AL-AZHAR UNIVERSITY-GAZA
Master Program of Water and Environmental

prepared by

SAMIR M. ALBASOOS

Supervisor
Outline ..
• What is lead?
• When the human started to use lead ?
• Where is lead found?
• Ways in which lead enters the b...
• Lead is metal found naturally in the environment,
The total amount of lead in the earth’s crustis
estimated to be 3.1 x ...
Physical Properties of Lead
Color

Light-gray to slightly bluish-gray.

Hardness

1.5

Transparency

Opaque

Specific grav...
Lead Properties
Chemical Properties of Lead
Melting point

600.61 K (327.49 c)

Boiling point

2022 K ( 1749 c )

Heat of ...
Lead Properties
Atomic Properties of Lead
Atomic number

82

Atomic mass

207.2 g/mol

Atomic radius

1.47 A

Electron con...
Lead ores
• Lead ores usually contain the elements sulfur,
zinc, and copper , is the most important presence
in nature Gal...
• Lead is one of the first
minerals that the human
human used it and
evidenced by the lead
pipes that made ​the
Romans .

...
• and in the era of the
ancient Egyptians used
lead in the manufacture
of currencies and units of
weights and decoration
m...
• Manufacturers Muslims
reached during the fourth
ten century to ways to rid
the lead of impurities .
• Despite the benefi...
Lead can be found in all parts of our environment
• In outdoor air
• Indoor air
• Homes and Buildings
• Lead in work envir...
•
•
•
•
•
•

In the soil
In gasoline
Ammunition
Batteries
food containers
In fisherman nets
Where is lead found?
• Sources of Lead in the Air
Air pollution Definition : any material is solid or
liquid or gaseous ar...
Where is lead found?
In outdoor air
lead forms considered very small particles
coming to the air due to the combustion of
...
Where is lead found?
In outdoor air
• National Standards for Lead in the Air
Averaging
Pollutant Primary
Standard
Time
Lea...
Indoor air
The indoor air is a greater risk to health than
outdoor air
The indoor air quality is prone to
contamination (m...
Homes and Buildings
Homes and Buildings
Inside home and buildings we can find several
things contains of lead such as :
• Paint
• Windows
• Do...
Homes and Buildings
Inside home and buildings we can find several
things contains of lead such as :
• kids toys , televisi...
Homes and Buildings
Inside home and buildings we can find several
things contains of lead such as :
• Electronic devices
•...
Lead in work environments
Jobs that may involve lead include:
• Construction,

• Automobile repair,
• Lead mining,

• Plum...
Drinking Water
Drinking Water

• How Does Lead Get Into our Water?
Lead leaches into water through:
• Corrosion –Pipes – Solder –
Faucets...
Drinking Water

• A review of lead in drinking water and
its impact on health
How standards have changed ?
Standards for l...
Drinking Water

A review of lead in drinking water and
its impact on health
How standards have changed ?
Standards for lea...
Drinking Water
Health effects of lead from drinking water
• Studies in Scotland (UK), Wales (UK),
Germany and the US have ...
Drinking Water
Health effects of lead from drinking water
• In Glasgow (UK) the mean blood lead
concentration decreased fr...
Drinking Water
Health effects of lead from drinking water
child development delays and reduced birth
weight
mental retarda...
Drinking Water
How many people could be at risk?
• The KIWA data suggests that around 25% of
houses in Europe have a lead ...
Drinking Water
How many people could be at risk?
• Pb in UK East 22 to 52% by survey; Pb in UK
West 59% by survey
• The is...
• Imported Cosmetics
• there are very small amounts of lead in the dyes
that are used to color lipstick, the amounts are
w...
• Imported Cosmetics
• The FDA also says that since we only use a few
swipes of lipstick on a very small area of our
skin,...
• Imported Cosmetics

• Tests conducted on lipstick revealed that more
than half of the forms contain lead material
and th...
• Imported Cosmetics
• Campaign for Safe Cosmetics said tests
conducted by the group, "concludes Bodecot
Group" in Santa F...
• In the paint

