5/14/10 1 Augmenting Human Intellect, 1975-1985


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5/14/10 1 Augmenting Human Intellect, 1975-1985

  1. 1. Augmenting Human Intellect, 1975-1985 <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Equipment Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>A Word about UNIX </li></ul><ul><li>IBM and the Classic Mainframe Culture </li></ul><ul><li>From “POTS” to “OLTP” </li></ul><ul><li>Viatron </li></ul><ul><li>Wang </li></ul><ul><li>Xerox PARC </li></ul><ul><li>PC: the Second Wave, 1977-1985 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Augmenting Human Intellect, 1975-1985 <ul><li>APPLE II’s Disk Drive and VisiCalc </li></ul><ul><li>IBM PC (1981) </li></ul><ul><li>MS-DOS </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Better is the Enemy of the Good” </li></ul><ul><li>Macintosh (1984) </li></ul><ul><li>The Clones </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Increasing human intellect </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Computer </li></ul><ul><li>A Period of creativities and technical advances in technology </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive microprocessors </li></ul><ul><li>Minicomputers </li></ul><ul><li>DEC build the foundation for interactive PC with the minicomputers and its software </li></ul><ul><li>DEC VAX – an extension of the PDP-11 – is a member of the mainframe family </li></ul><ul><li>DEC VAX – Model/11/780 (Virtual Address eXtension) of the PDP-11 </li></ul><ul><li>VAX was a 32-bit machine and was able to execute software that ran on the 16-bit PDP-11 </li></ul>
  4. 4. DEC <ul><li>DEC built and market 16-bit and 32-bit minicomputers (1974) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1973, Prime a company in MA, shipped a 32-bit minicomputer </li></ul><ul><li>Prime grew quickly and merged with Computervision in the late 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Interdata described a “mega-mini in 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>VAX was a virtual memory computer – small computer with a fast main memory appear to be bigger than it is. Swapping data to and from a slower but larger memory on a disk </li></ul>
  5. 5. DEC <ul><li>Virtual Memory process (appear large, but small in reality) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall performance must not be degraded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User must be unaware of swapping taking place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The initial design effort for the VAX was led by C. Gordon Bell, chief architect was Bill Strecker </li></ul><ul><li>VAX provided a 4.3 gigabytes - 1 billion 32-bit words of virtual address space </li></ul><ul><li>The addressing scheme divided memory into blocks called pages. Pages in memory were determine by a process of associative comparison </li></ul><ul><li>VAX processor used 16 32-bit general registers, 250 instructions with 9 addressing modes </li></ul><ul><li>Single instruction perform complex operations </li></ul>
  6. 6. DEC <ul><li>VAX was a commercial success – selling around 100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>The 11/780s performed well. It calculated at one million instruction per second (MIPS) </li></ul><ul><li>The 11/780 became a benchmark for competitors machines into the 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Family of Vaxen – 11/750 in 1980 (less powerful), higher performance 8600 in 1984, and the MicroVax II in 1985 </li></ul><ul><li>The VAX was a general-purpose computer that came with standard languages and software </li></ul><ul><li>VAX biggest impact was on engineering and science </li></ul><ul><li>Prices started at $120,000 </li></ul><ul><li>VAX was built with VMS (engineering oriented O/S), and sophisticated I/O facilities for data collection </li></ul>
  7. 7. DEC <ul><li>VAX has powerful and easy to use terminal –called the VT100 </li></ul><ul><li>The terminal scroll a pixel at a time, instead of a line at a time </li></ul><ul><li>A Word about UNIX </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX is multitasking and multiuser O/S </li></ul><ul><li>IBM and the Classic Mainframe Culture </li></ul><ul><li>LSI (Large-scale integrated) circuits </li></ul><ul><li>IBM developed the SNA (system network architecture), and was shipped in 1974 – SNA formed the basis for networking large computer systems into the 1990s </li></ul>
  8. 8. IBM and the Classic Mainframe Culture <ul><li>In 1975, IBM personal computer “model 5100” was introduced, it contained a processor, keyboard, cassette tape drive, and a small video terminal. It had 16Kbytes of memory, used both BASIC and AP/L, and cost about $9,000 </li></ul><ul><li>IBM lawsuits </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Gates and Paul Allen developing BASIC </li></ul><ul><li>IBM and Bill Gates </li></ul><ul><li>IBM computers – Host of PC, Systems/38, AS/400 and others </li></ul><ul><li>AS/400 aimed at the business environment – represented IBM’s most advanced technology </li></ul>
