Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Recognize the importance of computer literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the components of a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the uses of the Internet and World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the categories of software </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the categories of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the types of computer users </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss various computer applications in society </li></ul>
  3. 3. A World of Computers <ul><li>What is computer literacy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What Is a Computer? <ul><li>Electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory </li></ul>Processes data into information Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful Produces and stores results Accepts data Raw facts, figures, and symbols
  5. 5. Advantages of Using Computers <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul>
  6. 6. Disadvantages of U sing Computers <ul><li>Violation of Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on Labor Force </li></ul><ul><li>Health Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on Environment </li></ul>
  7. 7. Information processing cycle <ul><li>What is the information processing cycle? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Components of a Computer <ul><li>Input Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Output Devices </li></ul><ul><li>System Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Devices </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1. Input Devices <ul><li>Hardware used to enter data and instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Widely used input devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microphone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scanner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Camera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PC Video Camera </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 2. Output Devices <ul><li>Hardware that conveys information to one or more people </li></ul><ul><li>Common output devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 3. System Unit <ul><li>Case containing electronic components used to process data. </li></ul><ul><li>Motherboard or Circuit Board. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Components of Motherboard: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. CPU & Memory <ul><li>Processor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 4. Storage <ul><li>Holds data, instructions, and information for future use </li></ul><ul><li>Storage media </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical material on which data, instructions, and information are stored </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage device </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Records and retrieves items to and from a storage medium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard Disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USB Flash Drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 5. Communications device <ul><li>Hardware component that enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information </li></ul><ul><li>E.g.: Modem </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs over cables, telephone lines, cellular radio networks (wireless), satellites (wireless), and other transmission media. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Networks and the Internet <ul><li>A network is a collection of computers and devices connected together. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow computers to share resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Internet <ul><li>Worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Billions of documents, called Web pages, available to anyone connected to the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Internet Uses? <ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping </li></ul><ul><li>Banking & Investing </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing information </li></ul>
  18. 18. Software <ul><li>Also called Program </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of a series of instructions that tells the computer what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System Software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application Software </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. System Software <ul><li>Programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as interface between user, the application software & computer’s hardware </li></ul><ul><li>2 Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operating System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utility Program </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Operating System <ul><li>is a set of programs that coordinates all activities among computer hardware devices and allows users to run application software. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of operating systems for personal computers include Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS , and Unix. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Utility Program <ul><li>allow the user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices or its programs </li></ul><ul><li>Control Panel </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Management </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Application Software <ul><li>Programs that perform specific tasks for users </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web browsers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DTP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Design </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Computer Software System Software Application Software Operating System Utility Programs
  24. 24. Categories of Computers <ul><li>Personal Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Computers/Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Game Consoles </li></ul><ul><li>Servers </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframes </li></ul><ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded Computers </li></ul>
  25. 25. Personal Computers <ul><li>What are the two most popular series of personal computers? </li></ul><ul><li>PC and compatibles use the Windows operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Apple Macintosh uses the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Mobile Computers <ul><li>Notebooks/Laptops </li></ul><ul><li>Tablet PC </li></ul><ul><li>PDA </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Phones </li></ul>
  27. 27. Game Consoles Mobile computing device designed for single-player or multiplayer video games
  28. 28. Servers <ul><li>What types of servers are there? </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframe Very powerful, expensive computer that supports thousands of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Supercomputer The fastest, most powerful, most expensive computer. Used for applications requiring complex mathematical calculations </li></ul><ul><li>A server controls access to network resources and provides centralized storage </li></ul>
  29. 29. Embedded Computers <ul><ul><li>A special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Computer Usage <ul><li>What are five categories of computer users? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home User </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Office/Home Office User </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile User </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power User </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Business User </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Home User <ul><li>What software is available for a home user? </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Finance Management </li></ul><ul><li>Web access </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul>
  32. 32. Small Office User <ul><li>What software is available for a small office/home office (SOHO) user? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialty software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Mobile User <ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notebook computers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PDAs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smart phones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tablet PCs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation graphics software </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Power User <ul><li>What are the needs of a power user? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed and large amounts of storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of power users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engineers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Architects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop publishers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic artists </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Large Business Users <ul><li>What are the needs of the large business user? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Payroll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop publishing </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Computer Applications in Society <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Health Care </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul>
  37. 37. Chapter Summary The computer and its components What is a network? The Internet and the World Wide Web Types of software Categories of computers Types of computer users
  38. 38. Questions?

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