PC Operating Systems Hardware Guide to Operating Systems   Third Edition
Objectives <ul><li>After reading this chapter and completing the exercises you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Explain ...
Understanding CPUs <ul><li>System architecture   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number and type of CPUs in the hardware </li></ul><...
Understanding CPUs (continued) <ul><li>CPU hardware elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design type – Speed </li></ul></ul><ul...
Design Type <ul><li>Two general CPU designs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) </li></ul></ul>...
Design Type (continued) <ul><li>This type of processor is called a Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) CPU </li></ul><...
Design Type (continued) <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CISC design includes the complexity of hardware needed...
Design Type (continued) <ul><li>The RISC CPU design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>requires very little setup because it has hardwa...
Design Type (continued) <ul><li>Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>joint project by In...
Speed <ul><li>Internal clock speed  is the most obvious indicator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clock provides this to make sure t...
Cache <ul><li>Cache memory  built into the CPU chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extremely fast —it typically runs at the same sp...
Cache (continued) <ul><li>Some CPUs have one or two more levels of cache memory, which are typically on a separate chip </...
Address Bus <ul><li>Address bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>internal communications pathway It is instrumental in the transfer o...
Data Bus <ul><li>Data bus   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows computer components to share information  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Control Bus <ul><li>The CPU is kept informed of the status of resources and devices connected to the computer </li></ul><u...
Control Bus (continued) <ul><li>An IRQ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>request to the processor for a current process, such as a rea...
CPU Scheduling <ul><li>Determine which process to start given the multiple processes waiting to run </li></ul><ul><li>Allo...
Popular PC Processors <ul><li>These CPUs are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Itanium </li><...
Intel <ul><li>Most popular CPUs are designed by Intel </li></ul><ul><li>First in this line of processors was the 8088, the...
Intel Itanium <ul><li>The Intel Itanium processor is a significant departure from previous Intel processors in two aspects...
AMD and Cyrix <ul><li>Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) and VIA Technologies (Cyrix) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compete with I...
Motorola <ul><li>Chips are typically found in Macintosh computers </li></ul><ul><li>Line of CISC CPUs is used in many olde...
PowerPC <ul><li>Developed jointly by IBM, Motorola, and Applet Computer </li></ul><ul><li>These are RISC chips known as th...
SPARC <ul><li>SPARC processor designed by Sun Microsystems </li></ul><ul><li>SPARC CPUs have gone through many incarnation...
Alpha <ul><li>Originally designed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) </li></ul><ul><li>Today, the Alpha CPU is found i...
Popular PC Operating Systems <ul><li>Many operating systems available for today’s computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Following s...
MS-DOS and PC DOS <ul><li>Microsoft’s original operating system </li></ul><ul><li>DOS is a 16-bit, single-tasking, single-...
Windows 3.x <ul><li>GUI interface to compete with the Apple Macintosh </li></ul><ul><li>Released in 1985 </li></ul><ul><li...
Windows 95 <ul><li>True 32-bit operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Does not rely on MS-DOS to provide underlying functional...
Windows 95 (continued) <ul><li>More advanced functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new GUI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plug an...
The Windows Desktop <ul><li>Windows 95 introduces the GUI, now called the desktop, see Figure 2-3 </li></ul><ul><li>Backwa...
Plug and Play <ul><li>Plug and Play (PnP)   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>automatically detect newly installed hardware </li></ul>...
ActiveX and the  Component Object Model (COM) <ul><li>ActiveX , along with its parent, the  Component Object Model (COM) <...
The Registry <ul><li>Database that stores information about hardware and software configurations </li></ul><ul><li>In Wind...
The Registry (continued) <ul><li>The Registry is a hierarchical database that provides the following information: </li></u...
Multitasking <ul><li>Multitasking still performed on a cooperative basis for 16-bit applications, uses preemptive multitas...
Enhanced Network and Internet Capabilities <ul><li>The networking functionality was  completely rewritten </li></ul><ul><l...
Windows 98/Me <ul><li>Similar to Windows 95 </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the problems of Windows 95 are solved </li></ul><ul>...
Windows 98 <ul><li>The backup mechanisms greatly enhanced </li></ul><ul><li>Changes from Windows 95 to Windows 98 are list...
