware <ul><li>Open Source products are not necessarily free (but many are), but they are copylefted </li></ul><ul><li>Copyleft - intellectual property that is freely available for use, modification, and redistribution, as long as the modified product is also freely available </li></ul><ul><li>A license is required to make modifications, however </li></ul><ul><li>The source code must be made available </li></ul>
  10. 10. Open Source vs Proprietary Software vs Freeware <ul><li>Freeware includes only the executable code </li></ul><ul><li>Some free-libre/open source software (FLOSS) for Macs and PCs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audacity (audio editor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thunderbird (e-mail client) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Juice (Internet radio) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy Player (Internet TV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Office (productivity software) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefox (web browser) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Open Source vs Proprietary Software vs Freeware <ul><li>FLOSS products are typically developed by large groups of loosely organized developers (the true believers!) </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic - upgrades appear frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Users are encouraged to contribute via bug reports, general comments, feature requests - that’s why they’re often free </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid alpha versions (the first release) </li></ul><ul><li>Be wary of beta versions (subsequent releases, may be buggy) </li></ul>
  12. 12. File Formats <ul><li>Each software product that allows users to create files has its own method of storing the file contents. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually in the form of meta-data plus user data. </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-data - information about the contents and organization of the user data. </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases, the meta-data may also describe how the user data should be displayed. </li></ul>
  13. 13. File Formats <ul><li>Applications are often unable to decipher the meta-data and or understand the organization of a file created by a different application. </li></ul><ul><li>Some file formats are intended to be universal, like rich text format (rtf) files - most word processors can read these. </li></ul><ul><li>Some applications allow you choose the specific file format you wish to use. </li></ul>
  14. 14. File Formats
  15. 15. File Formats <ul><li>File extensions can be used to identify the particular file format and the type of application that created it. </li></ul><ul><li>File extensions are typically three characters preceded by a period appended to the file name. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the extension on a file does NOT change the file format! </li></ul>
  16. 16. File Formats <ul><li>Some common file formats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.exe (Windows executable file, installer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.js (Javascript file) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.sea (Mac self-extracting archive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tar (UNIX, Linux archive file) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.zip (compressed file format) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.wma (Windows media player) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.bmp (bit map image) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.png (portable network graphic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tif (tagged image file) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. File Formats <ul><li>Some common file formats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.css (cascading style sheet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.pdf (portable document format) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.csv (comma-separated value, spreadsheet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.tab (tab-separated value, spreadsheet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.avi (Windows media player - audio/video) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.asp (Microsoft active server page) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.html (hypertext file - Web page) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.shtml (secure Web page) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.doc (Microsoft Word file) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Most software available on the Internet can be found on the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Web browsers can download software. </li></ul><ul><li>FTP programs and download managers can help you download software too. </li></ul><ul><li>Only download software from trusted sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Never download software from someone’s personal Web site, an email, chat channel, chat room, or instant messaging session. </li></ul>Trouble-Free Downloads
  19. 19. <ul><li>Make sure that you download the correct version for your OS. </li></ul><ul><li>While some software is available for both Windows and the Macintosh, you still need to download the right files for your computer’s operating system. </li></ul><ul><li>Most downloads are labeled to help you find the right version. </li></ul><ul><li>The file extensions are also a clue. </li></ul>Trouble-Free Downloads
  20. 20. Trouble-Free Downloads
  21. 21. <ul><li>When downloading with a browser, always choose to save the program to disk rather than run it from its current location. </li></ul><ul><li>Put all your downloads into a downloads folder so you can easily find them. </li></ul><ul><li>After downloading a file, and before double clicking it, scan it for viruses. </li></ul><ul><li>Some antivirus software will scan files automatically when you download them. </li></ul>Trouble-Free Downloads
  22. 22. Trouble-Free Downloads
  23. 23. BitTorrent <ul><li>File sharing protocol - P2P </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer protocol </li></ul><ul><li>User computers act as both servers and clients (the peers ) </li></ul><ul><li>Any file made available on any peer can be transferred to any other peer </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a centralized tracker that coordinates file transfers between user computers </li></ul>
