Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
A  Guide to Software, 4e
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

A Guide to Software, 4e


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Chapter 1 Introducing Operating Systems
  • 2. Operating Systems Past and Present
    • What an operating system (OS) does:
      • Manages hardware
      • Runs applications
      • Provides an interface for users
      • Retrieves and manipulates files
    • The OS can be analogized to a “middleman”
    • A computer needs only one operating system
    • Operating systems have evolved to a complex form
  • 3. DOS (Disk Operating System)
    • The first OS used by IBM computers/compatibles
    • Where DOS can still be found:
      • Specialized systems using older applications
      • On troubleshooting disks or CDs
    • Windows 3.x and DOS
      • Windows 3.x provided a graphical interface
      • Underlying OS functions were performed by DOS
    • Windows 9x/Me uses DOS in the underlying OS
    • Windows XP/2000 run DOS emulation programs
  • 4. Windows 9x/Me
    • Refers to Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me
    • Combine a DOS core with graphical user interface
    • Designed to bridge legacy and newer technologies
      • Backward-compatible with older systems
      • Able to accommodate new technologies
    • Cautionary note on minimum requirements
      • May differ for upgrades and new installations
      • May differ for installation and run-time operation
  • 5. Windows NT
    • Two versions of Windows NT (New Technology):
      • Windows NT Workstation for desktops
      • Windows NT Server to control a network
    • Best known feature: new OS core replacing DOS
    • Avoid installing Windows NT
      • Windows NT introduced many new problems
      • Problems only solved in later versions of Windows
  • 6. Windows 2000
    • Upgrades Windows NT (both desktop and server)
    • Improvements over Windows NT:
      • A more stable environment
      • Support for Plug and Play
      • Device Manager, Recovery Console, Active Directory
      • Better network support
      • Features specifically targeting notebook computers
    • OS includes only qualified hardware and software
    • Windows 2000 is being phased out
  • 7. Windows XP
    • Integrates Windows 9x/Me and Windows 2000
    • Two main versions: Home Edition and Professional
    • Noteworthy new features:
      • Allows two users to logon and open applications
      • Incorporates Windows Messenger and Media Player
      • Adds advanced security, such as Windows Firewall
    • Hardware requirements
      • 64 MB RAM (128 MB recommended)
      • 1.5 GB free hard drive space (2 GB recommended)
      • 233-MHz CPU speed (300-MHz recommended)
  • 8. Figure 1-8 The Windows XP desktop and Start menu
  • 9. Windows Vista
    • Next generation of Windows operating systems
    • Code-named Longhorn
    • Noteworthy new features:
      • New graphical interface
      • Revamped engine
      • A new interface between it and applications
    • Scheduled release dates:
      • November 2006 for business editions
      • January 2007 for consumer editions
  • 10. Windows Server 2003
    • Refers to a suite of Microsoft operating systems:
      • Windows Small Business Server 2003
      • Storage Server 2003
      • Server 2003 Web Edition
      • Server 2003 Standard Edition
      • Server 2003 Enterprise Edition
      • Server 2003 Datacenter Edition
    • Not designed for use in a PC
    • Not covered in this text
  • 11. UNIX
    • Comprises a class of operating systems
    • UNIX versions referred to as flavors or distributions
    • Chief uses:
      • Controlling networks
      • Supporting Internet-based applications
  • 12. Linux
    • Variation on UNIX created by Linus Torvalds
    • OS kernel and source code are freely distributed
    • Popular distributions:
      • SuSE ( )
      • RedHat ( )
      • TurboLinux ( )
    • Used as both a server and a desktop
    • X Windows: GUI shells for UNIX and Linux
  • 13. OS/2
    • Jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft
    • Chiefly used in certain types of networks
    • Part of OS/2 was incorporated into Windows NT
    • OS/2 is not covered in this book
  • 14. Mac OS
    • First introduced in 1984 with Macintosh computers
    • Current version: Mac OS X (ten)
