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University - Azerbaijan University of Languages Master student - Samira Hashimzadeh Group - 203 Year - 2012
From the Latin, "own, personal, private" A set expression of two or more words that means something other than the literal meanings of its individual words. Idioms are characterized by a double sense: (a)the current meanings of constituent words build up a certain picture, but (b) the actual meaning of the whole unit has little or nothing to do with that picture, in itself creating an entirely new image. An idiom behaves as a single semantic unit.
People use idioms to make their language richer and more colorful and to convey subtle shades of meaning or intention. Idioms are used often to replace a literal word or expression, and many times the idiom better describes the full nuance of meaning. On the other hand, oral or written speech lacking idioms loses much in expressiveness, colour and emotional force.
"Ifnatural language had been designed by a logician, idioms would not exist." Philip Johnson-Laird (Professor at Princeton University)
Idioms and idiomatic expressions can be more precise than the literal words, often using fewer words but saying more. For example, the expression it runs in the family is shorter and more succinct than saying that a physical or personality trait is fairly common throughout ones extended family and over a number of generations.
"Idioms, in general, are deeply connected to culture. Agar (1991) proposes that biculturalism and bilingualism are two sides of the same coin. Engaged in the intertwined process of culture change, learners have to understand the full meaning of idioms."
Levels of Transparency Idioms vary in transparency: that is, whether their meaning can be derived from the literal meanings of the individual words. For example, make up [ones] mind is rather transparent in suggesting the meaning reach a decision, while kick the bucket is far from transparent in representing the meaning die."
Misunderstanding1. Kirk: If we play our cards right, we may be able to find out when those whales are being released. Spock: How will playing cards help?2. Tom: What would you do if you were in my shoes? Tim: Polish them!
Practice!1. Between the devil and the deep sea;2. To have ones heart in ones boots;3. to wear ones heart on ones sleeve;4. into the blue;5. once in a blue moon;6. To let the cat out of the bag;
What do we mean when wesay: An idiom has a "double" meaning To break the ice Cost a bomb Crocodile tears Fall for someone Every inch a (something)
Find the right answer.1. bottom line 3. thinking on my feeta.) an easy task a.) considering all optionsb.) the main point b.) without advance planningc.) the best solution c.) with careful preparationd.) a minor point d.) not paying attention to details 4. be on the same page2. play devil’s advocate a.) to have the same problema.) argue the opposite point againb.) obtain or extract with b.) to understand or follow effort alongc.) make fun of someone c.) to be close to or like someoned.) understand something completely d.) to be where the action is