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Power, authority and influence

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  • 1. Power, Authority and Influence Presented By: Samer Ayyash (2130020) Under The Supervision of: Dr. Bashar Al-Zou’bi
  • 2. Power, Authority and Influence Objectives: 1. Definition of Power, Authority and Influence 2. Identifying the characteristics of power 3. Identifying the different sources of power 4. Identifying the six influence strategies (6 Ps) 5. Using Power Responsibilities 6. Get familiar with the theories of leadership, related process, abilities and skills
  • 3. Power, Authority and Influence
  • 4. Definitions  Influence: ◦ Occurs when a person or a group affects what another person or group does and/or thinks. ◦ (i.e. New Senior manager had adopted new dress code which had led to others in the organization starts to do so)
  • 5. Definitions  Power: ◦ The capacity of a person or a group to influence other people or groups. ◦ (i.e. Manager may decide to recognise the way tasks are allocated within an organization, which will affect the on how the people work)
  • 6. Definitions  Authority: ◦ Is the power which is formally given to an individual or group because of the position or rule they occupy within an organization. ◦ (Authority is subset of Power)
  • 7. What is Leadership? Leadership is the capacity to influence people to act of their own free will in a particular way.  Leadership is a subset of power  Power might be coercive and related to ‘direction’.  The leader knows the way and others will follow 
  • 8. Characteristics of Power Power depends on relationships  Power derive from difference  Power is based on beliefs  Power is never just one sided  Power is contextual 
  • 9. Characteristics of Power Power depends on relationships  The potential to influence another person or group depends on the relationship between them subject to the trust and respect.  Also the valuables of what you have to offer
  • 10. Characteristics of Power Power derive from difference  Power derives from difference – for example, different status or different access to valued resources. So, if your organization is dependent on a specialist supplier, that supplier is likely to have more power in any negotiations than they would if your organization could easily go elsewhere.
  • 11. Characteristics of Power Power derive from difference  i.e. imagine company (A) with one supplier to buy all of its stationary while another company (B) which have different suppliers (Suppliers Diversity) to buy from. Which of the companies has more power?
  • 12. Characteristics of Power Power is based on beliefs  Your ability to influence other people will depend more on their beliefs about the resources, sanctions and so on that you have, and how you are likely to use them, than on what you actually have at your disposal.
  • 13. Characteristics of Power Power is based on beliefs Your power will depend more on the people’s belief of their resources.  The overestimate for the same will affect your own pow.er 
  • 14. Characteristics of Power Power is never just one sided Mutual degree of power might exist in any power relationship.  Boss might have power on his employees power, however, his dependency on them might allow for some power to them. 
  • 15. Characteristics of Power Power is contextual  The power to influence or control individual or group is dependant of the context of the relationship (i.e. Captain and his crew)
  • 16. Sources of Power  French and Raven Framework (1960) Position Control of Resources Social Connections Power Personal Characteristics Expertise Information
  • 17. Role-Derived Power  Power from position ◦ This is the power vested in an individual or group by virtue of their role or position in an organization. This position entitles them to do certain things:  Give instructions to some people.  Authorize expenditure  Organize work, and so on.
  • 18. Role-Derived Power  Power from position – Cont’d ◦ Company’s regulations, rules and resources will support the ‘Position Power” ◦ Usually, such support will be conveyed to the related person FORMALLY. ◦ To consider the importance of position power, think of all the things you could not do if you were deprived of your job title and job description
  • 19. Role-Derived Power  Power from position – Cont’d ◦ Some managers are so dependent on this form of power that when they retire, or made redundant, they feel completely powerless in the world outside.
  • 20. Role-Derived Power  Power from control of resources ◦ All organizations depend for their continued existence on an adequate supply of resources, such as:      Money Personnel Materials Technology Clients and customers.
  • 21. Role-Derived Power  Power from control of resources – Cont’d ◦ Control over any of these resources can be an important source of power both within and between organizations. The keys to resource power are dependence and scarcity.  Depending on scarce resource will lead to considerable influence from the resource towards you. While if such resource was not scarce, then you have the power of replacing and controlling him.
  • 22. Role-Derived Power  Power from control of resources – Cont’d  Since money is a key resource, it can be converted into other resources. In order to gain more power, you should be less dependant on others’ resources. Accordingly, many managers are looking for control to their own budget.
  • 23. Role-Derived Power  Power from control of resources – Cont’d
  • 24. Role-Derived Power  Power from social connections ◦ The saying ‘It’s not what you know but who you know’ recognizes the importance of social connections as a source of power.
  • 25. Role-Derived Power  Power from social connections – Cont’d
  • 26. Role-Derived Power  Power from social connections – Cont’d ◦ Your capacity to influence events will often depends on your ability to gather information and mobilise resources and support. ◦ The more potentially valuable connections you have, the stronger your potential power base.
  • 27. Role-Derived Power  Power from expertise ◦ Expert power is the ability to influence those who perceive you as being a source of relevant expertise. ◦ Many people regard expertise as the most acceptable source of power and the easiest to legitimize.