  9. 9. From “POTS” to “OLTP” <ul><li>POTS - Plain Old Time-Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>OLTP – On-line Transaction Processing </li></ul><ul><li>The era of more tightly structured and disciplined use of terminals for on-line access </li></ul><ul><li>Use of dumb terminals, glass teletypes </li></ul><ul><li>Use of smart terminals for editing text </li></ul><ul><li>DEC - VT-100 was the standard ASCII terminal </li></ul><ul><li>IBM introduced the EBCDIC standard terminal in 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>IBM SNA </li></ul><ul><li>IBM introduced the PCs in 1981 – using ASCII standard not EBCDIC </li></ul>
  10. 10. Viatron <ul><li>Viatron computer systems </li></ul><ul><li>An outgrowth of an Air Force Project – AESOP (Advanced Experimental System for On-line Planning) </li></ul><ul><li>MITRE Corporation - Envisioned to design a network of terminals that provided visual as well as text information to middle and high level managers </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Spiegel and Edward Bennett founded Viatron in 1967 </li></ul><ul><li>Viatron system 21 rented for $40 included keyboard, a 9-inch display, and two cassette tape unit for storage of data and formatting information. </li></ul><ul><li>Viatron system was capable of remote computing using optional attachment to disconnect the keyboard and connect to any standard TV </li></ul>
  11. 11. Wang <ul><li>Wang – “Office Automation” technology </li></ul><ul><li>Use of of the term word processor came in 1964, when IBM announced its MTST – a version of its Electric typewriter that could store and recall sequences of keystrokes on a magnetic tape cartridge </li></ul><ul><li>WANG system </li></ul><ul><li>Xerox PARC </li></ul><ul><li>Xerox – the true pioneer in distributed, user-friendly computing </li></ul><ul><li>Xerox – invented a window-based interface for computer </li></ul><ul><li>Xerox – invented the Ethernet that provide an effective way of linking computer in a local environment </li></ul>
  12. 12. PCs: the Second Wave, 1977-1985 <ul><li>Innovation from the top matched by innovation from the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Shack introduced its TRS-80, starting price at $400 – had a 1Z-80 chip in it- and more advanced than the Intel 8080 (keyboard and monitor included, and cassette tape for storage) a magnetic tape cartridge </li></ul><ul><li>The Commondore PET system – same feature, but built in one box, it uses microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Apple II introduced in 1977 – has its own BASIC program and was later used Microsoft BASIC for improved Apple II systems </li></ul><ul><li>PCs matured by the end of 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Apple II bridged sophistication and ease of use </li></ul>
  13. 13. Apple II’s Disk Drive and VisiCalc <ul><li>By 1977 PC were integrated with disk drive (8-inch floppy disk) </li></ul><ul><li>8-inch floppy disk drives replaced the cassette tape and was more expensive </li></ul><ul><li>5 ¼-inch disk drive by Shugart Associates - had a storage capacity of 113Kbytes and sold for $495 – including O/S </li></ul><ul><li>In 1979 – VisiCalc program was offered for the Apple II </li></ul><ul><li>VisiCalc was developed by Daniel Bricklin and Robert Frankston </li></ul>
  14. 14. IBM PC (9181) <ul><li>IBM PCs announced in 1981 used the Intel 8088 processor – a descendent of the 8080 </li></ul><ul><li>Internal data was 16-bit words and 8-bit for external data </li></ul><ul><li>ASCII code and a 62-pin architecture – with 5 empty expansion slots. MS-DOS available in ROM chip </li></ul><ul><li>PC – DOS from Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>VisiCalc, Lotus 1-2-3 – spreadsheet applications </li></ul><ul><li>MS-DOS </li></ul>
  15. 15. MS-DOS <ul><li>Microsoft PC-DOS for IBM </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft MS-DOS to be marketed freely by Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>PC-DOS was based on 86-DOS by Tim Paterson – MS paid initially $15,000 to Tim </li></ul><ul><li>QDOS </li></ul><ul><li>MS-DOS – the most influential piece of software ever written </li></ul><ul><li>The PC and IBM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM second area of control in computing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Better is the Enemy of the Good </li></ul><ul><li>Technological evolution as compare to the natural selection of living things </li></ul>
  16. 16. Macintosh (1984) <ul><li>Apple provided an option for those asking why not something better than IBM </li></ul><ul><li>1979 – Macintosh project began </li></ul><ul><li>1984 –Macintosh computer was introduced </li></ul><ul><li>Macintosh built in network (AppleTalk) for file sharing and printers </li></ul><ul><li>Macintosh – look and ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>Macintosh elegant system software was its greatest accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>The Clones </li></ul><ul><li>IBM mainframes and its PC </li></ul><ul><li>IBM ability to release technical information about its Mainframe and PCs led to compatible industry </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>Augmenting Human Intellect </li></ul><ul><li>IBM and the others </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware and software developers. </li></ul><ul><li>Competence in Information Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Perspective </li></ul>