  24. 24. BitTorrent <ul><li>Eliminates need for a centralized file server </li></ul><ul><li>Network size and resources (files) vary as peers come and go </li></ul><ul><li>Could violate copyright law </li></ul><ul><li>Common implementations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gnutella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KaZaA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freenet </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. BitTorrent <ul><li>BitTorrent is one specific implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Requires installation of BitTorrent application </li></ul><ul><li>Opera (browsers) has built-in capability </li></ul><ul><li>Visit Web site that provides BitTorrent file lists </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds (file sources), Peers (downloaders), Leeches (peers that don’t serve as seeds) </li></ul>
  26. 26. BitTorrent <ul><li>BitTorrent is one specific implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Requires installation of BitTorrent application </li></ul><ul><li>Opera (browsers) has built-in capability </li></ul><ul><li>Visit Web site that provides BitTorrent file lists </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds (file sources), Peers (downloaders), Leeches (peers that don’t serve as seeds) </li></ul>
  27. 27. BitTorrent
  28. 28. BitTorrent
  29. 29. <ul><li>Virus: Potentially destructive code hidden inside a host program and distributed to a large number of computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses are spread via executable files, documents that contain macros, and scripts read by script-enabled e-mail clients. </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t have antivirus software, don’t download software from the Internet. </li></ul>AntiVirus Protection
  30. 30. <ul><li>Check to see if your antivirus software must be run manually or if it runs automatically in the background. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that your antivirus software is set to scan all incoming files not just executables </li></ul><ul><li>Some antivirus software can scan file archives so you don’t have to expand them to scan them. </li></ul><ul><li>Check to see how your antivirus software can be customized. </li></ul>AntiVirus Protection
  31. 31. AntiVirus Protection
  32. 32. <ul><li>An installer is a setup utility used whenever a computer program requires multiple files in order to operate. </li></ul><ul><li>An installer might include a file containing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>executable code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>data files and graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These are all files that the program may need. </li></ul><ul><li>The installer automatically places all the program’s files where they need to go. </li></ul>Installation Tips
  33. 33. <ul><li>Some installers require you to shut down all other running programs. </li></ul><ul><li>A few installers will ask you to turn off your antivirus software temporarily. Only do so if you trust the software. </li></ul><ul><li>Always read the software’s license agreement before accepting it. </li></ul><ul><li>Always read the program’s ReadMe file before installing to learn about bugs or incompatibilities. </li></ul>Installation Tips
  34. 34. <ul><li>The following installation scenarios are not platform-specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Ready-to-go executable: An entire computer program that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can be stored in a single file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>will not require a complicated installation process. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ready-to-go executables do not require an installation program. </li></ul><ul><li>Check the program’s Web site for ReadMe files and documentation. </li></ul>Installation Tips
  35. 35. <ul><li>Zipped File Archive: A single file that can be unpacked (unzipped) to produce the multiple files it contains. </li></ul><ul><li>It is like a package that contains several files (and maybe even folders) that is compressed to save storage space. </li></ul><ul><li>Software files are often packed in a file archive for easy downloading. </li></ul>Installation Tips
  36. 36. <ul><li>These archives require a utility to unpack them. </li></ul><ul><li>StuffIt Expander is popular on the Macintosh platform </li></ul><ul><li>WinZip is popular on the Windows platform </li></ul>Installation Tips
  37. 37. Installation Tips
  38. 38. <ul><li>Self-Extracting Archive: A file archive that unpacks itself when you double-click it. </li></ul><ul><li>They are similar to zipped archives. </li></ul><ul><li>You don’t need a special file utility to open a self-extracting archive. </li></ul><ul><li>They have a .exe extension under Windows and a .sea extension on the Macintosh. </li></ul>Installation Tips
  39. 39. <ul><li>A self-extracting archive unpacks its files: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>into the current directory or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a new subdirectory for the expanded archive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Documentation files may also be included in the expanded archive to help you work with the software further. </li></ul>Installation Tips
  40. 40. <ul><li>ActiveX installers only work with Internet Explorer on Windows. </li></ul><ul><li>ActiveX installations are fully automated. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike JavaScript and Java, ActiveX controls have no restrictions on what they can do to your computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of the security risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticode enables a developer to place a digital signature on ActiveX utilities. </li></ul>Installation Tips
  41. 41. <ul><li>Spyware: Any software application that surreptitiously collects data about your computing activities and send it back to a data broker. </li></ul><ul><li>The information may be collected by a third party who will sell the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Adware: Any software application that displays advertisements. </li></ul><ul><li>There are utilities available to scan for and remove spyware from your computer. </li></ul>Spyware and Adware
