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  • 1. PC Operating Systems Hardware Guide to Operating Systems Third Edition
  • 2. Objectives
    • After reading this chapter and completing the exercises you will be able to:
    • Explain operating system hardware components
      • design type, speed, cache, address bus, data bus, control bus, and CPU scheduling
    • Describe basic features and system architecture
    • Identify the basic features and characteristics of popular PC operating systems
    • Understand how hardware components interact with operating systems
  • 3. Understanding CPUs
    • System architecture
      • number and type of CPUs in the hardware
      • communication routes – buses
    • The CPU
      • performs the computational and logic work
      • Most modern PCs have one such chip - single-processor computers
    • There are computers that have multiple CPUs
      • Two to 64 or more
      • multiprocessor computers
  • 4. Understanding CPUs (continued)
    • CPU hardware elements:
      • Design type – Speed
      • Cache – Address bus
      • Data bus – Control bus
      • CPU Scheduling
  • 5. Design Type
    • Two general CPU designs:
      • CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer)
      • RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)
    • Main difference
      • number of different instructions the chip can process
    • Instruction set
      • the list of commands the CPU can understand and carry out
  • 6. Design Type (continued)
    • This type of processor is called a Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) CPU
    • The CISC CPU offers advantages and disadvantages
    • Advantage
      • need only general-purpose hardware to carry out commands
  • 7. Design Type (continued)
    • Disadvantages
      • CISC design includes the complexity of hardware needed to perform many functions
      • the complexity of on-chip software needed to make the hardware do the right thing
      • the need to continually reprogram the on-chip hardware
      • complex operations that a CISC CPU carries out slow it down because all sorts of hardware on the chip must be set up to perform specific functions
  • 8. Design Type (continued)
    • The RISC CPU design
      • requires very little setup because it has hardware on the chip that is specially designed and optimized to perform particular functions
      • pipelining - allows the processor to operate on one instruction at the same time it is fetching one or more subsequent instructions
  • 9. Design Type (continued)
    • Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC)
      • joint project by Intel and Hewlett Packard
      • processor handles massive numbers of operations simultaneously
      • enables a single processor to execute as many as 20 operations at a time
    • Advantage
      • using three instructions per word, EPIC enables the processor to work much faster
      • instructions can be combined into instruction groups
  • 10. Speed
    • Internal clock speed is the most obvious indicator
      • clock provides this to make sure that all the chips know what to expect at what time
      • tells you how many clock pulses, or ticks, are available per second
    • External clock speed
      • chips also must be able to communicate with the other chips in the computer
      • lower clock speed to communicate with the rest of the computer
  • 11. Cache
    • Cache memory built into the CPU chip
      • extremely fast —it typically runs at the same speed as the processor—and therefore expensive
      • If processor needs a number stored in the cache memory on the CPU, it probably won’t have to wait to obtain that number
      • referred to as Level 1 (L1) cache
  • 12. Cache (continued)
    • Some CPUs have one or two more levels of cache memory, which are typically on a separate chip
      • Level 2 (L2) cache
      • Level 3 (L2) cache
    • Cache controller
      • predicts what data will be needed, and makes that data available in cache before it is needed
  • 13. Address Bus
    • Address bus
      • internal communications pathway It is instrumental in the transfer of data to and from computer memory
      • runs at the external clock speed of the CPU
  • 14. Data Bus
    • Data bus
      • allows computer components to share information
      • number of bits indicates how many bits of data can be transferred from memory to the CPU, or vice versa, in one clock tick
      • external clock speed of 1 GHz will have 1 billion ticks per second to the external bus
  • 15. Control Bus
    • The CPU is kept informed of the status of resources and devices connected to the computer
    • The most basic information is whether or not a particular resource is active and can be accessed
    • Memory read and write status is transported on this bus
    • Interrupt Requests (IRQs) are also transported on this bus
  • 16. Control Bus (continued)
    • An IRQ
      • request to the processor for a current process, such as a read from a disk drive, to be interrupted by another process, such as a write into memory
  • 17. CPU Scheduling
    • Determine which process to start given the multiple processes waiting to run
    • Allows for multithreading
