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Barry Shilmover Founder/CIO (CGO)
 

Barry Shilmover Founder/CIO (CGO)

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    Barry Shilmover Founder/CIO (CGO) Barry Shilmover Founder/CIO (CGO) Presentation Transcript

    • Barry Shilmover Founder/CIO (CGO) Sonic Mobility Inc. 70-215: Windows 2000 Server
    • Agenda
      • What to Expect
      • Microsoft’s new testing innovations
      • The Exam:
        • Installing Windows 2000
        • Working with Resources
        • Hardware Devices and Drivers
        • System Performance, Reliability, and Availability
        • Windows 2000 and Storage
        • Networking
        • Security
    • Sidebar – KB Articles
      • “Q” number are mentioned throughout this presentation
      • All are found on the Microsoft TechNet site
      • They are the letter “Q” followed by a six digit code. For example, Q123456
      • The URL for the above example would be: http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q123/4/56.ASP
    • What to Expect…
      • Some exam detail
        • 120 Minutes
        • 62 Questions
        • Passing Score: 660
      • Preparation Guide:
        • http://www.microsoft.com/trainingandservices/exams/examasearch.asp?PageID=70-215
    • Testing Innovations
      • Multiple choice
      • Select-and-place exam questions
      • Case study-based exam questions
      • Simulations
      • Computer adaptive testing
    • Multiple Choice
      • Um… yah…
    • Select-and-Place Exam Questions
      • Also known as Drag-and-Drop questions…
      • A Scenario is given and you must drag the answers to the right locations on the diagram
    • Case Study-Based Exam Questions
      • A case study is introduced at the beginning and a number of questions are asked based on the information provided
      • This is NOT a memory test… The case study is always available
    • Simulations
      • As the name states… a simulation
        • Some tips:
          • Read the question… only give them what they want
          • If information is not provided about a setting, assume the default settings
          • Close all windows within the simulation
          • Check your spelling
      • Not currently on the exam
    • Computer Adaptive Testing
      • You start with an easy to moderate question
        • If you answer it correctly, you will get a more difficult question
        • If you answer it incorrectly, you will get a less difficult question
      • This process is repeated until the testing engine has determined your ability
      • Main difference between CAT and Traditional is that you cannot navigate questions in a CAT exam
      • Not used in this exam.
    • The Exam…
    • Installing Windows 2000
      • Attended Installation
      • Unattended installation
      • Upgrading from Windows NT 4.0
      • Service Packs and hotfixes
      • When an installation fails
    • Windows 2000 – BI
      • Before Installation
      • Check the Windows 2000 Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)
        • http://www.microsoft.com/hcl/default.asp
      • Or run WINNT32.exe /checkupgradeonly
    • Attended Installation
      • The four setup stages:
        • Setup Program (text)
        • Setup Wizard (graphical)
        • Windows Networking Installation
        • Setup Completion
      • Types of installation:
        • From the CD-ROM
        • From the Network
    • From the CD
      • Boot from the CD
      • Or make boot floppies
        • MAKEBOOT (16-bit) or MAKEBT32 (32-bit)
        • Generate 4 startup disks
        • TechNet article Q197063
    • From the Network
      • Copy i386 directory to a server
      • Share the i386 directory
      • Create a boot floppy for the server (so that it can connect to the network)
      • Map a drive to the network share
      • Run the setup
    • Unattended Installation
      • All questions are answered ahead of time
      • These are stored in an answer file
      • Answer files are created via:
        • A text editor
        • Or the Setup Manager Wizard (SMW)
    • Unattended Installs and User Interaction
      • The five levels:
      • Provide Defaults
        • User simply accepts the default or makes changes
      • Fully Automated
        • No user interaction
      • Hide Pages
        • Only pages for which information was not provided is shown
      • Read Only
        • As #3, but shows all information in read-only
      • GUI Attended
        • Second stage of setup is automated. Rest is manual
    • The Setup Manager Wizard
      • A GUI-based answer file creation utility
      • Found in the Windows 2000 Resource Kit Deployment Tools section
    • The Setup Manager Wizard
      • DEMO
    • SysPrep
      • Tool used for “ghosting” of systems
      • Reverses the unique settings of a system (such as the name and SID)
      • Is found in the DEPLOY.CAB file on the Windows 2000 Professional CD-ROM (in the support ools folder)
    • Upgrading from Windows NT 4.0
      • Upgrade path:
       Windows Me  Windows 3.1  Windows 95/98  Windows NT 3.51 with Citrix  Windows NT Server 4.0 Enterprise Edition  Windows NT Server 4.0 Terminal Server  Windows NT Server 3.51/4.0  Windows NT Workstation 3.51/4.0 Upgrade Path Operating System
    • Service Packs and Hotfixes
      • Windows 2000 now supports slipstreaming Service Packs
        • Service Pack is added directly to the distribution share
        • UPDATE.EXE /slip
      • All installation performed from the distribution share will now have the Service Pack applied
    • When an Installation Fails… Never happens… right?