Windows 98 (continued) <ul><li>ActiveX technology deployed as a standard feature in Windows 98Windows 98 can be updated ov...
Windows Millennium Edition (Me) <ul><li>Windows Millennium Edition (Me) is the last in the 95/98 track  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Windows NT <ul><li>Windows NT 3.1 was released in 1993 and version 3.5 was released in 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Windows NT w...
Windows NT (continued) <ul><li>Uses preemptive multitasking </li></ul><ul><li>Employs  multithreading </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
NT Server and NT Workstation <ul><li>Windows NT Workstation is the operating system for a person who needs a high-end, sta...
NT Server and NT Workstation (continued) <ul><li>The Registry plays an equally important role in Windows NT </li></ul><ul>...
Networking Support <ul><li>Supports network connectivity protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM mainframes, UNIX computers, M...
Security <ul><li>A C2 rating means the Server network operating system provides security: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File and f...
Security (continued) <ul><li>The  domain  is an integral part  </li></ul><ul><li>One primary domain controller (PDC) </li>...
Windows 2000 <ul><li>More robust operating system  </li></ul><ul><li>Significant rewrite of the Windows NT kernel </li></u...
Windows 2000 (continued) <ul><li>Windows 2000 incorporates a wide range of new features, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Windows 2000 Server  and Windows 2000 Professional <ul><li>Lower  total cost of ownership (TCO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tota...
Windows 2000 Server  and Windows 2000 Professional (continued) <ul><li>Server supports up to four processors </li></ul><ul...
Windows 2000 Server  and Windows 2000 Professional (continued) <ul><li>These services include the following: </li></ul><ul...
Windows 2000 Server,  Advanced Server,  and Datacenter Server <ul><li>Windows 2000 Server provides a comprehensive set of ...
Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 <ul><li>Windows 2000 evolved into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Windows XP Versions <ul><li>Versions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Professi...
Windows XP Home and Professional Editions <ul><li>Windows XP stands for “Windows Experience”   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windo...
Windows XP Home and Professional Editions (continued) <ul><li>“Experiential” look and feel Control Panel </li></ul><ul><ul...
Windows XP Home and Professional Editions (continued) <ul><li>New experiential categories are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appea...
Windows XP Tablet PC Edition <ul><li>New features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tablet P...
Windows XP Media Center Edition <ul><li>Enhancements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set-top box Learning Mode </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Windows XP 64-Bit Edition <ul><li>Runs on Intel Itanium processors </li></ul><ul><li>Used for mathematical calculations  <...
Windows Server 2003 <ul><li>Minor upgrade of Windows 2000, but offer a new desktop GUI </li></ul><ul><li>Capabilities for ...
UNIX System V Release 4 <ul><li>Two main design standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) </li>...
UNIX System V Release 4 (continued) <ul><li>Username and password determine what privileges you will be granted on the sys...
UNIX System V Release 4 (continued) <ul><li>Main commands are the same across the shells </li></ul><ul><li>To see the  pat...
UNIX System V Release 4 (continued) <ul><li>TCP/IP is used on UNIX computers  </li></ul><ul><li>Standard UNIX does not pro...
UNIX System V Release 4 (continued) <ul><li>In Linux, additional standard services include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network ...
Mac OS <ul><li>Unique approach to operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS X desktop  </li></ul><ul><li>Built on Unix fo...
Mac OS (continued) <ul><li>Network functions in Mac OS are fairly evolved </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer networking </li><...
Mac OS (continued) <ul><li>Known for its support of graphics, video, and sound capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS 9.x  ...
Mac OS (continued) <ul><li>Mac OS X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X means Version 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new interface call...
NetWare <ul><li>Evolved steadily since the late 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Originally, a time-sharing system </li></ul><ul><l...
NetWare (continued) <ul><li>NetWare 6.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>released late 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>server can be ...
NetWare (continued) <ul><li>NetWare 6.5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shipped in mid 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>open-source e...
Summary <ul><li>Hardware and operating systems are interrelated  </li></ul><ul><li>Processors are much faster and more eff...
Summary (continued) <ul><li>32-bit processors provide a foundation for operating systems like Windows XP  </li></ul><ul><l...
