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  • 1. 5.1 5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS SOFTWARE
  • 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
    • DESCRIBE MAJOR TYPES OF SOFTWARE
    • EXAMINE SYSTEM SOFTWARE & OPERATING SYSTEMS
    • EXPLAIN SOFTWARE EVOLUTION
    • ANALYZE MAJOR APPLICATION LANGUAGES
    • DESCRIBE APPROACHES TO SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
    • IDENTIFY SOFTWARE ISSUES
    • *
    5.2
  • 3.
    • DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTROL COMPUTER OPERATION
    • PROGRAM: SET OF INSTRUCTIONS TO THE COMPUTER
    • STORED: PROGRAM MUST BE IN PRIMARY STORAGE
    • SYSTEM SOFTWARE: MANAGES COMPUTER RESOURCES
    • APPLICATION SOFTWARE: SPECIFIC BUSINESS APPLICATION
    • *
    SOFTWARE 5.3
  • 4. SOFTWARE HARDWARE 5.4 SYSTEM SOFTWARE APPLICATION SOFTWARE OPERATING SYSTEM: SCHEDULED COMPUTER EVENTS ALLOCATES COMPUTER RESOURCES MONITORS EVENTS LANGUAGE TRANSLATORS: INTERPRETERS COMPILERS UTILITY PROGRAMS: ROUTINE OPERATIONS MANAGE DATA PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES: ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE; FORTRAN; COBOL; PL / 1; QBASIC; PASCAL; C; C++; “FOURTH GENERATION” LANGUAGES
  • 5. OPERATING SYSTEM
    • MANAGES & CONTROLS ACTIVITIES
    • ALLOCATION & ASSIGNMENT
    • SCHEDULING
    • MONITORING
    • SYSTEM RESIDENCE DEVICE: SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICE STORING OPERATING SYSTEM
    • *
    5.5
  • 6. MULTIPROGRAMMING PROGRAM 1 TRADITIONAL SINGLE-PROGRAM SYSTEM 5.6 OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY PROGRAM 1 PROGRAM 2 PROGRAM 3 MULTIPROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT
  • 7. MULTITASKING
    • MULTIPROGRAMMING
    • ON A
    • SINGLE-USER SYSTEM
    • SUCH AS A
    • MICROCOMPUTER
    • *
    5.5
  • 8. VIRTUAL STORAGE
    • METHOD OF HANDLING SEVERAL PROGRAMS IN PRIMARY STORAGE:
    • PROGRAM DIVIDED INTO
      • FIXED LENGTH PORTIONS (PAGES) OR
      • VARIABLE LENGTH (SEGMENTS)
    • CURRENT PORTIONS RESIDE IN PRIMARY STORAGE
    • PORTIONS SWAPPED OUT WHEN DONE
    • *
    5.8
  • 9. TIME SHARING
    • MANY USERS SHARE LARGE CPU:
    • TIME IN CPU DIVIDED INTO SLICES (e.g.: 2 MILLISECONDS)
    • EACH USER HAS ACCESS TO CPU DURING SLICE
    • SINCE CPU IS FAST, CAN DO MUCH DURING TIME SLICE
    • USER’S JOB SWAPPED OUT AT END OF SLICE
    • *
    5.9
  • 10. MULTIPROCESSING
    • TWO OR MORE PARALLEL PROCESSORS IN SYSTEM
    • PROGRAM CAN BE DIVIDED TO BE PROCESSED BY MULTIPLE CPUs
    • CAN PROCESS LARGE PROGRAMS MORE RAPIDLY
    • *
    5.10
  • 11.
    • SOURCE CODE: HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGE INSTRUCTIONS
    • COMPILER: TRANSLATES HIGH-LEVEL CODE INTO MACHINE LANGUAGE
    • OBJECT CODE: TRANSLATED INSTRUCTIONS READY FOR COMPUTER
    • *
    LANGUAGE TRANSLATION 5.11
  • 12. TRANSLATION PROCESS 5.12 SOURCE CODE PROGRAM COMPILER OBJECT CODE LINKAGE EDITOR LOAD MODULE OTHER OBJECT CODE MODULES
  • 13. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI)
    • OPERATING SYSTEM USES:
    • GRAPHIC ICONS (Icons, Buttons, Bars, Boxes)
    • MOUSE
    • TO ISSUE COMMANDS
    • MAKE SELECTIONS
    • *
    5.13
  • 14. MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURES Windows 98 & 95 Windows NT & 2000 5.14 Windows CE 32-bit operating system; GUI; Multitasking. Networking 32-bit operating system not limited to Intel chips. Multitasking; Multiprocessing; Networking 32-bit. Developed for IBM PS/2. Multitasking; Networking Paired-down for handheld computers, wireless communication devices OS/2
  • 15. MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURES UNIX For powerful Microcomputers, Workstations, Minicomputers. Multitasking; Multi-user Processing; Networking. Portable to various Computer Platforms Mac OS For Macintosh computers. Multitasking. Powerful Graphics; Multimedia 5.15 DOS For IBM (PC-DOS) and PC (MS-DOS). Program Memory: 640K
  • 16. GENERATIONS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
    • 1st. Since 1940s. MACHINE LANGUAGE: binary code
    • 2nd. Since early ’50s. ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE: mnemonics for numeric code
    • 3rd. Since mid ‘50s. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES
    • 4th. Since late ‘50s. MODERN APPLICATION PACKAGES
    • *
    5.16
  • 17. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES
    • FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator). Scientific, Engineering applications
    • COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language). Predominant for Transaction Processing
    • BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). General Purpose PC Language
    • *
    5.15
  • 18. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES
    • PASCAL. Used to Teach Structured Programming Practices. Weak in File Handling, Input / Output
    • C and C++. Powerful PC Language for Developing Applications. Efficient Execution; Cross Platform
    • PL/1 (Programming Language 1). Powerful IBM Language for Business & Science
    • ADA. Designed for Weapon Systems. Can be used on many Platforms. Structured. Can be used for Business
    • *
    5.18
  • 19. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LANGUAGES
    • LISP (LISt Processor). Began late ‘50s at MIT. Preferred in US. Require Specially Configured Machines
    • PROLOG. Began in early ‘50s. Preferred outside US. Cross Platform
    • CREATE MEANINGFUL LISTS OF SYMBOLS (Operations; Variables; Data)
    • *
    5.19
  • 20. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL)
    • CAN BE EMPLOYED BY END USERS
    • NONPROCEDURAL
    • CAN DEVELOP APPLICATIONS QUICKLY
    • NATURAL LANGUAGES
    • SIX CATEGORIES
    • *
    5.20
  • 21. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL)
    • 1. QUERY LANGUAGES:
    • rapidly retrieve data
    • interactive/ on-line
    • may use NATURAL LANGUAGE
    • support special requests for data from relational databases
    • *
    5.21
  • 22. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL)
    • 2. REPORT GENERATORS:
    • create customized reports
    • wide range of formats
    • 3. GRAPHICS LANGUAGES:
    • can manipulate drawings, graphs, photos, videos
    • presentation managers
    • *
    5.22
  • 23. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL)
    • 4. APPLICATION GENERATORS:
    • user specifies computer needs
    • generator creates logic and code for application
    • greatly reduces development time
    • *
    5.23
  • 24. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL)
    • 5. VERY HIGH-LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES:
    • professional programmer productivity tool
    • uses fewer instructions
    • reduces development time
    • *
    5.24
  • 25. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL)
    • 5. SOFTWARE PACKAGE: commercially available set of programs...
    • WORD PROCESSING
    • SPREADSHEETS
    • DATA MANAGEMENT
    • PRESENTATION MANAGEMENT
    • INTEGRATED SOFTWARE PACKAGES NOW COMBINE THESE TO SIMPLIFY LEARNING AND USE
    • *
    5.25
  • 26. SOFTWARE TOOLS
    • WORD PROCESSING
    • SPREADSHEETS
    • DATA MANAGEMENT
    • PRESENTATION GRAPHICS
    • INTEGRATED SOFTWARE SUITES
    • E-MAIL
    • WEB BROWSERS
    • GROUPWARE
    • *
    5.26
  • 27.
    • GROUP WRITING & COMMENTING
    • ELECTRONIC MAIL DISTRIBUTION
    • SCHEDULING MEETINGS, APPOINTMENTS
    • SHARED FILES & DATABASES
    • SHARED TIMELINES, PLANS
    • ELECTRONIC MEETINGS & CONFERENCES
    • *
    GROUPWARE CAPABILITIES 5.25
  • 28. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
    • COMBINES DATA & PROCEDURES INTO A SINGLE OBJECT
    • PROGRAM SENDS MESSAGE TO OBJECT TO PERFORM EMBEDDED PROCEDURE
    • OBJECT’S DATA ENCAPSULATED FROM REST OF SYSTEM
    • CREATES REUSABLE CODE
    • REDUCES TIME AND COST OF WRITING SOFTWARE
    • *
    5.28
  • 29. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
    • VISUAL PROGRAMMING: SELECT AND ARRANGE OBJECTS RATHER THAN WRITE CODE
    • CLASS: ALL OBJECTS OF A CLASS HAVE ALL FEATURES OF THAT CLASS
    • INHERITANCE: SPECIFIC CLASS RECEIVES FEATURES OF A MORE GENERAL CLASS
    • OVERRIDE: SUBCLASS MAY OVEERRIDE INHERITED METHOD (e.g.: Printout of an HOURLY worker Pay Check may differ from that of a WEEKLY worker
    • *
    5.29
  • 30. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
    • JAVA: Sun Microsystems OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE
    • APPLET: TINY PROGRAM TO EXECUTE SMALL FUNCTION
    • APPLETS DOWNLOADED FROM NETWORK
    • RUN ON ANY COMPUTER & OPERATING SYSTEM
    • RESULT SAVED ON NETWORK, NOT ON PC
    • ONLY NETWORK VERSION OF SOFTWARE NEEDS UPGRADE
    • *
    5.30
  • 31. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
    • ActiveX: CONTROLS FOR WINDOWS SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT to enable OBJECTS: e.g.,
    • CHARTS
    • TABLES
    • ANIMATIONS
    • to be EMBEDDED IN A WEB PAGE
    • *
    5.31
  • 32. Connect to the INTERNET PRESS LEFT MOUSE BUTTON ON ICON TO CONNECT TO THE LAUDON & LAUDON WEB SITE FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THIS CHAPTER 5.32
  • 33. 5.33 7. INFORMATION SYSTEMS SOFTWARE