    •  
    • When an Installation Fails
      • Run the setup program in debug mode:
        • WINNT32.EXE /debug[level]
          • Level 1 = regular errors
          • Level 2 = warnings
          • Level 3 = all messages
      • Check the HCL
      • Check Network (including DNS!)
    • Working with Resources
      • Network Services
      • Printers
      • Files, Folders, and Shares
        • Distributed File System (DFS)
        • Security
      • Web Sites
    • Network Services
      • FrontPage 2000 Server Extensions
      • FTP Server
      • NNTP Server
      • SMTP Server
      • Telnet Server
      • Web Server
      • WINS/DNS/DHCP
      • DHCP-Relay
    • Printers
      • Has not changed much from Windows NT
      • Supported Clients:
        • Windows
        • Macintosh
          • Using File and Print Services for Macintosh
        • Novell
          • Using Client Service for NetWare/NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol
        • Unix
          • Using Services for Unix 2.0
    • Printers – Continued…
      • Print Pooling
        • The ability to group two or more identical printer together. They appear as one logical printer to the clients
      • Print Priority
        • The ability to set different logical printers, each with different priorities (from 1, lowest and default, to 99)
        • Remember to set security. (Everyone: Full Control)
      • Internet Printing
        • New Feature!
        • Allows for accessing the printers via a web browser
        • http:// servername /printers
    • Printer – Continued…
      • Windows 2000 automatically downloads and installs drivers for Windows 2000, Windows NT3.51/4.0, and Windows 95/98/Me
      • Most common way to fixed a stalled printer spooler?
        • Kick it!
      • Be aware of how to set permissions, printer and print server properties
    • Files, Folders, and Shares
      • Windows 2000 now supports FAT32 natively
      • Use FAT and FAT32 for dual boot with other operating systems
    • Files, Folders, and Shares, cont.
      • New version of NTFS
        • Known as NTFSv5 or Windows 2000 NTFS
        • Now supports:
          • Disk Compression
          • Encryption
          • Disk Quotas
          • Reparse Points
          • Volume Mount Points
          • SID Searching
      • If NTFSv4 is installed on the system, it will automatically be upgraded to NTFSv5
        • Therefore, Windows NT systems need SP4 or higher
    • Files, Folders, and Shares, cont.
      • NTFS partitions can now be Defragmented
      • Command-line program for modifying NTFS permissions:
        • cacls.exe
      • Copying/Moving files is the same as with Windows NT
        • Copying within a partition – permissions are inherited
        • Moving within a partition – permissions are retained
        • Moving between partitions – permissions are inherited
    • Distributed File System
      • A Definition:
      • Distributed file system (Dfs) allows administrators to make network-wide resources appear as though they exist in a single location on the network
    • An Example
      • Without DFS:
      • Domain
      • Server1
      • Documents
      • Corp
      • Server2
      • Users
      • Server3
      • Home
      • With DFS:
      • Domain
      • Corp
      • Documents
      • Home
      • Users
    • Distributed File System - Standalone
      • Setup:
        • Administrative Tools | Distributed File System
        • Select Create a standalone DFS root
      • Limitations:
        • No fault-tolerance
        • Only single-level hierarchy is available
    • Distributed File System – Domain-based
      • Setup:
        • Administrative Tools | Distributed File System
        • Select Create a domain DFS root
      • Features:
        • All configuration is stored in and replicated by Active Directory
        • Fault-tolerant through replicas
        • No limit on hierarchy levels (sort of)
    • Web Sites
      • Virtual Servers:
        • The ability to host a number of web sites on the same physical box
        • Three setup methods:
          • IP Address
          • Host Header
          • Port number
    • Web Sites – Continued…
      • Virtual Directory
        • A directory that appears under the root directory of the web site
        • A virtual Directory can be:
          • A directory on the local machine
          • A shared folder on a network server
          • Another web site (ie http://www.somedomain.com )
      • Tip: Refrain from using spaces in the name of the virtual directory. Older browsers can’t interpret the spaces
    • Web Sites - Security
      • Authentication Methods for web sites
        • Allow anonymous
        • Basic authentication
        • Integrated Windows Authentication
        • Digest authentication
        • SSL Client Certificate
      • Windows 2000 finally supports Plug and Pray
      Hardware Devices and Drivers
    • Hardware Devices and Drivers
      • Windows 2000 finally supports Plug and Play
      • All Hardware information is now behind My Computer
      • Add/Remove Hardware control panel to launch the Hardware Wizard
      • System Information snap-in displays read-only information about installed hardware
      • Device Manager configures hardware
    • Driver Signing
