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    ARIN1000_week4.ppt ARIN1000_week4.ppt Presentation Transcript

    • ARIN1000 History and Theory of Informatics Week 4 The Computer Revolution
    • There will be a world market for 6 computers in the US and 3 in Britain. [Post WWII prediction] How did we get from this prediction to the multi-billion dollar computer industry we have today?
    • Review of key ideas from last week
    • Conceptual and Technological Breakthroughs
      • Binary system should replace decimal system (Leibniz, Zuse) This meant that electric circuits (on-off representing zero and one) could be used to make calculations
      • Gears, cogs and shafts --> Electro-mechanical relay switching --> Vacuum tubes (no moving parts) - electronic computer
      • Stored programs Computers a universal machine that could be programmed to perform multiple tasks (Babbage, Turing, Ekert and Mauchly, von Neumann)
    • Driving forces behind development of computer
      • To relieve human drudgery in making calculations
      • Military imperatives - e.g. firing tables, code breaking
      • Bureaucratic imperatives - e.g. processing census information
      • Scientific and economic imperatives - improved accuracy and speed of calculations, eg. In engineering and navigation
    • This week …
      • We’ll be looking at:
      • Continuing role of the government and military in development of computing technologies
      • Role of industry in development of computers for business and domestic markets
      • Role of computer hobbyists and enthusiasts
      • Technological breakthroughs (improved hardware - smaller, faster, cheaper)
      • Improved user interfaces and human-computer interaction (e.g. programming languages, “killer apps”, GUI)
    • Hardware improvements
      • New developments in hardware replaced large and unwieldy vacuum tubes allowing computers to become smaller , cheaper , more reliable and much faster
      • These technologies underpinned the personal computer revolution
      • 1947 - the transistor - Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley [Bell Labs]
      • 1959 - the integrated circuit (the microchip) Jack Kilby had first patent but a superior model designed by Robert Noyce. Used in calculators, watches traffic lights, cars etc
    • Hardware improvements
      • 1969 - the microprocessor - a general purpose programmable IC - a computer on a chip Ted Hoff [Intel]
      • Note: Ongoing role of military funding
      • small reliable computers needed for the space race and for guided missiles, submarines and aircraft during the Cold War.
    • Improvement of Human-Computer interface
      • Development of English based programming languages
      • 1962 - Ivan Sutherland - Sketchpad -
      • 1965 - Doug Engelbart - the mouse
      • Early research by XEROX PARC [Palo Alto Research Centre] into graphical user interfaces
      • Commercial development of the GUI and WySiWyG printing by Apple in the 70s and 80s culminating in the user friendly Apple Macintosh
      • Microsoft's adoption of the GUI in its Windows OS and its domination of the world wide computer market
    • Development of the computer industry
      • 1951 - Eckert and Mauchly / Remington Rand’s UNIVAC
      • 1950s and 60s IBM’s early dominance of the market
      • The interest of hobbyists in computers also created demand for a personal computer 1975 - Altair 8800, the world's first PC [Ed Roberts]
      • Hobbyists and enthusiasts go on to become leaders in the new computer industry (e.g. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak [Apple], Bill Gates [Microsoft])
    • Development of the PC Computer Industry A brief history of Apple, IBM and Microsoft
    • IBM/Microsoft v. Apple Bill Gates Steve Jobs
    • Microsoft v. Apple
      • 1975 - Microsoft started by Paul Allen and Bill Gates
          • developed a version of the BASIC programming language for the first PC, the Altair 8800
      • 1975 - Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak found Apple
      • 1977 - Apple II computer launched - generated US$2.7 million in sales
      • 1980 - Apple is the leading personal computer company in the world
    • Microsoft/IBM v. Apple
      • 1980 - Gates makes a deal with IBM to supply their new operating system
      • Gates buys the rights to what becomes the MS-DOS operating system from software engineer, Tim Patterson (Seattle Computer Products) for $50,000
      • MS-DOS becomes the operating system for IBM PCs and PC clones
      • 1981 - IBM launched the IBM PC which was to become the industry standard.
    • 1982 - Time Magazine’s "Man of the Year” ... the computer
    • How did IBM/Microsoft win the lion's share of the PC market?