  42. 42. Spyware and Adware
  43. 43. <ul><li>If you expect to download a lot of software from the Internet there are utilities that will help you. </li></ul><ul><li>File archive utilities like WinZip (Windows) and StuffIt (Mac) will easily expand file archives. </li></ul><ul><li>Web browsers can handle file downloads in a basic way. </li></ul><ul><li>A download manager is a utility that specializes in managing file downloads and offers many features. </li></ul>File Download Utilities
  44. 44. <ul><li>Many software clearinghouses index large collections of downloadable software in searchable subject trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Most include a brief description, software ratings, download counts and e-mail newsletters. </li></ul><ul><li>Software clearinghouses exist for many platforms (Windows, Mac, Linux, Palm, …) </li></ul><ul><li>Visit different clearinghouses to find the one you like. </li></ul>Software Clearinghouses
  45. 45. <ul><li>Examples of some of the more popular sites include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tucows: www. tucows .com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download: www.download.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shareware: www.shareware.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some sites have several platforms, while others specialize in just one </li></ul><ul><li>Some sites specialize in a particular type of software, such as games </li></ul>Software Clearinghouses
  46. 46. <ul><li>File Transfer Protocol (FTP): An Internet protocol that makes it possible to transfer files between two host machines. </li></ul><ul><li>FTP has been used since before the Web to share files on the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>To reach an FTP server you can use your browser or an FTP client (Fetch or WinSCP). </li></ul><ul><li>A mirror site is an alternate FTP site that contains the same files as the main FTP site. </li></ul>FTP Software Archives
  47. 47. <ul><li>If you aren’t sure sure where to go on an FTP server, look for files named index, welcome or readme. </li></ul><ul><li>Read everything available that could help you navigate the site. </li></ul><ul><li>If you get an error when trying to download a file, try again later. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to visit FTP servers at off hours. </li></ul><ul><li>If mirror sites are available, use the one closest to you. </li></ul>FTP Software Archives
  48. 48. <ul><li>Web browsers can be used to download files from Web and FTP servers. </li></ul><ul><li>Browsers can also upload files to FTP servers. </li></ul><ul><li>If you use FTP servers a lot, a graphical FTP utility will save a lot of time. </li></ul>FTP Software Archives
  49. 49. FTP Software Archives
  50. 50. <ul><li>Now that you are ready to download lots of software, you need to learn to manage it all </li></ul><ul><li>If your computer becomes unusually sluggish or unable to open new applications, try restarting it. </li></ul><ul><li>Restarting your computer can recover RAM and speed up processing. </li></ul><ul><li>When programs start, they set aside RAM. </li></ul><ul><li>When they quit, they are supposed to release the RAM (they don’t always) </li></ul>Managing Your Software
  51. 51. <ul><li>Running a disk optimizer on your hard drive may improve performance by reducing file fragments. </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmented File: A file that does not occupy contiguous space on a hard drive. </li></ul><ul><li>Some books recommend defragmenting your hard drive once a month. (At least once a year is good) </li></ul>Managing Your Software
  52. 52. <ul><li>A device driver creates a communication link between your computer and its peripheral devices so data can flow smoothly between the two. </li></ul><ul><li>You can solve or prevent driver conflicts by keeping your drivers up-to-date. </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers can be downloaded from the manufacturer’s Web site </li></ul>Managing Your Software
  53. 53. Managing Your Software <ul><li>Running too many programs with too little memory may cause your computer to be sluggish or crash. </li></ul><ul><li>An uninstaller is a utility designed to remove, safely and completely, all files associated with a program. </li></ul><ul><li>You can use maintenance programs to perform preventative maintenance on your computer. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Managing Your Software <ul><li>Maintenance tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk scanner/optimizer (if your OS does not do this automatically) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General uninstaller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue disk tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crash guard utility (restores system without restarting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registry scanner/cleaner (Windows only) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antivirus software </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Finding Good Software Reviews <ul><li>You can use software reviews to help you choose a software package to buy. </li></ul><ul><li>Software reviews can be found on the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Some sites are general, while other specialize in specific operating systems. </li></ul><ul><li>There is always some element of risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Software obtained over the Internet is no riskier than shrink-wrapped software purchased at a retail store. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Finding Good Software Reviews <ul><li>General sites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ZDNet Reviews http://review. zdnet .com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CNET http://www. cnet .com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows sites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Win Planet Reviews http://www. winplanet .com/ or http://cws.internet.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PC Magazine http://www.pcmag.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mac sites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MacReview Zone http://macreviewzone.com/index.php </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MacDirectory http://macdirectory.com/mewmd/mac/ </li></ul></ul>
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