      • Ability to run two or more processes at the same time
  • 18. Popular PC Processors
    • These CPUs are :
      • Intel
      • Intel Itanium
      • AMD
      • Motorola
      • SPARC
      • Alpha
  • 19. Intel
    • Most popular CPUs are designed by Intel
    • First in this line of processors was the 8088, the CPU found in the original IBM PC
    • Next Intel released the Multimedia Extension (MMX)
    • Pentium 4 is the presence of two math coprocessing units, called arithmetic logic units (ALUs)
  • 20. Intel Itanium
    • The Intel Itanium processor is a significant departure from previous Intel processors in two aspects:
      • built on the RISC-based EPIC architecture and it is a 64-bit chip
      • intended for very large-scale operations that match powerful mainframes
  • 21. AMD and Cyrix
    • Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) and VIA Technologies (Cyrix)
      • compete with Intel
  • 22. Motorola
    • Chips are typically found in Macintosh computers
    • Line of CISC CPUs is used in many older Macintosh computers, as well as in many UNIX computers
  • 23. PowerPC
    • Developed jointly by IBM, Motorola, and Applet Computer
    • These are RISC chips known as the PowerPC line
    • Newest chip in the PowerPC line is the G5 (for 5 th generation
  • 24. SPARC
    • SPARC processor designed by Sun Microsystems
    • SPARC CPUs have gone through many incarnations
      • RISC processor is the most popular on the market today
    • The UltraSPARC III is the current version of the SPARC processor at this writing
  • 25. Alpha
    • Originally designed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)
    • Today, the Alpha CPU is found in high-end HP servers
    • 64-bit data bus and a 64-bit address bus
    • The internal clock speed can be as high as 1 GHz
  • 26. Popular PC Operating Systems
    • Many operating systems available for today’s computers.
    • Following slides will briefly describe
  • 27. MS-DOS and PC DOS
    • Microsoft’s original operating system
    • DOS is a 16-bit, single-tasking, single-user operating system
  • 28. Windows 3.x
    • GUI interface to compete with the Apple Macintosh
    • Released in 1985
    • Not well accepted until Windows 3.0 released
    • Windows 3.11 is also referred to as Windows for Workgroups (WFW
    • WFW is a peer-to-peer network operating system
      • each computer on a network can communicate with other computers on the same network
  • 29. Windows 95
    • True 32-bit operating system
    • Does not rely on MS-DOS to provide underlying functionality
    • Requires more CPU speed and memory
  • 30. Windows 95 (continued)
    • More advanced functions:
      • A new GUI
      • Plug and Play
      • ActiveX and the Component Object Model (COM) capability
      • The Registry
      • Multitasking
      • Enhanced network capabilities
  • 31. The Windows Desktop
    • Windows 95 introduces the GUI, now called the desktop, see Figure 2-3
    • Backward compatibility to run old MS-DOS and Windows 3.x programs
  • 32. Plug and Play
    • Plug and Play (PnP)
      • automatically detect newly installed hardware
  • 33. ActiveX and the Component Object Model (COM)
    • ActiveX , along with its parent, the Component Object Model (COM)
      • standardized way for objects, such as programs, files, computers, printers, control panels, windows, and icons, to communicate with each other
    • The COM and ActiveX technologies enable an object to “sense” when it is interacting with other objects
      • Mouse, printer, desktop, trash can, or Start menu
    • The COM and ActiveX allow you to drag files from one place to another
  • 34. The Registry
    • Database that stores information about hardware and software configurations
    • In Windows 95, the Registry is the only correct way to store configuration information
  • 35. The Registry (continued)
    • The Registry is a hierarchical database that provides the following information:
      • Operating system configuration
      • Service and device driver information and configuration
      • Static tuning parameters
      • Software and application parameters
      • Hardware configuration
      • Performance information
      • Desktop configuration
  • 36. Multitasking
    • Multitasking still performed on a cooperative basis for 16-bit applications, uses preemptive multitasking for 32-bit applications
    • Task supervisor
      • detects tasks that appear stuck
  • 37. Enhanced Network and Internet Capabilities
    • The networking functionality was completely rewritten
    • Network drivers are part of the Windows operating system
    • Networking code is written as a 32-bit application
    • Integrated with the Internet
    • Extensive Internet support, in Web browsers, Web server software
    • Dial-Up Networking (DUN)
      • used to make connections to remote networks or computers
  • 38. Windows 98/Me
    • Similar to Windows 95
    • Many of the problems of Windows 95 are solved
    • Includes Registry checks and automatic Registry repair
  • 39. Windows 98
    • The backup mechanisms greatly enhanced
    • Changes from Windows 95 to Windows 98 are listed on page 66
    • Universal Serial Bus (USB)
      • high-speed input/output port