• Lead or one of compounds are used in paints
to the following reasons :
• Colored material mainly like su...
• In the paint
• Why Lead-Based Paint Was Used
Any paint that relies on lead compounds for its colour.
White lead, or lead...
• In the paint
• Why Lead-Based Paint Was Used
White lead is very insoluble in water, making the paint
highly water-resist...
• In the paint
Standards and Regulations for
Lead
• White house paint contained up
to 50% lead before 1955. Federal
law lo...
• In the paint
The children are more exposure
to lead from paint
The paint on the children face
make the lead transport to...
• In the soil
Infected soil contamination of lead,
which reaches into the soil with the
waste that is buried in the soil, ...
• In the soil
Soil which is located near Autostrad for cars to
be more vulnerable to lead
becouse lead emissions from fuel...
• In gasoline
Why lead add to the gasoline ?

To raise the octane number , it
must be added tetraethyl
lead, along with du...
• In gasoline
How to be lead mode in fuel
molecules?
lead Mode is as follows :
Molecule fuel - lead - molecule
fuel - lead...
• In gasoline
Lead has a great benifits in the
organization of the process
of fuel combustion regularly
Lead help to combu...
• In gasoline
What are the alternatives of
lead in gasoline ?
Ethanol is a clean-burning
fuel, with a high octane
number, ...
• In gasoline
What are the alternatives of lead in
gasoline ?
Added to unleaded gasoline. And
Adding ethanol to gasoline t...
• Inhalation - Breathing lead
fumes or dust. This is the
most common route of entry
in the workplace.
• Ingestion - Swallo...
Lead Distribution in the body
• Blood

• Soft Tissue

• Mineralized Tissue
Medical Effects of Lead Poisoning
 Brain damage
 Kidney disease
 Hemoglobin synthesis

• Hypertension
• Decreased ferti...
Signs and Symptoms
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Tiredness
Sleep problems
Dizziness
Irritability
Nervousness
Headaches
Difficulty...
Effects of Lead
• Children
– Even small doses of lead are dangerous
– Toddlers (1-3 years) especially at risk because
they...
Effects of Lead
• Nervous System
– Most affected by lead
– Damage can be permanent
– Lead can damage the brain and destroy...
Blood Brain Barrier
• Lead increases the
permeability to the BBB
• Lead decreases the
selectivity of molecules
entering th...
Kidneys
– Filter and remove
waste products from
the blood
– 65% of lead in blood
is filtered in kidneys
– Lead can damage
...
Kidneys
• The functional units in
the kidney are called
nephrons
• There are about 1.3
million nephrons in
each kidney
• E...
Kidneys
• The kidney's primary
function in the body is
to concentrate waste
substances
• Metals are elements
• Metals cann...
Types of Disease
• Chronic
glomerulonephritis 48%
• Interstitial nephritis
17%
• Hypertensive
nephropathy 13%
• PKD 7%
• U...
Effects of Lead
• Hematology
– Lead damages the red blood cells
– Prevents cells from carrying oxygen
– Reduces the synthe...
Effects of Lead
• Bone Tissue
– Lead from blood is deposited in bones
– Prevents calcium release into blood
– Blocks produ...
Effects of Lead
• Female Reproductive Health & Pregnancy
– Reduces fertility
– Affects menstruation and menopause
– Lead p...
Effects of Lead
• Male Reproductive System
– Decreased libido
– Infertility
– Damage to sperm, decreased motility
– Increa...
Nutrition as Therapy
• Diets high in iron and calcium
• Examples of foods high in iron
– Cheese, fish, meat, eggs, spinach...
Blood
Lead Level

10 g/dL
20 g/dL
40 g/dL

50 g/dL
100 g/dL
and over

Possible Health Effects

• Slight loss in IQ; hearin...
• hrouded tools provide
exhaust ventilation at the
point where the dust is
generated.
• High Efficiency Particulate
Air (H...
• Used when other types
of controls are not
sufficient to reduce lead
exposure to below PEL.
• Additional training is
requ...
• Used to keep lead dust
off your body and
clothes
References
• http://www.epa.gov/air/lead/ (Environmental Protection Agency )
• References are available for these studies ...
Thanks
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Lead as pollutant

