Marketing environment, information and research


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Marketing environment, information and research

  1. 1. Marketing environment, Information and research
  2. 2. The Marketing Environment
  3. 3. Marketing Environment • The marketing environment consists of actors and forces outside the organization that affect management’s ability to build and maintain relationships with target customers. • Environment offers both opportunities and threats. • Marketing intelligence and research used to collect information about the environment.
  4. 4. • Includes: – Microenvironment: actors close to the company that affect its ability to serve its customers. – Macroenvironment: larger societal forces that affect the microenvironment. • Considered to be beyond the control of the organization. Marketing Environment
  5. 5. Actors in the Microenvironment
  6. 6. Types of Publics
  7. 7. The Company’s Macroenvironment
  8. 8. Why Information Is Needed Marketing Environment Strategic Planning Customer Needs Competition Strategic Planning
  9. 9. What is marketing information system ? Marketing information consists of people, equipment and procedures to gather,sort,analyze,evaluate and distribute needed, timely and accurate information to marketing decision makers. Marketing decision makers use the data to identify and solve marketing related problems.
  10. 10. Marketing research is the “function which links the consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through information--information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; generate, refine and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process.” - American Marketing Association
  11. 11. 12  Marketing research is the systematic and objective  identification  collection  analysis  dissemination  and use of information  For the purpose of improving decision making related to the  identification of problems and opportunities and  solution of problems and opportunities in marketing. Marketing Research Defined
  12. 12. Marketing Information System
  13. 13. Recurrent Information This is the data that an MIS supplies periodically about the market share of a specific product and customer’s awareness of company’s brands. The data may be supplied on weekly, monthly or yearly basis.
  14. 14. Monitoring Information This is the data obtained from the regular scanning of certain sources. Marketing managers may need data related to competition or the industry. It is essential so that marketing managers can be alert and identify potential problems
  15. 15. Requested Information This information is developed in response to some specific request by the marketing manager. Secondary data or primary data through survey research are collected in response to the specific request. The MIS supplies the requested information for decision making.
  16. 16. 17 Used to identify and define market opportunities and problems Generate, refine, and evaluate marketing performance Monitor marketing performance Improve understanding of marketing as a process Using Information….
  17. 17. 18 Assessing Marketing Information Needs • The MIS serves company managers as well as external partners • The MIS must balance needs against feasibility: – Not all information can be obtained – Obtaining, processing, sorting, and delivering information is costly
  18. 18. 19 Developing Marketing Information • Internal data is gathered via customer databases, financial records, and operations reports • Advantages include quick/easy access to information • Disadvantages stem from the incompleteness or inappropriateness of data to a particular situation  Internal data  Marketing intelligence  Marketing research Sources of Info
  19. 19. 20 Developing Marketing Information • Marketing intelligence is the systematic collection and analysis of publicly available information about competitors and trends in the marketing environment. • Competitive intelligence gathering activities have grown dramatically. • Many sources of competitive information exist.  Internal data  Marketing intelligence  Marketing research Sources of Info
  20. 20. 21 Developing Marketing Information • Marketing research is the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data relevant to a specific marketing situation facing an organization.  Internal data  Marketing intelligence  Marketing research Sources of Info
  21. 21. The Marketing Research Process Define the problem Develop research plan Collect information Analyze information Present findings
  22. 22. Step 2: Develop the Research Plan Data Sources Contact Methods Research Instruments Sampling Plan Research Approach
  23. 23. Research Approaches Observation Focus Group Survey Behavioral Data Experimentation
  24. 24. 25 Research Approaches Survey Asking individuals about attitudes, preferences or buying behaviors (Descriptive) Experimental Using groups of people to determine cause-and-effect relationships (Causal) Observational Gathering data by observing people, actions and situations (Exploratory)
  25. 25. Focus Group in Session
  26. 26. Research Instruments Questionnaires Qualitative Measures Technological Devices
  27. 27. Questionnaire Do’s and Don’ts • Ensure questions are free of bias • Make questions simple • Make questions specific • Avoid jargon • Avoid sophisticated words • Avoid ambiguous words • Avoid negatives • Avoid hypotheticals • Avoid words that could be misheard • Use response bands • Use mutually exclusive categories • Allow for “other” in fixed response questions
  28. 28. Question Types—Dichotomous In arranging this trip, did you contact public transport?  Yes  No
  29. 29. Question Types—Multiple Choice With whom are you traveling on this trip?  No one  Spouse  Spouse and children  Children only  Business associates/friends/relatives  An organized tour group
  30. 30. Question Types—Likert Scale Indicate your level of agreement with the following statement: Small airlines generally give better service than large ones.  Strongly disagree  Disagree  Neither agree nor disagree  Agree  Strongly agree
  31. 31. Question Types—Semantic Differential American Airlines Large ………………………………...…….Small Experienced………………….….Inexperienced Modern……………………….…..Old-fashioned
  32. 32. Question Types—Importance Scale Airline food service is _____ to me.  Extremely important  Very important  Somewhat important  Not very important  Not at all important
  33. 33. Question Types—Rating Scale Sri Lankan Airlines’ food service is _____.  Excellent  Very good  Good  Fair  Poor
  34. 34. Question Types— Intention to Buy Scale How likely are you to purchase tickets on American Airlines if in-flight Internet access were available?  Definitely buy  Probably buy  Not sure  Probably not buy  Definitely not buy
  35. 35. Question Types—Completely Unstructured What is your opinion about
  36. 36. 37 Sampling Plan Who is to be surveyed? (Sampling Unit) How many should be surveyed? (Sample size) How should the sample be chosen? (Sampl.procedure) Probability or Non-probability sampling? Sample - representative segment of the population
  37. 37. 38 Sampling Plan • Probability Sampling – Simple random sample  every member of the population has an equal chance of selection – Stratified random sample  the population is divided into groups, random samples are drawn from each group – Cluster (area) sample  e.g. groups such as blocks • Nonprobability Sampling – Convenience sample  The most accessible population members are selected to obtain information – Judgement sample  The researcher uses judgement to select population members who are good prospects for accurate information – Quota sample  finds and interviews a prescribed number of people in each of several categories
  38. 38. 39 Strengths and Weaknesses of Contact Methods Mail Telephone Personal Online Flexibility Poor Good Excellent Good Quantity of Data Collected Good Fair Excellent Good Control of Interviewer Excellent Fair Poor Fair Control of Sample Fair Excellent Fair Poor Speed of Data Collection Poor Excellent Good Excellent Response Rate Fair Good Good Good Cost Good Fair Poor Excellent