  • 28. Role-Derived Power  Power from expertise – Cont’d ◦ Two important sources of expertise can be distinguished: ◦ Technical knowledge is knowledge about the product or service that the organization is trying to deliver. Examples of such experts include       Accountants Doctors Engineers IT specialists Lawyers Social workers and teachers.
  • 29. Role-Derived Power  Power from expertise – Cont’d ◦ Some of the influence that trade unions have stems from their expertise in areas such as health and safety or labor market developments. ◦ Process knowledge is knowledge about how to get things done with and through others: that is, how to organize and manage.
  • 30. Role-Derived Power  Power from control of information ◦ Accurate and reliable information is essential for planning and decision making. Hence, control of information is another important source of power. ◦ Those occupying key positions in organizational information networks are often called gatekeepers, because they can control the flow of information
  • 31. Role-Derived Power  Power from Personal Characteristics ◦ Personal power, often called charisma, comes from colleagues’ respect, loyalty and trust. It derives from personal attributes such as intelligence, confidence, char m, eloquence, drive, integrity and friendliness. ◦ Less ‘charismatic’ individuals may be influential behind the scenes because their integrity and judgment are respected.
  • 32. Role-Derived Power  Power from Personal Characteristics – Cont’d
  • 33. Interrelations of Power Sources  Although French and Raven’s sources of power have been discussed individually, they are inevitably interrelated. People often derive their power from a combination of sources.
  • 34. Interrelations of Power Sources For example, position will be associated with control of certain resources and give access to information. It may Provide networking opportunities.  Connections can be an important source of information and may enable you to develop new knowledge and expertise. 
  • 35. Interrelations of Power Sources  Activity 3 – Page 92 and 93 ◦ Relationship A: With a group or individual over whose work you have some formal authority ◦ Relationship B: with a manager, group or committee that has some formal authority over your work
  • 36. Interrelations of Power Sources Source of Power Relationship A Relationship B Position of authority 5 2 Control of Resources 5 1 Social Connections 5 3 Technical Knowledge 4 4 Process Knowledge 5 3 Expertise: Control of Information 5 3 Personal Characteristics 5 4
  • 37. Influence Strategies In order to be influential you may need to use the sources of power effectively.  (Read Example 3 at page 95) 
  • 38. Influence Strategies – Cont’d  In order to be influential you may need to actively think about how best to use the sources of power potentially available to you. Possible influencing strategies have been listed as the ‘Six Ps’. They are: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Position. Push. Pull. Persuasion. Preparatory. Preventative.
  • 39. Influence Strategies – Cont’d  Using Position ◦ How authority is exercised in your organization will depend in part on the  Organizational culture,  On what forms of authority are seen as acceptable,  And on particular managers’ preferred management styles.
  • 40. Influence Strategies – Cont’d  Using Position – Cont’d ◦ To use rules and procedures to influence another’s person behavior effectively, you must have:  The perceived right to make or apply the rules and procedures.  The means to enforce them if necessary, such as the power to impose sanctions or costs on anyone who does not comply (Read example 4, Page 96)
  • 41. Influence Strategies – Cont’d  Push strategies ◦ These are coercive attempts to influence other people by imposing, or threatening to impose, costs on them if they do not do what is required. ◦ A ‘push’ approach may be seen as bullying and in some circumstances might attract legal sanctions. Push strategies are likely to achieve grudging compliance rather than genuine acceptance.
  • 42. Influence Strategies – Cont’d  Pull or reward strategies ◦ Pull strategies depend on the proffered reward being valued. Again, this strategy must be used with care. Managers are seldom free to allocate rewards purely as they see fit. There are usually set procedures to ensure that the system for rewards and benefits is fair. Rewards perceived as unfair will generate resentment and reduce motivation.
  • 43. Influence Strategies – Cont’d  Persuasion ◦ Persuasion achieves influence through appeals to reason through argument. This depends on a mix of expertise and personal characteristics. ◦ It is subject to yours expertise, information, charm, eloquence and humor.
  • 44. Influence Strategies – Cont’d  Persuasion ◦ Persuasion is a popular means of influence because, once persuaded, people will want to act as you wish them to. This makes it an acceptable and effective influence strategy.
  • 45. Influence Strategies – Cont’d  Preparatory strategies ◦ Preparatory strategies prepare the ground for future attempts at influence. ◦ Networking is one important strategy. Building a positive relationship with relevant colleagues may make them more susceptible to influence in the future.
  • 46. Influence Strategies – Cont’d  Preparatory strategies-Cont’d ◦ The acceptability and perceived legitimacy of preparatory strategies will depend on the context. ◦ Your ‘sensible ordering’ of an agenda or ‘useful coalition building’ may look like manipulation to someone else.
  • 47. Influence Strategies – Cont’d  Preventative strategies ◦ Influence may be achieved by preventing certain actions, such as:  Stopping questions being raised  Holding back information  Suppressing dissent.
  • 48. Influence Strategies – Cont’d  Preventative strategies – Cont’d ◦ Preparatory and preventative strategies may be either open or covert. For example, the reason for your structuring of an agenda may not be obvious to those at the meeting.