    • 1. IBM sales teams
      • IBM’s existing sales networks were legendary
      • IBM had strong reputation with business clients
      • IBM used its reputation and sales teams to leverage uptake of the new IBM PC
    • 2. Open standards
      • IBM computers used open architecture so other manufacturers could build compatible products - IBM PC clones
      • Market competition  lower prices  increased consumer demand
      • Apple had a superior product but its price was considerably higher
      • Cf videotape history - In the early 80s JVC's VHS standard won out over Sony's superior BetaMax standard - JVC licensed other companies to make VHS VCRs  lower prices and increased market saturation
    • 3. Software
      • IBM PCs and clones had a greater variety of software available
      • most software developers developed for the IBM PC + clones because of their greater market saturation
    • 1984 - Apple Macintosh
    • 1984 - Apple Macintosh
      • Apple's "1984" advertising campaign targeted what it perceived as IBM’s increasing domination of the PC market - invited customers to strike back at Big Blue
      • Apple Macintosh incorporated the first true GUI (graphical user interface) derived from research at Xerox PARC used a mouse to manipulate (point, click, drag) icons on the desktop
      • Espoused principles of "user-friendliness”
      • WySiWyG interface - prints what is seen on the screen
    • Microsoft v. Apple
      • 1985 - Microsoft copies the Apple GUI - Windows software is developed to overlay MS-DOS and provide a more user-friendly interface
      • In 1985, Apple and Microsoft entered into an agreement that granted Microsoft a license to use the windows and icons of the Macintosh's GUI in the development of Windows 1.0. In exchange, Microsoft agreed to develop software for the Macintosh platform
      • 1987 - Windows 2.0 launched - even closer to Macintosh GUI
      • 1990 - Windows 3.0 launched - massively popular
    • Microsoft v. Apple
      • Apple accused Microsoft of stealing the ‘look and feel’ of the Windows interface from the Apple Mac
      • 1988 - Apple takes Microsoft to court
      • 1994 - Apple loses final appeal (largely due to the 1985 agreement)
    • By 1993:
      • PC compatible over 85% of market (NB only 15% made by IBM)
      • Apple 8.5% of market
      • Others 6.5% of market (Unix, mainframes and minicomputers, OS/2)
    • OS Market share in 2004
      • Microsoft Windows 91.4%
        • Win XP 46.8%
        • Win 2000 32.2%
        • Win 98 9.4%
        • Win NT 2.6%
        • Win 95 0.4%
      • Apple 2.4%
      • Linux 2.6%
      • Other 3.6%
      • Source: http://www.w3schools.com/browsers/browsers_stats.asp
    • And the winner is ...
      • Microsoft was the big winner here (Wintel = computers with Intel processors and Windows operating systems).
      • IBM created an open system in terms of hardware that allowed Microsoft's operating system (a closed system) to achieve a near monopoly
      • Apple's famous 1984 advertising campaign where they identify Big Blue (IBM) and the enemy in fact missed the mark - it was Bill Gates and Microsoft that they should have been worried about
    • Apple Microsoft Postscript
      • 1997 - Microsoft invests $150 million in Apple and develops Microsoft Office and Internet Explorer for the Mac. Apple agrees to make Internet Explorer the default browser on all Macs.
      • NB. In 1997 Steve Jobs returns to Apple (after leaving in 1985)
    • Microsoft market dominance: advantages
      • Microsoft's Windows operating system and software provides a consistent market standard
      • user familiarity - people like what they know
      • skills can be transferred if an employee moves from one company to another
    • Microsoft market dominance: disadvantages
      • Microsoft's monopoly power means that:
      • There is less competition in the operating system and software markets
      • Microsoft can use it monopolistic power to defeat competitors (another example is the browser wars where Microsoft defeated the early martket leader Netscape)
      • Less innovation in the market (?)
    • Tutorial discussion - future technologies
      • The future of the human-computer interface
      • The future of computing technologies
      • What will the future computer look like?
    • Improvement of Human-Computer interface
      • Future Interfaces - Negroponte
      • “ My dream for the interface is that computers will be more like people”
      • Human centred computer design, computers designed to interact like humans rather than forcing humans to adapt to the computer
      • multi-modal interfaces incorporating speech and natural language
      • agent-based systems e.g. The Knowledge Navigator
    • References
      • ARIN 1000 Reader
      • Time-Life Books, (1989) ‘Evolution of the Microchip’, and ‘A Golden Age of Entrepreneurship’, in Understanding Computers: Computer Basics , Alexandria Virginia.
      • Floridi, L. (1999) excerpt from ‘The Digital Workshop’, in Philosophy and Computing , London: Routledge.
      • Negroponte, N. (1995) Being Digital , Rydalmere, NSW,: Hodder and Stoughton. Chapter 7 “Where People and Bits Meet’ pp.89-102.
      • Other:
      • The Dream Machine , BBC {videorecording] - episode 2 “Inventing the Future” and episode 3 “The Paperback Computer ”
    • References
      • In Fisher Special Reserve
      • Castells, M. (2000), The Rise of the Network Society (2 nd Edition) Oxford: Blackwell. Chapter 1 “The Information Technology Revolution”
      • Ceruzzi, P, (1998) A History of Modern Computing , Cambridge: MIT.
      • Lubar, S. (1993) ‘Information: Computers’, and ‘Information: Software’, in Infoculture , New York: Houghton Mifflin.
      • ‘ New Genies in the Age of Automation’, ‘Masterpieces of Miniaturisation’, and ‘Anatomy of a Lightning Logician’, in Time-Life Books, (1989) Understanding Computers: Computer Basics , Alexandria Virginia.
    • References
      • Online
      • http://www.fenwick.com/pub/Archives/apple_v_microsoft_microscope.htm#4
      • http://law.richmond.edu/jolt/v1i1/myers.html
      • http://www.microsoft.com/windows/WinHistoryIntro.mspx
      • http://www.otterbein.edu/home/fac/dvdjstck/CSC100/Notes/Lecture11.htm
      • http://www.websidestory.com
      • http://www.computerhope.com/history/196080.htm