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Lead as pollutant

  1. 1. AL-AZHAR UNIVERSITY-GAZA Master Program of Water and Environmental prepared by SAMIR M. ALBASOOS Supervisor
  2. 2. Outline .. • What is lead? • When the human started to use lead ? • Where is lead found? • Ways in which lead enters the body • How are people exposed to lead? • What are the health risks of lead? • What to do if you have been exposed to lead? • How can you prevent exposure to lead?
  3. 3. • Lead is metal found naturally in the environment, The total amount of lead in the earth’s crustis estimated to be 3.1 x 1014 tonnes • Lead is a chemical element in the metals group , Lead symbol Pb , Lead is a soft and malleable metal , It is very resistant to corrosion • lead regarded as a heavy metal and pure metal • Lead is a relatively poor conductor of electricity
  4. 4. Physical Properties of Lead Color Light-gray to slightly bluish-gray. Hardness 1.5 Transparency Opaque Specific gravity 11.3 classification Metallic Density 11.4 gm/cm3
  5. 5. Lead Properties Chemical Properties of Lead Melting point 600.61 K (327.49 c) Boiling point 2022 K ( 1749 c ) Heat of vapor 177.7 kJ/mol Specific heat 0.13 J/gm K O O
  6. 6. Lead Properties Atomic Properties of Lead Atomic number 82 Atomic mass 207.2 g/mol Atomic radius 1.47 A Electron configuration (Xe)4f145d106s26p2 Group name Metals Atomic volume 18.17 cm3/mol Stable isotopes 4
  7. 7. Lead ores • Lead ores usually contain the elements sulfur, zinc, and copper , is the most important presence in nature Galena ore, which consists of lead sulfide (Pb S) which is used in coating the mirrors, is also used as a blue dye. • Lead in various other pictures of them include oxides of lead and lead monoxide (PbO) which is most widely used in the industries of inorganic lead is also used in the manufacture of batteries waved in the ceramic industry, glass
  8. 8. • Lead is one of the first minerals that the human human used it and evidenced by the lead pipes that made ​the Romans . • In the era of the Romans used lead in the manufacture of pipes by mixing a combination of lead welded with tin and slaves are the ones who are extracting and processing of lead and wounded slaves later lead poisoning .
  9. 9. • and in the era of the ancient Egyptians used lead in the manufacture of currencies and units of weights and decoration materials and household utensils and surfaces of ceramic and alloy Welding
  10. 10. • Manufacturers Muslims reached during the fourth ten century to ways to rid the lead of impurities . • Despite the benefits of lead, but the harms are substantial compared to its benefits, and the metal of lead is highly toxic
  11. 11. Lead can be found in all parts of our environment • In outdoor air • Indoor air • Homes and Buildings • Lead in work environments • Drinking Water • Commercial Products • Imported Cosmetics • In the paint • In the factories • Emissions of energy products • Pigments
  12. 12. • • • • • • In the soil In gasoline Ammunition Batteries food containers In fisherman nets
  13. 13. Where is lead found? • Sources of Lead in the Air Air pollution Definition : any material is solid or liquid or gaseous are existence of air quantities lead to damage physiological and economic vitality of human beings, animals and plants . Of air pollutants in major cities tetramethyl lead( ) and tetraethyl lead ( ) which be added to motor fuel
  14. 14. Where is lead found? In outdoor air lead forms considered very small particles coming to the air due to the combustion of fuel for industry and transportation and heating fuel, since it has an element of lead lead considered heavy metal so most of particles fall down on the way Some measurements showed that the percentage of lead in the air 3000 ppm in the outside air in the street.
  15. 15. Where is lead found? In outdoor air • National Standards for Lead in the Air Averaging Pollutant Primary Standard Time Lead 0.15 µg/m3 (1) Rolling 3Month Average Secondary Standard Same as Primary
  16. 16. Indoor air The indoor air is a greater risk to health than outdoor air The indoor air quality is prone to contamination (mold, bacteria), chemicals (carbon monoxide, radon), or any solid pollutants that can affect health, such as lead Some measurements showed that the percentage of lead in the air of homes up from 6400 - 9000 ppm in dust inside some homes.
  17. 17. Homes and Buildings