    • Mac OS X can work on some Intel-based computers
    • Markets: education, desktop publishing, graphics
    • Noteworthy features:
      • Support for graphics and multimedia capabilities
      • Use of the Finder program to provide the desktop
      • Superior Plug and Play capabilities
      • Excellent support for multitasking
  • 15. Figure 1-10 The Mac OS X desktop is intuitive and easy to use
  • 16. What an Operating System Does
    • Four functions common to all operating systems:
      • Providing a user interface
      • Managing files
      • Managing applications
      • Managing hardware
    • All OSs also have similar core components
  • 17. Partitions and Logical Drives on a Hard Drive
    • Hard drives are organized into partitions
    • Two types of partitions
      • Primary: can only have one logical drive; e.g., C:
      • Extended: can have one or more logical drives
    • Logical drive (sometimes called a volume)
      • Formatted using a file system
      • Has a root directory and subdirectories
    • Disk Management tool
      • Used to create/view partitions, format logical drives
  • 18. Real (16-bit), Protected (32-bit), and Long (64-bit) Operating Modes
    • Bit type: number of bits simultaneously processed
    • Real (16-bit) mode
      • Exposes hardware to application (no longer used)
      • Example: DOS
    • Protected (32-bit) and Long (64-bit) modes
      • OS controls how an application accesses hardware
      • Preemptive multitasking is supported
      • Example: Windows XP Professional x64 Edition
    • Multiprocessing involves multiple CPUs
  • 19. 16-bit, 32-bit, and 64-bit Software
    • 16-bit software
      • Written for Windows 3.x
      • Data access is 16 bits at a time
    • 32-bit programs
      • Written for Windows NT/2000/XP and Windows 9x/Me
    • 64-bit programs
      • Written for Windows XP Professional x64 Edition
    • Most software today is 32-bit or 64-bit
  • 20. An OS Manages Hardware
    • OS interacts with hardware using drivers or BIOS
    • Software falls into three categories:
      • Device drivers or the BIOS
      • Operating system
      • Application software
  • 21. How an OS Manages Memory
    • Memory functions performed by OS at startup
      • Launches utilities to manage memory
      • Assigns addresses to each location of memory
    • Drivers, OS, and application use memory addresses
      • Enables three software layers to refer to shared data
    • 16-bit program in real mode has direct access to RAM
    • The OS controls memory access in protected mode
      • The address spaces of a program is protected
      • Virtual memory expands number of running programs
  • 22. OS Tools to Examine a System
    • A variety of tools are available:
      • The Windows Desktop
      • My Computer and Windows Explorer
      • System Properties
      • Control Panel
      • Device Manager
      • System Information
      • Windows Help and the Microsoft Web Site
  • 23. Figure 1-30 The Windows XP desktop and Start menu
  • 24. Control Panel
    • Contains applets used to manage the system
    • Accessing Control Panel in Windows XP
      • Click Start and the click Control Panel
    • Two views: Category View and Classic View
    • Applets can be launched via the Run dialog box
      • Example: enter Main.cpl to open Mouse Properties
  • 25. Figure 1-49 Windows XP Device Manager gives information about devices and allows you to uninstall a device
  • 26. System Information
    • Used to view detailed information about the system
    • Important features
      • BIOS version you are using
      • The directory where the OS is installed
      • How system resources are used
      • Information about drivers and their status
    • To open utility, enter Msinfo32.exe in Run dialog box
  • 27. Windows Help and the Microsoft Web Site
    • Key guide to system
    • Excellent troubleshooting resource
      • Example: analyze problem with Internet connection
    • Microsoft Web site:
    • Use search engine to locate alternative resources
      • Ensure that the alternative site is reputable
  • 28. Keystroke Shortcuts in the OS
    • Simplify interaction with the operating system
    • Examples
      • Function keys: F4, F5, F8
      • Text editing operations: Ctrl+C, Ctrl+V, Ctrl+x
    • Shortcut keys are critical when mouse is not working