  • 49. Influence Strategies – Cont’d  Preventative strategies – Cont’d ◦ Covert strategies are not open to public inspection, raising the question of whether or not they are acceptable forms of influence. If covert influence strategies are revealed, as sometimes happens, they can lead to a breakdown of openness and trust if they are deemed unacceptable.
  • 50. Using Power Responsibly  When exercising power, it can be useful to think of your psychological contract with the person(s) you are trying to influence. This unwritten contract will contain assumptions about issues such as: ◦ The nature of your authority and influence. ◦ Your style of management. ◦ Reward and punishment. ◦ Your contribution. (Read example 5, Page 104)
  • 51. Leadership Leadership: To influence without use of force and authority, to make people want to follow the leader’s direction.  The fast rate of change in many organizations means that leadership in this latter sense is increasingly deemed an important function of management. 
  • 52. Leadership
  • 53. Traditional theories of Leadership ◦ Trait Theories ◦ Trait theories of leadership have their origins in the early part of the 20th century with the growth of psychometric assessment procedures. The assumption underlying these theories was that what makes someone an effective leader is their personality and personal qualities; that is, leaders are born, not made.
  • 54. Traditional theories of Leadership - Cont’d  Style theories ◦ One criticism of trait theories of leadership is that it is people’s behavior rather than their psychological characteristics that makes them effective as leaders. This criticism led to attempts at identifying the most effective way for leaders to behave towards their subordinates.
  • 55. Traditional theories of Leadership - Cont’d  Style theories – Cont’d ◦ One of the best known of the style theories derived from this work is the management grid of Blake and Mouton (1964). Blake and Mouton’s theory proposes that the most effective leaders are those who show a high concern for both production (task) and people, represented by the position (9.9) on the grid.
  • 56. Traditional theories of Leadership - Cont’d  Style theories – Cont’d
  • 57. Traditional theories of Leadership - Cont’d  Contingency theories ◦ One of the earliest and best known of the contingency theories was proposed by Fiedler (1967). Like Blake and Mouton, Fiedler identified two main leadership styles: Task orientated and relationship- or people-orientated. He described this in terms of ‘favorableness'. This depends on a combination of three elements:
  • 58. Traditional theories of Leadership - Cont’d  Contingency theories – Cont’d ◦ Leader–member relationships – whether the leader is liked and trusted by group members ◦ Task structure – the degree to which the tasks to be performed are clearly defined and well structured ◦ The leader’s position power – the extent to which the leader can reward and punish subordinates (through pay, dismissals and so on).
  • 59. Traditional theories of Leadership - Cont’d  Contingency theories – Cont’d ◦ In a ‘favorable’ situation the leader would be liked and trusted, the tasks clearly defined and well structured, and the leader would have the ability to reward and punish.
  • 60. Traditional theories of Leadership - Cont’d  Contingency theories – Cont’d ◦ Through extensive research, Fiedler found that:  Task-orientated leaders perform better in situations that are either very favorable or very unfavorable  Relationship-orientated leaders perform better in situations of moderate favorableness  Thus the performance of the leader depends as much on the situation as on the style of the leader.
  • 61. Traditional theories of Leadership - Cont’d  Summary for all theories ◦ Trait theories: have tried to understand leadership in terms of the personal characteristics of ‘effective managers’ ◦ Style theories: in terms of the way leaders manage their subordinates ◦ Contingency theories: in terms of the need for style to fit the situation.
  • 62. Leadership as a process ◦ Instead of thinking about leadership as the characteristics or style of a person with authority, we can think about it as a process (Hoskings, 1997). This suggests we need two definitions:  Leadership means influencing other people in ways that are more or less acceptable to them, regarding certain core issues that face the group or organization.  Leaders are those people who are expected to be, and are seen to be, influential on important matters.
  • 63. Leadership as a Process – Cont’d ◦ Both definitions emphasize that leadership is about tackling the important or core issues that face the group or organization. As the following Figure suggests, three core issues face any organization or group:
  • 64. Leadership as a Process – Cont’d ◦ The process view of leadership has three important implications:  A leader is someone who influences how the group or organization understands and tackles the core issues it faces. Moreover, leaders do not necessarily have formal authority.
  • 65. Leadership as a Process – Cont’d  A group can have more than one leader. Indeed, all the members of group may make leadership contributions.  The strategic aspect of leadership requires some knowledge of the wider environment and understanding of how it likely to affect the group
  • 66. Leaders Abilities and Skills ◦ It should be clear from the above that a range of skills will be important if you are to exercise leadership. Effective persuasion depends on knowledge and expertise.
  • 67. Leaders Abilities and Skills – Cont’d ◦ Interpersonal skills will be important. Activities such as networking can enhance your knowledge and help you to build relationships with key people. The ability to lead a group depends on influence both within and outside the group.
  • 68. Leaders Abilities and Skills – Cont’d ◦ Communication skills are needed in conjunction with all the skills a leader possesses. ◦ Communication is perhaps the most important mechanism of leadership. The leader must have a clear understanding of the message that he or she is communicating and he or she must be aware that the goal of communication is to influence the allocation of attention of the organization's members. (Cyert, 1990, p. 35)