5/14/10 1 Augmenting Human Intellect, 1975-1985

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  • 1. Augmenting Human Intellect, 1975-1985
    • Introduction
    • Digital Equipment Corporation
    • A Word about UNIX
    • IBM and the Classic Mainframe Culture
    • From “POTS” to “OLTP”
    • Viatron
    • Wang
    • Xerox PARC
    • PC: the Second Wave, 1977-1985
  • 2. Augmenting Human Intellect, 1975-1985
    • APPLE II’s Disk Drive and VisiCalc
    • IBM PC (1981)
    • MS-DOS
    • “ The Better is the Enemy of the Good”
    • Macintosh (1984)
    • The Clones
  • 3. Introduction
    • Increasing human intellect
    • Personal Computer
    • A Period of creativities and technical advances in technology
    • Inexpensive microprocessors
    • Minicomputers
    • DEC build the foundation for interactive PC with the minicomputers and its software
    • DEC VAX – an extension of the PDP-11 – is a member of the mainframe family
    • DEC VAX – Model/11/780 (Virtual Address eXtension) of the PDP-11
    • VAX was a 32-bit machine and was able to execute software that ran on the 16-bit PDP-11
  • 4. DEC
    • DEC built and market 16-bit and 32-bit minicomputers (1974)
    • In 1973, Prime a company in MA, shipped a 32-bit minicomputer
    • Prime grew quickly and merged with Computervision in the late 1980s
    • Interdata described a “mega-mini in 1974
    • VAX was a virtual memory computer – small computer with a fast main memory appear to be bigger than it is. Swapping data to and from a slower but larger memory on a disk
  • 5. DEC
    • Virtual Memory process (appear large, but small in reality)
      • Overall performance must not be degraded
      • User must be unaware of swapping taking place
    • The initial design effort for the VAX was led by C. Gordon Bell, chief architect was Bill Strecker
    • VAX provided a 4.3 gigabytes - 1 billion 32-bit words of virtual address space
    • The addressing scheme divided memory into blocks called pages. Pages in memory were determine by a process of associative comparison
    • VAX processor used 16 32-bit general registers, 250 instructions with 9 addressing modes
    • Single instruction perform complex operations
  • 6. DEC
    • VAX was a commercial success – selling around 100,000
    • The 11/780s performed well. It calculated at one million instruction per second (MIPS)
    • The 11/780 became a benchmark for competitors machines into the 1990s
    • Family of Vaxen – 11/750 in 1980 (less powerful), higher performance 8600 in 1984, and the MicroVax II in 1985
    • The VAX was a general-purpose computer that came with standard languages and software
    • VAX biggest impact was on engineering and science
    • Prices started at $120,000
    • VAX was built with VMS (engineering oriented O/S), and sophisticated I/O facilities for data collection
  • 7. DEC
    • VAX has powerful and easy to use terminal –called the VT100
    • The terminal scroll a pixel at a time, instead of a line at a time
    • A Word about UNIX
    • UNIX is multitasking and multiuser O/S
    • IBM and the Classic Mainframe Culture
    • LSI (Large-scale integrated) circuits
    • IBM developed the SNA (system network architecture), and was shipped in 1974 – SNA formed the basis for networking large computer systems into the 1990s
  • 8. IBM and the Classic Mainframe Culture
    • In 1975, IBM personal computer “model 5100” was introduced, it contained a processor, keyboard, cassette tape drive, and a small video terminal. It had 16Kbytes of memory, used both BASIC and AP/L, and cost about $9,000
    • IBM lawsuits
    • Bill Gates and Paul Allen developing BASIC
    • IBM and Bill Gates
    • IBM computers – Host of PC, Systems/38, AS/400 and others
    • AS/400 aimed at the business environment – represented IBM’s most advanced technology
  • 9. From “POTS” to “OLTP”
    • POTS - Plain Old Time-Sharing
    • OLTP – On-line Transaction Processing
    • The era of more tightly structured and disciplined use of terminals for on-line access
    • Use of dumb terminals, glass teletypes
    • Use of smart terminals for editing text
    • DEC - VT-100 was the standard ASCII terminal
    • IBM introduced the EBCDIC standard terminal in 1980
    • IBM SNA
    • IBM introduced the PCs in 1981 – using ASCII standard not EBCDIC
  • 10. Viatron
    • Viatron computer systems
    • An outgrowth of an Air Force Project – AESOP (Advanced Experimental System for On-line Planning)
    • MITRE Corporation - Envisioned to design a network of terminals that provided visual as well as text information to middle and high level managers
    • Joseph Spiegel and Edward Bennett founded Viatron in 1967
    • Viatron system 21 rented for $40 included keyboard, a 9-inch display, and two cassette tape unit for storage of data and formatting information.