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Chapter 2 PowerPoint

  1. 1. PC Operating Systems Hardware Guide to Operating Systems Third Edition
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>After reading this chapter and completing the exercises you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Explain operating system hardware components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>design type, speed, cache, address bus, data bus, control bus, and CPU scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe basic features and system architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the basic features and characteristics of popular PC operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how hardware components interact with operating systems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Understanding CPUs <ul><li>System architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number and type of CPUs in the hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication routes – buses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The CPU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>performs the computational and logic work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most modern PCs have one such chip - single-processor computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are computers that have multiple CPUs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two to 64 or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiprocessor computers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Understanding CPUs (continued) <ul><li>CPU hardware elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design type – Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache – Address bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data bus – Control bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU Scheduling </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Design Type <ul><li>Two general CPU designs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main difference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of different instructions the chip can process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instruction set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the list of commands the CPU can understand and carry out </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Design Type (continued) <ul><li>This type of processor is called a Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) CPU </li></ul><ul><li>The CISC CPU offers advantages and disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>need only general-purpose hardware to carry out commands </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Design Type (continued) <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CISC design includes the complexity of hardware needed to perform many functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the complexity of on-chip software needed to make the hardware do the right thing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the need to continually reprogram the on-chip hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complex operations that a CISC CPU carries out slow it down because all sorts of hardware on the chip must be set up to perform specific functions </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Design Type (continued) <ul><li>The RISC CPU design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>requires very little setup because it has hardware on the chip that is specially designed and optimized to perform particular functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pipelining - allows the processor to operate on one instruction at the same time it is fetching one or more subsequent instructions </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Design Type (continued) <ul><li>Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>joint project by Intel and Hewlett Packard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>processor handles massive numbers of operations simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enables a single processor to execute as many as 20 operations at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>using three instructions per word, EPIC enables the processor to work much faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instructions can be combined into instruction groups </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Speed <ul><li>Internal clock speed is the most obvious indicator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clock provides this to make sure that all the chips know what to expect at what time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tells you how many clock pulses, or ticks, are available per second </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External clock speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chips also must be able to communicate with the other chips in the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lower clock speed to communicate with the rest of the computer </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Cache <ul><li>Cache memory built into the CPU chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extremely fast —it typically runs at the same speed as the processor—and therefore expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If processor needs a number stored in the cache memory on the CPU, it probably won’t have to wait to obtain that number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>referred to as Level 1 (L1) cache </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Cache (continued) <ul><li>Some CPUs have one or two more levels of cache memory, which are typically on a separate chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2 (L2) cache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3 (L2) cache </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cache controller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>predicts what data will be needed, and makes that data available in cache before it is needed </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Address Bus <ul><li>Address bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>internal communications pathway It is instrumental in the transfer of data to and from computer memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>runs at the external clock speed of the CPU </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Data Bus <ul><li>Data bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows computer components to share information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number of bits indicates how many bits of data can be transferred from memory to the CPU, or vice versa, in one clock tick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>external clock speed of 1 GHz will have 1 billion ticks per second to the external bus </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Control Bus <ul><li>The CPU is kept informed of the status of resources and devices connected to the computer </li></ul><ul><li>The most basic information is whether or not a particular resource is active and can be accessed </li></ul><ul><li>Memory read and write status is transported on this bus </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupt Requests (IRQs) are also transported on this bus </li></ul>