    • Uses improved cooperative multitasking for 16-bit applications and preemptive multitasking for 32-bit applications
  • 40. Windows 98 (continued)
    • ActiveX technology deployed as a standard feature in Windows 98Windows 98 can be updated over the Internet
    • Setting up dial-up connections and configuring the computer to use the Internet are simpler
  • 41. Windows Millennium Edition (Me)
    • Windows Millennium Edition (Me) is the last in the 95/98 track
    • Windows Me was developed for home computer users
    • Infrared Data Association (IrDA)
      • support, and implements the enhanced PnP standard, called Universal Plug and Play (UPnP)
    • UPnP provides better discovery of new devices
  • 42. Windows NT
    • Windows NT 3.1 was released in 1993 and version 3.5 was released in 1994
    • Windows NT was an extension to IBM’s high-end operating system, OS/2
      • intended to support a client/server networking environment
    • Windows NT has gone through many iterations
    • Windows NT prior to version 3.51 were not stable or reliable
  • 43. Windows NT (continued)
    • Uses preemptive multitasking
    • Employs multithreading
      • ability to run two or more program code blocks as threads, at the same time
    • NT Workstation can use up to two CPUs
    • NT Server can use up to four CPUs
    • Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)
      • All CPUs carry out actions at the same time
  • 44. NT Server and NT Workstation
    • Windows NT Workstation is the operating system for a person who needs a high-end, stable, and secure graphical operating system
    • Windows NT Server is designed as a multi-user, server operating system for access over a network
  • 45. NT Server and NT Workstation (continued)
    • The Registry plays an equally important role in Windows NT
    • Used as the central repository for configuration, hardware, software, and user information
    • Windows NT is designed as a multi-user system
  • 46. Networking Support
    • Supports network connectivity protocols
      • IBM mainframes, UNIX computers, Macintosh computers, all Windows-based computers, Novell NetWare servers, etc
  • 47. Security
    • A C2 rating means the Server network operating system provides security:
      • File and folder protection
      • User accounts and passwords
      • File, folder, and account auditing
      • File server access protection on a network
      • File server management controls
  • 48. Security (continued)
    • The domain is an integral part
    • One primary domain controller (PDC)
    • The PDC is responsible for keeping usernames and passwords for all users
    • Remote Access Service (RAS)
      • user information in a PDC can be used to grant or deny various levels of network access
  • 49. Windows 2000
    • More robust operating system
    • Significant rewrite of the Windows NT kernel
    • Runs about 30% faster than Windows NT
    • More advanced networking support, such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
    • A VPN is a private network that is like a tunnel through a larger network
  • 50. Windows 2000 (continued)
    • Windows 2000 incorporates a wide range of new features, including:
      • Active Directory
      • Distributed network architecture
      • Kerberos security
      • IntelliMirror
      • Power Management
      • International Language Compatibility
  • 51. Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional
    • Lower total cost of ownership (TCO)
      • total cost of owning a network, including hardware, software, training, maintenance, and user support costs
    • Active Directory —a database of computers, users, groups, shared printers, folders, and other network resources
  • 52. Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional (continued)
    • Server supports up to four processors
    • Professional supports up to two
    • Windows 2000 Server
      • offers more services and user connectivity options
  • 53. Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional (continued)
    • These services include the following:
      • The capability to handle virtually unlimited numbers of users simultaneously
      • Active Directory management
      • Network management
      • Web-based management services
      • Network-wide security management
      • Network storage management
  • 54. Windows 2000 Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server
    • Windows 2000 Server provides a comprehensive set of server and Web services
      • up to four processor systems
      • supports up to 4 GB of RAM
    • Advanced Server
      • intended for high-end enterprise networks
    • Clustering
      • technique in which two or more servers are linked to equally share the server processor load
  • 55. Windows XP and Windows Server 2003
    • Windows 2000 evolved into:
      • Windows XP
      • Windows Server 2003
    • New desktop GUI
  • 56. Windows XP Versions
    • Versions:
      • Windows XP Home
      • Windows XP Professional
      • Windows XP Tablet PC
      • Windows XP Media Center
      • Windows XP 64-bit
  • 57. Windows XP Home and Professional Editions
    • Windows XP stands for “Windows Experience”
      • Windows XP Professional
      • Windows XP Home Edition
