Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. ARIN1000 History and Theory of Informatics Week 4 The Computer Revolution
  2. 2. There will be a world market for 6 computers in the US and 3 in Britain. [Post WWII prediction] How did we get from this prediction to the multi-billion dollar computer industry we have today?
  3. 3. Review of key ideas from last week
  4. 4. Conceptual and Technological Breakthroughs <ul><li>Binary system should replace decimal system (Leibniz, Zuse) This meant that electric circuits (on-off representing zero and one) could be used to make calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Gears, cogs and shafts --> Electro-mechanical relay switching --> Vacuum tubes (no moving parts) - electronic computer </li></ul><ul><li>Stored programs Computers a universal machine that could be programmed to perform multiple tasks (Babbage, Turing, Ekert and Mauchly, von Neumann) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Driving forces behind development of computer <ul><li>To relieve human drudgery in making calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Military imperatives - e.g. firing tables, code breaking </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic imperatives - e.g. processing census information </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific and economic imperatives - improved accuracy and speed of calculations, eg. In engineering and navigation </li></ul>
  6. 6. This week … <ul><li>We’ll be looking at: </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing role of the government and military in development of computing technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Role of industry in development of computers for business and domestic markets </li></ul><ul><li>Role of computer hobbyists and enthusiasts </li></ul><ul><li>Technological breakthroughs (improved hardware - smaller, faster, cheaper) </li></ul><ul><li>Improved user interfaces and human-computer interaction (e.g. programming languages, “killer apps”, GUI) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hardware improvements <ul><li>New developments in hardware replaced large and unwieldy vacuum tubes allowing computers to become smaller , cheaper , more reliable and much faster </li></ul><ul><li>These technologies underpinned the personal computer revolution </li></ul><ul><li>1947 - the transistor - Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley [Bell Labs] </li></ul><ul><li>1959 - the integrated circuit (the microchip) Jack Kilby had first patent but a superior model designed by Robert Noyce. Used in calculators, watches traffic lights, cars etc </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hardware improvements <ul><li>1969 - the microprocessor - a general purpose programmable IC - a computer on a chip Ted Hoff [Intel] </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Ongoing role of military funding </li></ul><ul><li>small reliable computers needed for the space race and for guided missiles, submarines and aircraft during the Cold War. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Improvement of Human-Computer interface <ul><li>Development of English based programming languages </li></ul><ul><li>1962 - Ivan Sutherland - Sketchpad - </li></ul><ul><li>1965 - Doug Engelbart - the mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Early research by XEROX PARC [Palo Alto Research Centre] into graphical user interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial development of the GUI and WySiWyG printing by Apple in the 70s and 80s culminating in the user friendly Apple Macintosh </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft's adoption of the GUI in its Windows OS and its domination of the world wide computer market </li></ul>
  10. 10. Development of the computer industry <ul><li>1951 - Eckert and Mauchly / Remington Rand’s UNIVAC </li></ul><ul><li>1950s and 60s IBM’s early dominance of the market </li></ul><ul><li>The interest of hobbyists in computers also created demand for a personal computer 1975 - Altair 8800, the world's first PC [Ed Roberts] </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbyists and enthusiasts go on to become leaders in the new computer industry (e.g. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak [Apple], Bill Gates [Microsoft]) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Development of the PC Computer Industry A brief history of Apple, IBM and Microsoft
  12. 12. IBM/Microsoft v. Apple Bill Gates Steve Jobs
  13. 13. Microsoft v. Apple <ul><li>1975 - Microsoft started by Paul Allen and Bill Gates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>developed a version of the BASIC programming language for the first PC, the Altair 8800 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1975 - Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak found Apple </li></ul><ul><li>1977 - Apple II computer launched - generated US$2.7 million in sales </li></ul><ul><li>1980 - Apple is the leading personal computer company in the world </li></ul>
  14. 14. Microsoft/IBM v. Apple <ul><li>1980 - Gates makes a deal with IBM to supply their new operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Gates buys the rights to what becomes the MS-DOS operating system from software engineer, Tim Patterson (Seattle Computer Products) for $50,000 </li></ul><ul><li>MS-DOS becomes the operating system for IBM PCs and PC clones </li></ul><ul><li>1981 - IBM launched the IBM PC which was to become the industry standard. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 1982 - Time Magazine’s &quot;Man of the Year” ... the computer
  16. 16. How did IBM/Microsoft win the lion's share of the PC market?