  16. 16. Control Bus (continued) <ul><li>An IRQ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>request to the processor for a current process, such as a read from a disk drive, to be interrupted by another process, such as a write into memory </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. CPU Scheduling <ul><li>Determine which process to start given the multiple processes waiting to run </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for multithreading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to run two or more processes at the same time </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Popular PC Processors <ul><li>These CPUs are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Itanium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AMD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motorola </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPARC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Intel <ul><li>Most popular CPUs are designed by Intel </li></ul><ul><li>First in this line of processors was the 8088, the CPU found in the original IBM PC </li></ul><ul><li>Next Intel released the Multimedia Extension (MMX) </li></ul><ul><li>Pentium 4 is the presence of two math coprocessing units, called arithmetic logic units (ALUs) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Intel Itanium <ul><li>The Intel Itanium processor is a significant departure from previous Intel processors in two aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>built on the RISC-based EPIC architecture and it is a 64-bit chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intended for very large-scale operations that match powerful mainframes </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. AMD and Cyrix <ul><li>Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) and VIA Technologies (Cyrix) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compete with Intel </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Motorola <ul><li>Chips are typically found in Macintosh computers </li></ul><ul><li>Line of CISC CPUs is used in many older Macintosh computers, as well as in many UNIX computers </li></ul>
  23. 23. PowerPC <ul><li>Developed jointly by IBM, Motorola, and Applet Computer </li></ul><ul><li>These are RISC chips known as the PowerPC line </li></ul><ul><li>Newest chip in the PowerPC line is the G5 (for 5 th generation </li></ul>
  24. 24. SPARC <ul><li>SPARC processor designed by Sun Microsystems </li></ul><ul><li>SPARC CPUs have gone through many incarnations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RISC processor is the most popular on the market today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The UltraSPARC III is the current version of the SPARC processor at this writing </li></ul>
  25. 25. Alpha <ul><li>Originally designed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) </li></ul><ul><li>Today, the Alpha CPU is found in high-end HP servers </li></ul><ul><li>64-bit data bus and a 64-bit address bus </li></ul><ul><li>The internal clock speed can be as high as 1 GHz </li></ul>
  26. 26. Popular PC Operating Systems <ul><li>Many operating systems available for today’s computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Following slides will briefly describe </li></ul>
  27. 27. MS-DOS and PC DOS <ul><li>Microsoft’s original operating system </li></ul><ul><li>DOS is a 16-bit, single-tasking, single-user operating system </li></ul>
  28. 28. Windows 3.x <ul><li>GUI interface to compete with the Apple Macintosh </li></ul><ul><li>Released in 1985 </li></ul><ul><li>Not well accepted until Windows 3.0 released </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 3.11 is also referred to as Windows for Workgroups (WFW </li></ul><ul><li>WFW is a peer-to-peer network operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>each computer on a network can communicate with other computers on the same network </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Windows 95 <ul><li>True 32-bit operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Does not rely on MS-DOS to provide underlying functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Requires more CPU speed and memory </li></ul>
  30. 30. Windows 95 (continued) <ul><li>More advanced functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new GUI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plug and Play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ActiveX and the Component Object Model (COM) capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Registry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced network capabilities </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Windows Desktop <ul><li>Windows 95 introduces the GUI, now called the desktop, see Figure 2-3 </li></ul><ul><li>Backward compatibility to run old MS-DOS and Windows 3.x programs </li></ul>
  32. 32. Plug and Play <ul><li>Plug and Play (PnP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>automatically detect newly installed hardware </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. ActiveX and the Component Object Model (COM) <ul><li>ActiveX , along with its parent, the Component Object Model (COM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>standardized way for objects, such as programs, files, computers, printers, control panels, windows, and icons, to communicate with each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The COM and ActiveX technologies enable an object to “sense” when it is interacting with other objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse, printer, desktop, trash can, or Start menu </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The COM and ActiveX allow you to drag files from one place to another </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Registry <ul><li>Database that stores information about hardware and software configurations </li></ul><ul><li>In Windows 95, the Registry is the only correct way to store configuration information </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Registry (continued) <ul><li>The Registry is a hierarchical database that provides the following information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service and device driver information and configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Static tuning parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software and application parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop configuration </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Multitasking <ul><li>Multitasking still performed on a cooperative basis for 16-bit applications, uses preemptive multitasking for 32-bit applications </li></ul><ul><li>Task supervisor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>detects tasks that appear stuck </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Enhanced Network and Internet Capabilities <ul><li>The networking functionality was completely rewritten </li></ul><ul><li>Network drivers are part of the Windows operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Networking code is written as a 32-bit application </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated with the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive Internet support, in Web browsers, Web server software </li></ul><ul><li>Dial-Up Networking (DUN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used to make connections to remote networks or computers </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Windows 98/Me <ul><li>Similar to Windows 95 </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the problems of Windows 95 are solved </li></ul><ul><li>Includes Registry checks and automatic Registry repair </li></ul>
  39. 39. Windows 98 <ul><li>The backup mechanisms greatly enhanced </li></ul><ul><li>Changes from Windows 95 to Windows 98 are listed on page 66 </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Serial Bus (USB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high-speed input/output port </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses improved cooperative multitasking for 16-bit applications and preemptive multitasking for 32-bit applications </li></ul>