  18. 18. Homes and Buildings Inside home and buildings we can find several things contains of lead such as : • Paint • Windows • Doors and door frames • Stair , railings , banisters , and porches • Water Taps , pipes • Dust
  19. 19. Homes and Buildings Inside home and buildings we can find several things contains of lead such as : • kids toys , television screens • Ceramic pots • Cosmetics • Kerosene heater , Fuel emissions • Food containers
  20. 20. Homes and Buildings Inside home and buildings we can find several things contains of lead such as : • Electronic devices • Batteries • Pigments • Soil ( home garden ) Inside home children considers more exposure by lead
  21. 21. Lead in work environments Jobs that may involve lead include: • Construction, • Automobile repair, • Lead mining, • Plumbing, • Printing, • Military and police work involving fire arms, and Home renovations.
  22. 22. Drinking Water
  23. 23. Drinking Water • How Does Lead Get Into our Water? Lead leaches into water through: • Corrosion –Pipes – Solder – Faucets(brass) - Fittings • The amount of lead in your water also depends on the types and amounts of minerals in the water, how long the water stays in the pipes, the amount of wear in the pipes, the water’s acidity and its temperature.
  24. 24. Drinking Water • A review of lead in drinking water and its impact on health How standards have changed ? Standards for lead in drinking water : • 1970 WHO 300 μg/l “not to be regularly exceeded” Uncommon to sample routinely • 1980(5) EU 50 μg/l (MAC) in “running water” Uncommon to sample at consumers’ taps
  25. 25. Drinking Water A review of lead in drinking water and its impact on health How standards have changed ? Standards for lead in drinking water : • 1998(03) EU 25 μg/l (MAC) at consumers’ taps Sampling methods vary • 1998(13) EU 10 μg/l (MAC) at consumers’ taps Harmonization of sampling methods?
  26. 26. Drinking Water Health effects of lead from drinking water • Studies in Scotland (UK), Wales (UK), Germany and the US have correlated high lead concentrations in drinking water with an elevated body lead burden Troesken cites numerous incidents of lead poisoning from drinking water in the 19th and early 20th centuries and concluded that the scale of the problem had been greater than the Chernobyl and Bhopal disasters
  27. 27. Drinking Water Health effects of lead from drinking water • In Glasgow (UK) the mean blood lead concentration decreased from 11.9 to 3.7 µg/dl after lime and phosphate treatments had been introduced (a 69% reduction) • In Edinburgh (UK), the introduction of lime and phosphate treatments resulted in a 64% reduction in blood lead levels between 1983/5 and 1992/3
  28. 28. Drinking Water Health effects of lead from drinking water child development delays and reduced birth weight mental retardation among children ischemic heart disease renal damage gout and hypertension
  29. 29. Drinking Water How many people could be at risk? • The KIWA data suggests that around 25% of houses in Europe have a lead pipe (there is much uncertainty). If true, 120 million people are at risk in the EU
  30. 30. Drinking Water How many people could be at risk? • Pb in UK East 22 to 52% by survey; Pb in UK West 59% by survey • The issue is obviously relevant to implementation of the Protocol on Water and Health, and to the development of Drinking Water Safety Plans
  31. 31. • Imported Cosmetics • there are very small amounts of lead in the dyes that are used to color lipstick, the amounts are within the limits allowed by the FDA. • That limit is no more than 20 parts per million (ppm). And most lipsticks contain less than 4 ppm. The highest levels are a little over 7 ppm. The FDA study shows the average amount of lead in lipstick coloring is 1.1 ppm. As the FDA says, this is a very small amount.
  32. 32. • Imported Cosmetics • The FDA also says that since we only use a few swipes of lipstick on a very small area of our skin, our exposure is limited. So unless you cover your entire body in thick coats of lipstick you probably don't have much to worry about.
  33. 33. • Imported Cosmetics • Tests conducted on lipstick revealed that more than half of the forms contain lead material and that some species, including the famous "Cover Girl" and "Laurel" and "Christian Dior" contain a higher proportion than others.