    • Windows XP Professional is the upgrade to Windows 2000 Professional
    • Ability to create accounts for different users who might use the operating system
    • Programs written for Windows 95 may not run in Windows XP
  • 58. Windows XP Home and Professional Editions (continued)
    • “Experiential” look and feel Control Panel
      • designed to reflect the user’s experience of a particular setting
    • Windows Classic is another theme that uses the Windows 2000 GUI look
  • 59. Windows XP Home and Professional Editions (continued)
    • New experiential categories are:
      • Appearance and Themes
      • Network and Internet Connections
      • Add or Remove Programs
      • Sounds, Speech, and Audio Devices
      • Performance and Maintenance
      • Printers and Other Hardware
      • User Accounts (in Windows XP Professional)
      • Date, Time, Language, and Regional Options
      • Accessibility Options
  • 60. Windows XP Tablet PC Edition
    • New features:
      • Customization
      • Tablet PC Input Panel
      • Microsoft Windows Journal
  • 61. Windows XP Media Center Edition
    • Enhancements:
      • Set-top box Learning Mode
      • Build and play your digital music library
      • View and share your digital pictures
      • Internet and FM radio
  • 62. Windows XP 64-Bit Edition
    • Runs on Intel Itanium processors
    • Used for mathematical calculations
  • 63. Windows Server 2003
    • Minor upgrade of Windows 2000, but offer a new desktop GUI
    • Capabilities for keeping photo albums, playing music, running video and audio files, playing games, and using other multimedia applications
    • Better Internet security
      • built-in firewall
      • ability to remotely control the computer
  • 64. UNIX System V Release 4
    • Two main design standards
      • Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
      • System V Release 4 (SVR 4)
    • Linux is a version of UNIX
      • free of charge, but some enhanced versions of Linux must be purchased
    • Runs on almost any hardware platform
    • True multitasking, multi-user operating system
    • UNIX typically presents you with a request for a login
  • 65. UNIX System V Release 4 (continued)
    • Username and password determine what privileges you will be granted on the system
    • Shell
      • levels of functionality
      • series of built-in commands
    • External commands
      • at the command line
  • 66. UNIX System V Release 4 (continued)
    • Main commands are the same across the shells
    • To see the path of the directory you are in, use pwd command
    • GUI interface
      • X Windows
      • GNOME
  • 67. UNIX System V Release 4 (continued)
    • TCP/IP is used on UNIX computers
    • Standard UNIX does not provide many network functions
      • provided by add-ons
    • Standard functions:
      • login services
      • network connections
      • file transfers using File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
      • e-mail service, usually the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  • 68. UNIX System V Release 4 (continued)
    • In Linux, additional standard services include:
      • Network File System (NFS)
      • support for other network systems
    • UNIX is also compatible with databases such as Oracle and Informix
  • 69. Mac OS
    • Unique approach to operating systems
    • Mac OS X desktop
    • Built on Unix foundation
    • Hardware architecture different from other platforms
    • Mac OS prior to 8.0 was not multitasking
      • task switching with the aid of MultiFinder
  • 70. Mac OS (continued)
    • Network functions in Mac OS are fairly evolved
    • Peer-to-peer networking
      • standard feature since the beginning
      • Uses AppleTalk
    • Desktop operating system
      • no extended security features
  • 71. Mac OS (continued)
    • Known for its support of graphics, video, and sound capabilities
    • Mac OS 9.x
      • introduces features for better hardware and Internet access
  • 72. Mac OS (continued)
    • Mac OS X
      • X means Version 10
      • new interface called the “Aqua” interface
    • Some programs and utilities were replaced
  • 73. NetWare
    • Evolved steadily since the late 1970s
    • Originally, a time-sharing system
    • Now, a full-service server OS
    • Most shops run NetWare 5.x or 6.x
    • Download screen
  • 74. NetWare (continued)
    • NetWare 6.0
      • released late 2001
      • server can be added easily to network with Microsoft, UNIX, and other NetWare servers
  • 75. NetWare (continued)
    • NetWare 6.5
      • shipped in mid 2003
      • open-source enhancements
      • includes Apache Web server, MySQL, Tomcat
      • Novell’s Virtual Office
      • NetWare Administrator console
  • 76. Summary
    • Hardware and operating systems are interrelated
    • Processors are much faster and more efficient
    • Early computer operating systems were well suited to the early processors, which included the 8088, 8086, and 80286
  • 77. Summary (continued)
    • 32-bit processors provide a foundation for operating systems like Windows XP
    • New 64-bit processors have emerged
    • Diagnosing computer problems
      • know the hardware and operating system requirements