  40. 40. Windows 98 (continued) <ul><li>ActiveX technology deployed as a standard feature in Windows 98Windows 98 can be updated over the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up dial-up connections and configuring the computer to use the Internet are simpler </li></ul>
  41. 41. Windows Millennium Edition (Me) <ul><li>Windows Millennium Edition (Me) is the last in the 95/98 track </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Me was developed for home computer users </li></ul><ul><li>Infrared Data Association (IrDA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>support, and implements the enhanced PnP standard, called Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UPnP provides better discovery of new devices </li></ul>
  42. 42. Windows NT <ul><li>Windows NT 3.1 was released in 1993 and version 3.5 was released in 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Windows NT was an extension to IBM’s high-end operating system, OS/2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intended to support a client/server networking environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows NT has gone through many iterations </li></ul><ul><li>Windows NT prior to version 3.51 were not stable or reliable </li></ul>
  43. 43. Windows NT (continued) <ul><li>Uses preemptive multitasking </li></ul><ul><li>Employs multithreading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to run two or more program code blocks as threads, at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NT Workstation can use up to two CPUs </li></ul><ul><li>NT Server can use up to four CPUs </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All CPUs carry out actions at the same time </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. NT Server and NT Workstation <ul><li>Windows NT Workstation is the operating system for a person who needs a high-end, stable, and secure graphical operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Windows NT Server is designed as a multi-user, server operating system for access over a network </li></ul>
  45. 45. NT Server and NT Workstation (continued) <ul><li>The Registry plays an equally important role in Windows NT </li></ul><ul><li>Used as the central repository for configuration, hardware, software, and user information </li></ul><ul><li>Windows NT is designed as a multi-user system </li></ul>
  46. 46. Networking Support <ul><li>Supports network connectivity protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM mainframes, UNIX computers, Macintosh computers, all Windows-based computers, Novell NetWare servers, etc </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Security <ul><li>A C2 rating means the Server network operating system provides security: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File and folder protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User accounts and passwords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File, folder, and account auditing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File server access protection on a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File server management controls </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Security (continued) <ul><li>The domain is an integral part </li></ul><ul><li>One primary domain controller (PDC) </li></ul><ul><li>The PDC is responsible for keeping usernames and passwords for all users </li></ul><ul><li>Remote Access Service (RAS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>user information in a PDC can be used to grant or deny various levels of network access </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Windows 2000 <ul><li>More robust operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Significant rewrite of the Windows NT kernel </li></ul><ul><li>Runs about 30% faster than Windows NT </li></ul><ul><li>More advanced networking support, such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) </li></ul><ul><li>A VPN is a private network that is like a tunnel through a larger network </li></ul>
  50. 50. Windows 2000 (continued) <ul><li>Windows 2000 incorporates a wide range of new features, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed network architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kerberos security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IntelliMirror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Language Compatibility </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional <ul><li>Lower total cost of ownership (TCO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>total cost of owning a network, including hardware, software, training, maintenance, and user support costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active Directory —a database of computers, users, groups, shared printers, folders, and other network resources </li></ul>
  52. 52. Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional (continued) <ul><li>Server supports up to four processors </li></ul><ul><li>Professional supports up to two </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>offers more services and user connectivity options </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional (continued) <ul><li>These services include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The capability to handle virtually unlimited numbers of users simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Directory management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based management services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network-wide security management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network storage management </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Windows 2000 Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server <ul><li>Windows 2000 Server provides a comprehensive set of server and Web services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>up to four processor systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports up to 4 GB of RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advanced Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intended for high-end enterprise networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clustering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technique in which two or more servers are linked to equally share the server processor load </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 <ul><li>Windows 2000 evolved into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New desktop GUI </li></ul>
  56. 56. Windows XP Versions <ul><li>Versions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Tablet PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Media Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP 64-bit </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Windows XP Home and Professional Editions <ul><li>Windows XP stands for “Windows Experience” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP Home Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows XP Professional is the upgrade to Windows 2000 Professional </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to create accounts for different users who might use the operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Programs written for Windows 95 may not run in Windows XP </li></ul>
  58. 58. Windows XP Home and Professional Editions (continued) <ul><li>“Experiential” look and feel Control Panel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>designed to reflect the user’s experience of a particular setting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows Classic is another theme that uses the Windows 2000 GUI look </li></ul>