  34. 34. • Imported Cosmetics • Campaign for Safe Cosmetics said tests conducted by the group, "concludes Bodecot Group" in Santa Fe Springs, California, on 33 varieties of lipstick showed that 61 percent of them contain levels of lead can be detected at a rate between 0.03 to 0.65 ppm . • Ratio allowed by the Food and Drug Administration in the U.S. candy, a 0.1 ppm, a standard setting to protect children from eating lead
  35. 35. • In the paint • Lead or one of compounds are used in paints to the following reasons : • Colored material mainly like substance lead chromate and lead oxides and lead sulfate .
  36. 36. • In the paint • Why Lead-Based Paint Was Used Any paint that relies on lead compounds for its colour. White lead, or lead(II) carbonate (PbCO3), is a typical example, and was once widely used to paint wooden surfaces in homes. Other lead compounds, like vivid yellow lead chromate (PbCrO4), were used as coloured pigments. As well as giving the paint its tint, lead pigments are highly opaque, so that a relatively small amount of the compound can cover a large area.
  37. 37. • In the paint • Why Lead-Based Paint Was Used White lead is very insoluble in water, making the paint highly water-resistant with a durable, washable finish. Lead carbonate can also neutralize the acidic decomposition products of some of the oils that make up the paint, so the coating stays tough, yet flexible and crack-resistant, for longer.
  38. 38. • In the paint Standards and Regulations for Lead • White house paint contained up to 50% lead before 1955. Federal law lowered the amount of lead allowable in paint to 1% in 1971. The CPSC has limited since 1977 the lead in most paints to 0.06% (600 ppm by dry weight).
  39. 39. • In the paint The children are more exposure to lead from paint The paint on the children face make the lead transport to body very easy The children play and eat pieces of old lead , that mean the children exposure to high risk , may effects on all body
  40. 40. • In the soil Infected soil contamination of lead, which reaches into the soil with the waste that is buried in the soil, or with irrigation water contaminated, or as a result of loss vehicles lingering in the air to this, a metal, lead is highly toxic, largely concentrated in the tissues of plants and fruits, which moves in turn through the human food chain
  41. 41. • In the soil Soil which is located near Autostrad for cars to be more vulnerable to lead becouse lead emissions from fuel , and moves to the air then fall on the soil
  42. 42. • In gasoline Why lead add to the gasoline ? To raise the octane number , it must be added tetraethyl lead, along with dual-ethyl bromide, which works on non-deposition of lead on aspects of the engine and the launch of the atmosphere, leading to contamination
  43. 43. • In gasoline How to be lead mode in fuel molecules? lead Mode is as follows : Molecule fuel - lead - molecule fuel - lead - molecule fuel lead - and so on. . .
  44. 44. • In gasoline Lead has a great benifits in the organization of the process of fuel combustion regularly Lead help to combustion regularly but is considered a toxic substance
  45. 45. • In gasoline What are the alternatives of lead in gasoline ? Ethanol is a clean-burning fuel, with a high octane number, is produced from renewable sources. It is one of the derivatives of alcohol, produced from crops such as corn, sugar cane and beet
  46. 46. • In gasoline What are the alternatives of lead in gasoline ? Added to unleaded gasoline. And Adding ethanol to gasoline to the following benefits: Reduce the price of fuel Increase the octane value of the fuel Reduce Pollution
  47. 47. • Inhalation - Breathing lead fumes or dust. This is the most common route of entry in the workplace. • Ingestion - Swallowing lead dust via food, cigarettes etc. – % absorbed in adults – 70% absorbed in children and pregnant women
  48. 48. Lead Distribution in the body • Blood • Soft Tissue • Mineralized Tissue
  49. 49. Medical Effects of Lead Poisoning  Brain damage  Kidney disease  Hemoglobin synthesis • Hypertension • Decreased fertility • Reproductive complications
  50. 50. Signs and Symptoms • • • • • • • • • • • Tiredness Sleep problems Dizziness Irritability Nervousness Headaches Difficulty concentrating Depression Forgetfulness Hyperactivity (children) Numbness • • • • • • • • • • Wrist or foot drop Weakness Clumsiness Joint and muscle pain Vomiting Loss of Appetite Stomach aches Constipation Metal taste in mouth Problems having healthy children