    • Viatron system was capable of remote computing using optional attachment to disconnect the keyboard and connect to any standard TV
  • 11. Wang
    • Wang – “Office Automation” technology
    • Use of of the term word processor came in 1964, when IBM announced its MTST – a version of its Electric typewriter that could store and recall sequences of keystrokes on a magnetic tape cartridge
    • WANG system
    • Xerox PARC
    • Xerox – the true pioneer in distributed, user-friendly computing
    • Xerox – invented a window-based interface for computer
    • Xerox – invented the Ethernet that provide an effective way of linking computer in a local environment
  • 12. PCs: the Second Wave, 1977-1985
    • Innovation from the top matched by innovation from the bottom
    • Radio Shack introduced its TRS-80, starting price at $400 – had a 1Z-80 chip in it- and more advanced than the Intel 8080 (keyboard and monitor included, and cassette tape for storage) a magnetic tape cartridge
    • The Commondore PET system – same feature, but built in one box, it uses microprocessor
    • Apple II introduced in 1977 – has its own BASIC program and was later used Microsoft BASIC for improved Apple II systems
    • PCs matured by the end of 1977
    • Apple II bridged sophistication and ease of use
  • 13. Apple II’s Disk Drive and VisiCalc
    • By 1977 PC were integrated with disk drive (8-inch floppy disk)
    • 8-inch floppy disk drives replaced the cassette tape and was more expensive
    • 5 ¼-inch disk drive by Shugart Associates - had a storage capacity of 113Kbytes and sold for $495 – including O/S
    • In 1979 – VisiCalc program was offered for the Apple II
    • VisiCalc was developed by Daniel Bricklin and Robert Frankston
  • 14. IBM PC (9181)
    • IBM PCs announced in 1981 used the Intel 8088 processor – a descendent of the 8080
    • Internal data was 16-bit words and 8-bit for external data
    • ASCII code and a 62-pin architecture – with 5 empty expansion slots. MS-DOS available in ROM chip
    • PC – DOS from Microsoft
    • VisiCalc, Lotus 1-2-3 – spreadsheet applications
    • MS-DOS
  • 15. MS-DOS
    • Microsoft PC-DOS for IBM
    • Microsoft MS-DOS to be marketed freely by Microsoft
    • PC-DOS was based on 86-DOS by Tim Paterson – MS paid initially $15,000 to Tim
    • QDOS
    • MS-DOS – the most influential piece of software ever written
    • The PC and IBM
      • IBM second area of control in computing
    • The Better is the Enemy of the Good
    • Technological evolution as compare to the natural selection of living things
  • 16. Macintosh (1984)
    • Apple provided an option for those asking why not something better than IBM
    • 1979 – Macintosh project began
    • 1984 –Macintosh computer was introduced
    • Macintosh built in network (AppleTalk) for file sharing and printers
    • Macintosh – look and ease of use
    • Macintosh elegant system software was its greatest accomplishment
    • The Clones
    • IBM mainframes and its PC
    • IBM ability to release technical information about its Mainframe and PCs led to compatible industry
  • 17. Conclusion
    • Augmenting Human Intellect
    • IBM and the others
    • Hardware and software developers.
    • Competence in Information Technology
    • Historical Perspective