  59. 59. Windows XP Home and Professional Editions (continued) <ul><li>New experiential categories are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance and Themes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network and Internet Connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add or Remove Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds, Speech, and Audio Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance and Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printers and Other Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User Accounts (in Windows XP Professional) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Date, Time, Language, and Regional Options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility Options </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Windows XP Tablet PC Edition <ul><li>New features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tablet PC Input Panel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows Journal </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Windows XP Media Center Edition <ul><li>Enhancements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set-top box Learning Mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build and play your digital music library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View and share your digital pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet and FM radio </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Windows XP 64-Bit Edition <ul><li>Runs on Intel Itanium processors </li></ul><ul><li>Used for mathematical calculations </li></ul>
  63. 63. Windows Server 2003 <ul><li>Minor upgrade of Windows 2000, but offer a new desktop GUI </li></ul><ul><li>Capabilities for keeping photo albums, playing music, running video and audio files, playing games, and using other multimedia applications </li></ul><ul><li>Better Internet security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>built-in firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to remotely control the computer </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. UNIX System V Release 4 <ul><li>Two main design standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System V Release 4 (SVR 4) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linux is a version of UNIX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>free of charge, but some enhanced versions of Linux must be purchased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Runs on almost any hardware platform </li></ul><ul><li>True multitasking, multi-user operating system </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX typically presents you with a request for a login </li></ul>
  65. 65. UNIX System V Release 4 (continued) <ul><li>Username and password determine what privileges you will be granted on the system </li></ul><ul><li>Shell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>levels of functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>series of built-in commands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External commands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at the command line </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. UNIX System V Release 4 (continued) <ul><li>Main commands are the same across the shells </li></ul><ul><li>To see the path of the directory you are in, use pwd command </li></ul><ul><li>GUI interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GNOME </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. UNIX System V Release 4 (continued) <ul><li>TCP/IP is used on UNIX computers </li></ul><ul><li>Standard UNIX does not provide many network functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provided by add-ons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>login services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>network connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>file transfers using File Transfer Protocol (FTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail service, usually the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. UNIX System V Release 4 (continued) <ul><li>In Linux, additional standard services include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network File System (NFS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support for other network systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UNIX is also compatible with databases such as Oracle and Informix </li></ul>
  69. 69. Mac OS <ul><li>Unique approach to operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS X desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Built on Unix foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware architecture different from other platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS prior to 8.0 was not multitasking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>task switching with the aid of MultiFinder </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Mac OS (continued) <ul><li>Network functions in Mac OS are fairly evolved </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer networking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>standard feature since the beginning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses AppleTalk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desktop operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no extended security features </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Mac OS (continued) <ul><li>Known for its support of graphics, video, and sound capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS 9.x </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introduces features for better hardware and Internet access </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Mac OS (continued) <ul><li>Mac OS X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X means Version 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new interface called the “Aqua” interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some programs and utilities were replaced </li></ul>
  73. 73. NetWare <ul><li>Evolved steadily since the late 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Originally, a time-sharing system </li></ul><ul><li>Now, a full-service server OS </li></ul><ul><li>Most shops run NetWare 5.x or 6.x </li></ul><ul><li>Download screen </li></ul>
  74. 74. NetWare (continued) <ul><li>NetWare 6.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>released late 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>server can be added easily to network with Microsoft, UNIX, and other NetWare servers </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. NetWare (continued) <ul><li>NetWare 6.5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shipped in mid 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>open-source enhancements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>includes Apache Web server, MySQL, Tomcat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell’s Virtual Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NetWare Administrator console </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Summary <ul><li>Hardware and operating systems are interrelated </li></ul><ul><li>Processors are much faster and more efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Early computer operating systems were well suited to the early processors, which included the 8088, 8086, and 80286 </li></ul>
  77. 77. Summary (continued) <ul><li>32-bit processors provide a foundation for operating systems like Windows XP </li></ul><ul><li>New 64-bit processors have emerged </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosing computer problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>know the hardware and operating system requirements </li></ul></ul>

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