      • A new feature in Windows 2000 that allows you to ensure that the drivers you are installing have been tested and passed the Windows Hardware Quality Lab (WHQL) test
      • Q224404 for more information
    • Some Utilities…
      • Driver Verifier Manager
        • A command-line tool for troubleshooting driver problems
        • verifier.exe (Q224404)
      • Windows Report Tool
        • A tool for taking a “snapshot” of the system hardware/software
        • winrep.exe (Q188104)
      • System File Checker
        • A utility for verifying protected files and their version number
        • sfc.exe (Q222471)
      • Windows Signature Verification
        • A tool for checking the signatures of signed drivers
        • sigverif.exe (Q185828)
    • System Performance, Reliability, and Availability
      • As with Windows NT, performance objects are important for the exam
      • Unlike Windows NT, physical disk counters are now enabled by default
        • To enable logical disk and volumes you need to run the diskperf –yv command
      • The Performance Monitor (in Windows NT) is now called the Performance Console
    • Alerts and Logs
      • Three types of logs:
        • Trace
          • Monitors information based on events. All information is recorded
        • Counter
          • These logs record information about specified objects and counters
        • Alert
          • Similar to a trace log except that information is not logged, it simply reacts to an event
    • Processes
      • Processes are viewed through the Windows Task Manager
        • Accessible through Ctrl+Alt+Delete and Task Manager
        • Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Esc
      • Each process has a priority assigned to it between 0 (lowest) and 31 (highest). Most common priorities:
        • Low – 4
        • Normal – 8
        • High – 13
        • Realtime – 24
      • Priorities can be changed through the Task Manager (not recommended)
    • Disk Performance
      • Both mirrored and spanned volumes will degrade system performance.
      • Striped disks offer the greatest performance.
      • Microsoft has finally admitted that NTFS partitions get fragmented. Defragment regularly.
      • Spread the pagefile across multiple hard drives, but take them off the system and boot disks (see Q197379).
    • System State and User Data
      • System State Data:
        • Contains the Registry, System startup files, and COM+ class registrations.
        • May contain:
          • Active Directory services and the Sysvol directory (on an AD Domain Controller)
          • Resource Registry Checkpoints and Quorum Resource recover log (on a Windows 2000 Cluster)
          • Certificate Services database (on a Certificate Server)
      • Improve performance on an Active Directory domain controller by moving the system state data off the system/boot volume.
    • System State and User Data Recovery
      • Emergency Repair Disk
        • No more RDISK.exe. ERDs are now created through the backup program.
        • No longer a “repair” disk. Is now a boot disk for accessing repair tools stored on the CD (Q216337).
        • The ERD contains the following files: autoexec.nt, config.nt, and setup.log.
    • Emergency Repair Disk
    • Safe Mode
      • Safe mode is actually several modes:
        • Enable Boot Logging
        • Enable VGA Mode
        • Last Known Good Configuration
        • Recovery Console
        • Directory Services Restore Mode
        • Debugging Mode
        • Boot Normally
      • Enter safe mode by pressing F8 during startup.
    • Recovery Console
      • Gives you the ability to boot Windows 2000 to a “DOS prompt”.
      • Similar to ERDCommander 2000 from Sysinternals.com.
      • Limited functionality:
        • You can copy from removable media to the hard drive, but not the other way.
    • Windows Backup
      • A “watered down” version of Veritas Software’s BackupExec.
      • A major improvement to that monstrosity backup program in Windows NT.
        • Better interface
        • Can backup and restore to removable media, hard drive, or share.
    • Windows 2000 and Storage
      • Windows 2000 has two disk types:
        • Basic Disks
        • Dynamic Disks
    • Basic Disks
      • Similar to Windows NT
      • Contains Primary Partitions, Extended Partitions, and Logical Drives
      • Used for dual-boot systems with non-Windows 2000 systems
    • Dynamic Disks
      • New to Windows 2000
      • Contains volumes
      • Can be resized without a system reboot
      • Can be converted back to Basic Disks (assuming no volumes exist)
      • Can be exported/imported
    • Basic and Dynamic Disks compared
      • Partition
      • Extended Partition
      • Logical drive
      • Mirror Set
      • Volume Set
      • Stripe Set
      • Stripe Set with Parity
      • Volume
      • Volume
      • Simple Volume
      • Mirrored Volume
      • Spanned Volume
      • Stripped Volume
      • RAID-5 Volume
    • Storage - New Features
      • Data Compression
        • Any file or folder on an NTFS folder can be compressed/uncompressed.
        • Can be performed through My Computer or Windows Explorer
    • Storage - New Features
      • Disk Quotas
        • Quotas can only be set on the volume, not on individual folders (Q183322).
