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Chapter 3 Software Application Software

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  • 1. Chapter 3 Software
  • 2. Application Software
    • Commercial software is software that must be purchased
    • Copyright
    • Software License
      • Backup or archive copies are often permitted
      • Site
      • Concurrent
      • Multi-user
      • Single-user
    • Software Versions and Releases
  • 3. Application Software
    • Public Domain SW: Not copyrighted, may be duplicated
    • Shareware: Copyrighted, distributed for free, must pay to continue using it
    • Freeware: Copyrighted, distributed for free, may not be modified and redistributed
    • Rentalware: Leased usage
    • Pirated SW: Illegally obtained/copied software
    • Abandonware: Copyrighted*, software that is no longer sold or supported by its publisher
    • Custom SW: Copyrighted*, software designed to meet the unique needs of an organization
  • 4. Components of System Software
    • System Software enables application software to interact with the computer and manages the computer’s resources
    • Operating System (OS): The principal component of system software, manages basic operations of the computer
    • Device Driver: Helps the computer control peripheral devices
    • Utility Program: Supports, enhances, and expands capabilities of existing programs
    • Language Translator: Translates high-level language programs to machine code
  • 5. The Operating System
    • Booting: The process of loading the operating system into a computer’s main memory
      • Step 1: Diagnostic routines test main memory, CPU, etc.
      • Step 2: The BIOS is copied from the read-only memory (ROM) into the main memory (RAM), it allows basic I/O
      • Step 3: OS is loaded from the hard disk into the main memory
      • Cold vs. warm boot
    • The Supervisor (Kernel): The program which remains in the RAM while the computer is running, and directs other “non-resident” programs to perform tasks that support application programs
    • File Management & Formatting: File systems, formatting a PC
    • Task Management: Multi-tasking, multi-programming, time sharing, multi-processing
    • Security Management
  • 6. Common Operating Systems
    • Platform: A particular processor model and operating system on which a computer is based, e.g. Wintel (Windows OS + Intel processor), Mactel
    • GUI vs. command driven operating systems
    • Open source computing: pros and cons
    • Disk Operating System (DOS): The original OS by Microsoft, command-driven user interface
    • Windows: 3.X, 95, 98, etc.
    • Mac OS: For Apple Macintosh computers, first GUI-based OS
    • Network Operating Systems: Netware, Linux, Unix, etc.
  • 7. Utility Programs
    • Backup: Makes a duplicate copy of the specified data
    • Data-Recovery: Restores data that has been physically damaged or corrupted
    • Virus Protection: Scans files, detects, and removes viruses
    • Data Compression: Removes redundant elements, gaps, and unnecessary data from files
    • Disk Scanner & Cleanup: Detects and removes unnecessary files, detects and corrects disk problems
    • Defragmenter: Finds all scattered files on a hard disk and reorganizes them as contiguous files
  • 8. Fragmentation Visualized