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  • 1. Chapter 4 Protocol Stacks All Material Taken from Faster Smarter Network+ Certification by Melissa Craft
  • 2. TCP/IP
    • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
    • Constantly transforming to meet changing needs
    • Was developed before OSI model
    • Contains many protocols with the entire suite
    • Has four layers
  • 3. TCP/IP
  • 4. Host-to-host Transport Layer
    • Provides reliable data transport between 2 devices, regardless of type of physical media
    • Uses ports for identifying which application data is received from so that when it is reassembled is delivered to the correct one
  • 5. TCP
    • Connection-based protocol which is designed to guarantee data delivery
    • Requires added control information (added overhead)
    • Relies upon ACK packets. If they aren’t received when expected, TCP retransmits the data.
    • Utilizes “sliding window” mechanism which enables multiple packets to be sent simultaneously
    • Full-duplex data exchange
  • 6. User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
    • Does not use ACK packets, not reliable
    • Much less packet overhead than TCP
    • Does not guarantee data delivery
    • Much faster than TCP
  • 7. The Internetwork Layer and IP
    • Deals primarily with addressing and routing data
    • 5 protocols work at this level
      • Internet Protocol (IP)
      • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
      • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
      • Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
      • Internet Group Membership Protocol (IGMP)
  • 8. IP Addressing
    • Identifies network addresses without relying on physical addresses
    • Contains both network segment address and device (node) address
    • 32 bits in lengths (8 bytes)
    • Numbers range from 0 to 255 for each octet
  • 9. 5 Classes of IP Addresses
    • Class A-First Octet is between 0 and 126
      • 0-
    • Class B-First Octet is between 128 and 191
      • 128-
    • Class C-First Octet is between 192 and 223
      • 192-
    • Class D-First Octet is between 224 and 239
      • 224- (Reserved)
    • Class E-First Octet is between 240 and 255
      • 240- (reserved)
  • 10. Address Masks
    • An address mask determines which portion of an IP address identifies the network and which portion identifies the host. Like the IP address, the mask is represented by four octets. C B A Address Mask Address Class
  • 11. DNS (Domain Naming System) Names
    • A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) requires host name and DNS domain name
      • microsoft.com
      • edtech.kennesaw.edu
    • More “human friendly” naming system
  • 12. IPX/SPX
    • Internetwork Packet Exchange/ Sequenced Packet Exchange
    • Novell protocol suite
    • IPX is similar to IP (connectionless)
    • SPX is similar to TCP (connection-oriented)
    • Provides file, print, and application services
    • Also provides directory service (tree)
  • 13. IPX Addressing
    • Uses “watchdog packets” which are sent to inactive stations. If the packet is not returned within a set period of time, the server will terminate the connection
    • Uses the MAC address as the IPX node address portion
    • Small overhead, good speed
  • 14. IPX Addresses
    • Utilize network number (4 bytes), MAC address (6 bytes), and socket address (2 bytes)
      • 2AFF:3829: 8FC6:7788:AAAA: 0004
  • 15. IPX Routing
    • Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
      • Distance Vector protocol
      • Dynamic routing table management
      • Sends messages to neighboring routers only
      • Similar to falling dominos, can cause broadcast storms
    • Netware Link Services Protocol (NLSP)
      • Link state routing protocol
      • Uses algorithm to enable routers to receive firsthand information about status of other routers on the network
  • 16. SPX
    • Provides guaranteed delivery
    • Very high overhead, speed is lessened
    • Sends acknowledgment packets in both directions
    • Provides error checking, end-to-end flow control, sequencing, and error correction
  • 17. Netware Shell
    • Provides intermediary service between network & non network aware applications
    • Makes decisions regarding accessing the network or not
      • Example: Printing from Microsoft Word to a network printer
  • 18. Service Advertising Protocol (SAP)
    • Ensures that all network devices are aware of networking services
    • Broadcasts are sent every 60 seconds from server to its neighbors
  • 19. Netware Core Protocol (NCP)
    • Used to access file, print, and security services
    • NCP allows workstations (clients) to perceive remote services in the same way they perceive local services
  • 20. NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI)
    • Designed to work on small LANs
    • Is not routable!
    • Uses NetBIOS names for identifying network devices (16 bytes in length)
    • Devices can have more than one name (aliasing)
    • One name is considered permanent-usually taken from MAC address
  • 21. NetBEUI Interoperability
    • Can be used in routed environment, but it must be tunneled through routable protocol (usually TCP/IP)
    • NetBIOS names must be resolved to IP addresses
    • Formerly handled through LMHOSTS file (text file located on each computer)
    • Nowadays the Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is used by Windows servers to map IP addresses to NetBIOS names (more centralized than LMHOSTS files, easier to administrate)
  • 22. AppleTalk
    • Used to connect Apple & Macintosh computers in peer-to-peer configurations
    • Simple, inexpensive, flexible
    • Very chatty due to constant broadcasting to ensure connectivity
    • Not suitable for large environments
    • TCP/IP is much more common
  • 23. AppleTalk Addresses
    • Dynamically assigned
    • Node addresses between 1 and 254
    • Network administrators can assign other network addresses (cable ranges). This requires a router (sometimes called seed routers).
  • 24. AppleTalk Suite Protocols
    • AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP)
    • AppleTalk Echo Protocol (AEP)
    • AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP)
    • AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP)
    • Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP)
    • Name Binding Protocol (NBP)
    • Printer Access Protocol (PAP)
    • Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP)
    • Zone Information Protocol (ZIP)
    Pages 111-113