  17. 17. 1. IBM sales teams <ul><li>IBM’s existing sales networks were legendary </li></ul><ul><li>IBM had strong reputation with business clients </li></ul><ul><li>IBM used its reputation and sales teams to leverage uptake of the new IBM PC </li></ul>
  18. 18. 2. Open standards <ul><li>IBM computers used open architecture so other manufacturers could build compatible products - IBM PC clones </li></ul><ul><li>Market competition  lower prices  increased consumer demand </li></ul><ul><li>Apple had a superior product but its price was considerably higher </li></ul><ul><li>Cf videotape history - In the early 80s JVC's VHS standard won out over Sony's superior BetaMax standard - JVC licensed other companies to make VHS VCRs  lower prices and increased market saturation </li></ul>
  19. 19. 3. Software <ul><li>IBM PCs and clones had a greater variety of software available </li></ul><ul><li>most software developers developed for the IBM PC + clones because of their greater market saturation </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1984 - Apple Macintosh
  21. 21. 1984 - Apple Macintosh <ul><li>Apple's &quot;1984&quot; advertising campaign targeted what it perceived as IBM’s increasing domination of the PC market - invited customers to strike back at Big Blue </li></ul><ul><li>Apple Macintosh incorporated the first true GUI (graphical user interface) derived from research at Xerox PARC used a mouse to manipulate (point, click, drag) icons on the desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Espoused principles of &quot;user-friendliness” </li></ul><ul><li>WySiWyG interface - prints what is seen on the screen </li></ul>
  22. 22. Microsoft v. Apple <ul><li>1985 - Microsoft copies the Apple GUI - Windows software is developed to overlay MS-DOS and provide a more user-friendly interface </li></ul><ul><li>In 1985, Apple and Microsoft entered into an agreement that granted Microsoft a license to use the windows and icons of the Macintosh's GUI in the development of Windows 1.0. In exchange, Microsoft agreed to develop software for the Macintosh platform </li></ul><ul><li>1987 - Windows 2.0 launched - even closer to Macintosh GUI </li></ul><ul><li>1990 - Windows 3.0 launched - massively popular </li></ul>
  23. 23. Microsoft v. Apple <ul><li>Apple accused Microsoft of stealing the ‘look and feel’ of the Windows interface from the Apple Mac </li></ul><ul><li>1988 - Apple takes Microsoft to court </li></ul><ul><li>1994 - Apple loses final appeal (largely due to the 1985 agreement) </li></ul>
  24. 24. By 1993: <ul><li>PC compatible over 85% of market (NB only 15% made by IBM) </li></ul><ul><li>Apple 8.5% of market </li></ul><ul><li>Others 6.5% of market (Unix, mainframes and minicomputers, OS/2) </li></ul>
  25. 25. OS Market share in 2004 <ul><li>Microsoft Windows 91.4% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Win XP 46.8% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Win 2000 32.2% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Win 98 9.4% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Win NT 2.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Win 95 0.4% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apple 2.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Linux 2.6% </li></ul><ul><li>Other 3.6% </li></ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul>
  26. 26. And the winner is ... <ul><li>Microsoft was the big winner here (Wintel = computers with Intel processors and Windows operating systems). </li></ul><ul><li>IBM created an open system in terms of hardware that allowed Microsoft's operating system (a closed system) to achieve a near monopoly </li></ul><ul><li>Apple's famous 1984 advertising campaign where they identify Big Blue (IBM) and the enemy in fact missed the mark - it was Bill Gates and Microsoft that they should have been worried about </li></ul>
  27. 27. Apple Microsoft Postscript <ul><li>1997 - Microsoft invests $150 million in Apple and develops Microsoft Office and Internet Explorer for the Mac. Apple agrees to make Internet Explorer the default browser on all Macs. </li></ul><ul><li>NB. In 1997 Steve Jobs returns to Apple (after leaving in 1985) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Microsoft market dominance: advantages <ul><li>Microsoft's Windows operating system and software provides a consistent market standard </li></ul><ul><li>user familiarity - people like what they know </li></ul><ul><li>skills can be transferred if an employee moves from one company to another </li></ul>
  29. 29. Microsoft market dominance: disadvantages <ul><li>Microsoft's monopoly power means that: </li></ul><ul><li>There is less competition in the operating system and software markets </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft can use it monopolistic power to defeat competitors (another example is the browser wars where Microsoft defeated the early martket leader Netscape) </li></ul><ul><li>Less innovation in the market (?) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Tutorial discussion - future technologies <ul><li>The future of the human-computer interface </li></ul><ul><li>The future of computing technologies </li></ul><ul><li>What will the future computer look like? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Improvement of Human-Computer interface <ul><li>Future Interfaces - Negroponte </li></ul><ul><li>“ My dream for the interface is that computers will be more like people” </li></ul><ul><li>Human centred computer design, computers designed to interact like humans rather than forcing humans to adapt to the computer </li></ul><ul><li>multi-modal interfaces incorporating speech and natural language </li></ul><ul><li>agent-based systems e.g. The Knowledge Navigator </li></ul>
  32. 32. References <ul><li>ARIN 1000 Reader </li></ul><ul><li>Time-Life Books, (1989) ‘Evolution of the Microchip’, and ‘A Golden Age of Entrepreneurship’, in Understanding Computers: Computer Basics , Alexandria Virginia. </li></ul><ul><li>Floridi, L. (1999) excerpt from ‘The Digital Workshop’, in Philosophy and Computing , London: Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Negroponte, N. (1995) Being Digital , Rydalmere, NSW,: Hodder and Stoughton. Chapter 7 “Where People and Bits Meet’ pp.89-102. </li></ul><ul><li>Other: </li></ul><ul><li>The Dream Machine , BBC {videorecording] - episode 2 “Inventing the Future” and episode 3 “The Paperback Computer ” </li></ul>
  33. 33. References <ul><li>In Fisher Special Reserve </li></ul><ul><li>Castells, M. (2000), The Rise of the Network Society (2 nd Edition) Oxford: Blackwell. Chapter 1 “The Information Technology Revolution” </li></ul><ul><li>Ceruzzi, P, (1998) A History of Modern Computing , Cambridge: MIT. </li></ul><ul><li>Lubar, S. (1993) ‘Information: Computers’, and ‘Information: Software’, in Infoculture , New York: Houghton Mifflin. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ New Genies in the Age of Automation’, ‘Masterpieces of Miniaturisation’, and ‘Anatomy of a Lightning Logician’, in Time-Life Books, (1989) Understanding Computers: Computer Basics , Alexandria Virginia. </li></ul>
  34. 34. References <ul><li>Online </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>