        • Disabled by default.
        • Tips:
          • While you cannot assign quotas to groups, you can choose multiple users.
          • Do not choose the “Deny disk space to users exceeding quota limit” option on the disk storing Windows 2000.
    • Disk Failures
      • Know the ARC paths in BOOT.INI (Q119467 and Q113977).
        • multi()
        • scsi()
        • disk()
        • rdisk()
        • parition()*
        • *lowest value=1
    • Networking
      • Virtual Private Networks
      • Network Protocols
      • Network Services
      • Remote Access
      • Terminal Services
    • Virtual Private Networks
          • Remote Access Service (RAS) in Windows NT is now Routing and Remote Access (RRAS).
          • Two supported protocols: Point to Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) and Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP).
        Transmit over UDP, ATM, X.25, and Frame Relay.   Built-in Encryption   Tunnel Authentication   Header compression L2TP PPTP Feature
    • TCP/IP
      • Most used protocol today.
      • DHCP is used to dynamically assign TCP/IP addresses
      • DNS is used to resolve TCP/IP addresses and names (and the reverse).
      • WINS is used to resolve NetBIOS names to TCP/IP addresses.
      • Subnet mask is used to distinguish between the network and host IDs of the TCP/IP address.
      • Default gateway is used to identify the host which communicates outside the network
    • TCP/IP - Continued...
      • Windows 2000 will automatically assign an address (169.254.x.y and 255.255.0.0)
      • Troubleshooting:
        • ipconfig (Q223413)
        • netstat
        • nbtstat
        • tracert
        • route
        • ping
    • Remote Access
      • RRAS supports multilink (Q223171, Q233151, Q244071).
      • Like RAS, it supports callback (called Callback Security.
    • Terminal Services
      • Terminal Services includes:
        • TS Client Creator
        • TS Configuration
        • TS Licensing
        • TS Manager
      • Uses Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) and RDP-TCP (RDP over TCP/IP).
    • TS - Continued...
      • It is recommended that you install applications through the Add/Remove Program control panel.
      • If installing manually, put TS into install mode:
        • change user /install
      • To turn off:
        • change user /execute
      • Clients include Windows 3.11, Windows 95/98/Me, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Internet Explorer.
        • Install TSAC for access through Internet Explorer.
    • Security
      • Encrypted File System
      • Policies
      • Auditing
      • Local Accounts
      • Account Policy
      • The Security Configuration Tool Set
    • Encrypted Files System (EFS)
      • Any file on an NTFSv5 volume can be encrypted.
      • The process is transparent to the user.
      • A Recovery Agent is used to recover encrypted file with a lost key.
      • Default encryption is 56-bit. North Americans can upgrade to 128-bit.
      • The efsinfo.exe utility (Resource Kit) can give you info on encrypted files (Q243026).
      • Does graphically or using the Cipher.exe command.
    • Policies
      • Similar to System Policy Editor in Windows NT.
      • Group Policy MMC snap-in (gpedit.msc).
        • Settings can be stored in AD.
        • Settings can be exported/imported using .INF files
    • Auditing
      • Disabled by default.
      • Enabled via Start | Administrative Tools | Local Security Policy .
    • Local Accounts/Account Policy
      • Local Accounts
        • Usernames cannot be longer than 20 characters.
        • They cannot contain: “ / [ ] : ; | = , + * ? < >
        • Passwords can be up to 128 characters in length (Microsoft recommends 8).
      • Account Policy
        • Password policy (default):
          • Enforce password history = 0 days
          • Maximum password age = 42 days
          • Minimum password age = 0 days
    • Account Policy - Continued...
          • Minimum password length = 0 characters
          • Passwords must meet complexity requirements = disabled
          • Store password using reversible encryption for all users in the domain = disabled
        • Account Lockout Policy (default)
          • Account lockout duration = not defined
          • Account lockout threshold = 0 invalid login attempts/disabled
          • Reset account lockout after = not defined
    • The Security Configuration Tool Set
      • The Security Configuration and Analysis snap-in is normally used to troubleshoot security.
      • Security database (mysecuresv.mdb) is compared to the template.
      • Command-line based version: secedit.exe.
    • Additional Resources
      • Exam Preparation Guide http://www.microsoft.com/trainingandservices/exams/examasearch.asp?PageID=70-215
      • Windows 2000 Server and Professional Resource Kits
      • Course 2151: Microsoft Windows 2000 Network and Operating System Essentials http://www.microsoft.com/trainingandservices/syllabi/syllasearch.asp?PageID=2151Afinal&coursenumber=2151
      • Course 2152: Implementing Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional and Server http://www.microsoft.com/trainingandservices/syllabi/syllasearch.asp?PageID=2152Bfinal&coursenumber=2152
    • Questions? [email_address]