  51. 51. Effects of Lead • Children – Even small doses of lead are dangerous – Toddlers (1-3 years) especially at risk because they crawl on floor and put things in mouth – May affect ability to learn – Poor muscle and bone development – Coordination problems – Speech and language problems 51
  52. 52. Effects of Lead • Nervous System – Most affected by lead – Damage can be permanent – Lead can damage the brain and destroy brain cells – Damage can result in depression, irritability, forgetfulness, clumsiness, learning disability – High exposure can result in hallucinations, coma, and even death
  53. 53. Blood Brain Barrier • Lead increases the permeability to the BBB • Lead decreases the selectivity of molecules entering the brain ICLPPP 53
  54. 54. Kidneys – Filter and remove waste products from the blood – 65% of lead in blood is filtered in kidneys – Lead can damage kidneys – Often damage is not detected until it’s too late – Can cause kidney failure
  55. 55. Kidneys • The functional units in the kidney are called nephrons • There are about 1.3 million nephrons in each kidney • Each nephron has two main parts, the glomerulus and the tubules ICLPPP 55
  56. 56. Kidneys • The kidney's primary function in the body is to concentrate waste substances • Metals are elements • Metals cannot be broken down to reduce toxicity ICLPPP 56
  57. 57. Types of Disease • Chronic glomerulonephritis 48% • Interstitial nephritis 17% • Hypertensive nephropathy 13% • PKD 7% • Unknown 15% ICLPPP 57
  58. 58. Effects of Lead • Hematology – Lead damages the red blood cells – Prevents cells from carrying oxygen – Reduces the synthesis of hemoglobin – Effects the Renin-Angiotensin system - 58
  59. 59. Effects of Lead • Bone Tissue – Lead from blood is deposited in bones – Prevents calcium release into blood – Blocks production of new blood cells – Bones and teeth store 95% of lead in body – Stored in bone tissues for over 30 years – Under stress, lead is released from bone tissue
  60. 60. Effects of Lead • Female Reproductive Health & Pregnancy – Reduces fertility – Affects menstruation and menopause – Lead passes through placenta to fetus – May cause brain damage to fetus – May cause miscarriage or premature birth – May be released from bones back to blood 60 ICLPPP
  61. 61. Effects of Lead • Male Reproductive System – Decreased libido – Infertility – Damage to sperm, decreased motility – Increases spouses chance of miscarriage, premature birth, and birth defects in child 61
  62. 62. Nutrition as Therapy • Diets high in iron and calcium • Examples of foods high in iron – Cheese, fish, meat, eggs, spinach, beans, raisins, almonds, etc • Examples of foods high in calcium – Milk, cheese, ice cream, yogurt, bread, fish, meat, beans, broccoli, fruits, nuts, etc 62 ICLPPP
  63. 63. Blood Lead Level 10 g/dL 20 g/dL 40 g/dL 50 g/dL 100 g/dL and over Possible Health Effects • Slight loss in IQ; hearing and growth problems • Moderate loss in IQ; hyperactivity; poor attention span; difficulty learning; language and speech problems; slower reflexes • Poor bone and muscle development; clumsiness; lack of coordination; early anemia; decreased red blood cells; tiredness; drowsiness • Stomach aches and cramps ); anemia; destruction of red blood cells; brain damage • Swelling of brain; seizures; coma ; death
  64. 64. • hrouded tools provide exhaust ventilation at the point where the dust is generated. • High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters on vacuums are capable of capturing very small dust particles with a 99.97% efficiency.
  65. 65. • Used when other types of controls are not sufficient to reduce lead exposure to below PEL. • Additional training is required to wear a respirator.
  66. 66. • Used to keep lead dust off your body and clothes
  67. 67. References • http://www.epa.gov/air/lead/ (Environmental Protection Agency ) • References are available for these studies (1972-89) and will be posted on the METEAU website • http://www.cirsreach.com/news/China_SFDA_to_Revise_Hygienic_Standa rds_for_Cosmetics.html • http://fashion.azyya.com/441946.html • http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2007/August/21080701.asp • http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.asp?csem=7&po=8
  68. 68. Thanks
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